暥帤楍専嶕(String Search)

 

乮拲乯暥帤楍専嶕偵偮偄偰偼僂傿儞僪僂偺儁乕僕専嶕婡擻偁傞偄偼儚乕僪偺暥帤楍専嶕婡擻傪偛棙梡偔偩偝偄丅

 

 

傾傾儘儞(Aaron) 儌乕僛僘(Moses)偺孼丄儐僟儎嫵嵟弶偺嵳巌挿丅

 

傾僀僟僽(Aydhab) 傾僀僟僽偼峠奀傪嫴傫偱僕僢僟偺懳娸偵偁傞傾僼儕僇増娸偺挰丅

 

乽傾僀儎僔偺椃偺報徾婰乿丗 17悽婭屻敿偺儌儘僢僐恖偺弰楃乮傾僀儎僔儕儔 僼僃僘(Al-Ayyashi Rihla Fez)乯偺報徾婰偼1898擭偵弌斉偝傟偨(Al-Ayyashi Rihla Fez 1316H or 1898A.D.)

 

傾僀儐乕僽挬 (Ayyubid) 僒儔僨傿乕儞 (Saladin) 偑惣楋1171 擭偵憂愝偟偨僀僗儔儉嫵偺墹挬偱僄僕僾僩, 僀僗儔儉嫵偺僔儕傾丄僷儗僗僠僫, 忋晹偺儊僜億僞儈傾 (Mesopotamia) 媦傃僀僄儊儞傪巟攝偟偨丅傾僀儐乕僽挬(Ayyubid) (1169 – 1249) 偺巟攝偱僄僕僾僩偼嫮椡側拞搶僀僗儔儉嫵孯偺婎斦偵側偭偨丅 1193 擭偵僒儔僨傿乕儞偺巰偱, 掗崙偼暘楐偟偨偑墹挬偼僩儖僐偺搝楆孯戉儅儉儖乕僋(Mamelukes) 偑椡傪埇偭偨惣楋1249 擭傑偱僄僕僾僩傪巟攝偟偨丅

 

傾僀儞(Al 'Ayn) 僫僕儔儞(Najran)杒晹偱傾儖 僈乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)乮昗崅1,794m乯偺傗傗撿搶丄儎僟儅乕(Yadamah)偐傜栺30km杒偺嶳嵐敊偵嵼傞乽愹乿偲柤晅偗傜傟偨愹偺偁傞晹棊丅

 

傾僀儞 僗僢僋儔乕(Ain Sukkrah丄梊尵幰偺愹) 偙傟偼僀僗儔儉埲慜偐傜偺屆戙偺愹偱偁傝丄僞僽僋(Tabuk)傊偺怤峌偺嵺偵梐尵幰儌僴儞儅僪(Prophet Mohammad)10擔娫埲忋傕偙偺愹嬤偔偵廻塩偟偙偺悈傪堸傫偱偄偨丅

 

傾僀儞 僼儚僀僘('Ayn Huwayz) 僈乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)乮昗崅1,794m乯偺10km埵搶偱傾僀儞(Al 'Ayn)偺彮偟杒惣偵偁傞嶳嵐敊偺拞偺晹棊偱乽岾塣偺愹乿偲柤晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾償傽(Ava) 儈儎儞儅乕(Myanmar)偺儅儞僟儗僀(Mandalay)廈偺挰偱僀儞儚(Innwa)偲傕屇偽傟丄僀儔儚僨傿愳(Irrawaddy River or Ayeyarwady River)偺娸曈偵偁傞傾儅儔僾儔巗(Amarapura)偺撿偵椬愙偟偰偄傞丅傾償傽(Ava)1364擭偐傜1841擭傑偱價儖儅(Burma)偺庱搒偱偁偭偨丅

 

傾償傽僯乕(Avanies) 抏埑傗晄惓偺巆擡側峴堊(wanton act of oppression and injustice)

 

傾僂僌僗僩僁僗(Augustus)丗儘乕儅峜掗僆乕僈僗僞僗 僔乕僓乕(Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus, 63 B.C. - 14 A.D.) 偼僕儏儕傾僗 僔乕僓乕(Julius Caesar)(c.100-44 B.C.)偺屻宲幰偱丄儘乕儅偺弶戙峜掗(27 B.C – 14 A.D.)偱偁傝丄崙惌傪夵妚偟丄暥妛傪彠椼偟丄暥妛偺墿嬥帪戙傪嶌偭偨丅峜掗懻姤慜偼傾僂僌僗僩僁僗 僆僋僞償傿傾僰僗(Augustus Octavianus)偲屇偽傟偨丅傾僂僌僗僩僁僗偼乽悞崅側傞幰乿偵堄偺懜徧偱偁傞丅

 

愒偄嵒娾偲愒偄嵒丗 傾儔價傾敿搰(Arabian Peninsular)偱傒傜傟傞嵒娾偺杦偳偼妼揝峼偺懡偄壴浖娾(Limonite Rich Granite)傪婲尮偲偟偰嫃傝丄傒偢傒偢偟偄愒偄怓傪偟偰偄傞丅崱擔丄愒偄嵒娾偼僒僇僇(Sakaka)丄僞僽僋(Tabuk)丄傾儖-乫僂儔(Al 'Ula)丄僞僀儅(Tayma)丄僴僀儖(Hayil)傗撿惣晹偺儚僨傿 傾僪 僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi Ad Dawasir)丄價乕儖 僸儅(Bir Hima)丄僞僩儕乕僗(Tatlith)丄價僔儍乕(Bishah)丄儎僟儅乕(Yadmah)丄僫僕儔儞(Najiran)摍偱尒傜傟傞丅偙偺愒偄嵒娾偺峀偑傝偼戝偒偔丄敿搰偺堦斣崅偄応強偱偁傞傾僽僴(Abha)偺僴僶儔乕(Habala)傗僜僂僟乕(As Soudah)偱傕尒傜傟傞偟丄敿搰拞墰晹僕僶儖 僥儏儚僀僌(Jibal Tuwaiq)偺壓晹憌偑抧昞偵尰傟偨儃僂儉嶳(Mt. Boum)晅嬤偱傕尒傜傟傞丅33愮擭慜偐傜24愮擭慜偺栆楏側塉偺崀傝懕偄偨帪戙偺屻丄傾儔價傾敿搰(Arabian Peninsular)偼姡憞偟巒傔丄15愮擭慜傑偱偵嵐敊忬懺偵側偭偨丅愒偄嵒娾偼姡憞偲嫟偵晽壔偝傟愒偄嵒偲側傝丄戩墇晽岦偵増偭偰堏摦偟偨丅偦偺戙昞揑側戝偒側愒偄懷偼杒偺僫僼僪嵐敊(Nafud)偐傜僟乕僫嵐敊(Dahna)傪捠偠偰撿偺儖僽 傾儖僇儕嵐敊(Rub' al Khali)傊偲墑傃偰偄傞丅

 

傾僈僒儖僠僨僗(Agatharchides) 彫傾僕傾撿惣晹偺僄乕僎奀偵柺偡傞抧曽偱偁傞僇儕傾(Caria)偵偁偭偨屆戙僊儕僔儍偺怉柉巗僋僯僪僗(Cnidos)偺傾僈僒儖僠僨僗乮婭尦慜170 -100擭崰乯偼暥朄妛幰偱丄抧棟妛幰偱楌巎挊弎偺嶌壠偱偁傝丄僄儕儏僩僁儔乕(Erythraean)奀偵娭偡傞榑暥傪5嶜偺杮偵傑偲傔偰偄傞丅傾僈僒儖僠僨僗偼擭榁偄偰傾儗僋僒儞僪儕傾(Alexandria)偱庒偄崙墹僾僩儗儅僀僆僗 僜乕僥乕儖擇悽(Ptolemaeus Soter II)偺壠掚嫵巘傪柋傔偨偺偱丄僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀(Erythraean Sea)偺摿挜偲偦偺奀娸抧懷偵娭偡傞怣棅偱偒傞忣曬傪娙扨偵庤偵擖傟傞帠偑弌棃偨丅傾僈僒儖僠僨僗偑撿惣傾儔價傾偺僒僶墹崙(Sabaean Kingdom, 715BC - 570AD)偺晉偲斏塰偵偮偄偰嵟弶偵弎傋偨挊幰偱傕偁傝丄偦偺堊偵乽晉桾側(岾暉側)傾儔價傾(Arabian Felix)乿偲尵偆柤偑傾儔價傾敿搰偺偙偺晹暘傪巜偡條偵側偭偨丅

 

(madder) 傾僇僱壢偺枲惈懡擭憪丄嶳栰偵帺惗偟丄崻偼烌怓丄宻偼巐妏偔拞嬻偱灆偑偁傞丅奺愡偵巐梩傪椫惗偟丄廐偵敀怓偺彫壴傪晅偗傞丅崻偐傜愼椏傪嵦偭偨丅惗栻柤傪埄崻乮偣傫偙傫乯偲偄偄丄捠宱栻丄巭寣栻偵梡偄傜傟傞丅

 

傾僈僶僩(Al-'Aqabat) 僕僶儖 僒儔僩(Jibal al-Sarat)偺忈暻偼傾儔價傾敿搰惣偺墢傪宍嶌傞掱丄崅偔戕偊偰偄傞丅偙傟傜偺嶳乆偺椗慄偼暘悈椾偵惉偭偰嫃傝丄僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)偵岦偐偭偰偼暻偺條偵媫偱偁傝丄嬻敀抧懷偵岦偐偭偰偼搶傊側偩傜偐偵壓偭偰偄傞丅僥傿僴儅乕偵岦偐偭偰壓偭偰偄傞媫孹幬偺扟偺忋棳晹暘傪傾僈僶僩(Al-'Aqabat)偲屇傫偱偍傝丄廧恖偼偙偙偐傜僥傿僴儅乕傊偲壓偭偰峴偔丅

 

傾僈僶僯(Aghabani or Kassideh) 對偲柸偺晜偒怐傝儌僗儕儞丅

 

傾僇儔儉恖(Akhlamu) 曻楺幰傪堄枴偡傞傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偲傕屇偽傟傞傾僇儔儉恖(Akhlamu)偼灦宍暥帤(Cuneiform)偵傛傞傾僢僇僪暥帤(Akkadian Alphabet)偱擲搚斅偵彂偐傟丄婭尦慜14悽婭崰偺弌棃帠傪婰弎偟偨傾儅儖僫暥彂乮Amarna letters乯偵嵟弶偵搊応偟偨丅偙偺傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偺懚嵼偼傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偺僯僢僾儖(Nippur)傗僶僴儗僀儞(Bahrain)偺僨傿儖儉儞(Dilmun)偐傜弌搚偟偨堚暔偱傕徹柧偝傟偰偄傞丅傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偺僔儍儖儅僱僙儖1(Shalmaneser I, 1274 BC - 1245 BC)偼僼儕儖恖偺墹崙儈僞儞僯(Mitanni)偺墹僔儍僣傾儔(Shattuara)傪懪偪攋傝丄偦偺僸僢僞僀僩(Hittite)偲傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偺彜恖払傪巟攝壓偵偍偄偨丅僄僕僾僩偱偼A僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偼僄僕僾僩岅偺曻楺幰傪堄枴偡傞僔儍僗(Shasu or Shsw)偲摨摍偱偁傝丄僔儍僗偑僣僞儞僇乕儊儞(Tutankhamen, 1361 BC - 1352 BC)埲棃偺僄僕僾僩巟攝偺儗償傽儞僩掗崙(Egyptian Levantine Empire)偺柍朄幰偱丄憶棎偺庡側尨場偱偁偭偨傾僺儖(乪Apiru)乮灦宍暥帤偱偼SA GAZ乯偲擖傟懼傢偭偨乿偲傕塢偆丅婭尦慜13悽婭偵傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偼僶價儘儞(Babylon)偐傜僸僢僞僀僩掗崙(Hittie Empire, 18 - 14 Century BC)偺庱搒僴僢僩僁僔儍(Hattusas)傊偺摴傪暘抐偟偨偺偱傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偺僩僁僋儖僥傿丒僯僰儖僞1(Tukulti Ninurta I, 1244 BC - 1208 BC)偼摙敯偵弌偐偗丄乽儐乕僼儔僥僗愳(The Euphrates)増偄偺儅儕(Mari)丄僴僫(Hana)丄儔僺僋儉(Rapiqum)偍傛傃僔儕傾偺價僔儏儕嶳(Jebal Bishri)傪愯嫆偟偨乿偲愰尵偟偨丅價僔儏儕嶳(Jebal Bishri)偼柧傜偐偵乽傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偺嶳乿偱偁偭偨丅傾僢僔儕傾(Assyrian)偱偼墹僥傿僌儔僩丒僺儗僙儖1悽乮Tiglath Pileser, 1115 BC - 1077 BC乯偺旇暥偑嵟弶偵傾僼儔儉丒傾儔儉恖(Ahlamû-Aramaeans)傪堷梡偟偨偑丄偦偺捈偖屻偵傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû)偼傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans, Aramu or Arimi)偵庢偭偰戙傢傜傟丄傾僢僔儕傾偺擭戙婰偐傜媫懍偵徚偊偰偟傑偭偨丅傾僼儔儉丒傾儔儉恖(Ahlamû-Aramaeans)偼傾僼儔儉晹懓(Ahlamû Tribes)偺廳梫惈偲帪婜傪摼偨桪惃側梫慺偲偟偰偼傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偲峫偊傜傟傞偩傠偆偗傟偳傕丄偙偺擇偮偺晹懓偼壗傕嫟捠偱偼柍偔丄摨偠抧堟偱妶桇偟偰偄偨偺偐傕抦傟側偄丅乽婭尦慜2000擭婜慜敿偵儐乕僼儔僥僗愳(The Euphrates)惣堟偱尃椡傪埇偭偨僙儉岅傪榖偡彅晹懓(Semitic Language People)偼傾儉儖恖(Amurru)偲傕傾儉儖(Amorite)偲傕屇偽傟偨丅偙偺柤偼偙偺晹懓偺柤偱偁傝丄偦偺庡恄(Principal Deity)偺柤偱傕偁偭偨丅梀杚柉傾儌儕恖(Amorites)偺椞搚偼尦乆傾儔價傾敿搰偱偁偭偨偑丄婭尦慜栺2400擭偺弶傔偵偼僔儕傾(Syria)偍傛傃僇僫傾儞(Canaan)傪娷傓儐乕僼儔僥僗愳惣堟傪愯傔丄傾儌儕恖偺嶳(Mountain of the Amorites)偲屇偽傟傞僔儕傾偺價僔儏儕嶳(Jabal Bishri)嶳妜抧曽偲摿暿側偮側偑傝偑偁偭偨乿偲塢偆傾儉儖恖(Amurru)埥偄偼傾儌儕恖(Amorite)偲傾僼儔儉晹懓(Ahlamû Tribes)偑摨堦晹懓偩偲傕峫偊傜傟傞偑丄偙傟傕偵偮偄偰傕妋偐側婰弎偼側偄丅

 

傾僋僟乕儖(Al-Akhdar)墂丗 僸僕儍僘揝摴偺傾僇僟乕儖墂(Qal'at al Akhdar)堚愓偼儗僶僲儞偐傜偺弰楃楬偺庡梫側僉儍儔僶儞僙儔僀(Caravanserai)偱偁傝丄僞僽僋(Tabuk)偺撿72km偵埵抲偟偰偄傞丅偦偺巔偼惣楋1907擭偵僕儑僂僙儞(Jaussen)偑嶣塭偟偨傑傑偺忬懺偱巆偭偰偄傞丅尰抧偺廧恖偑愊傒愇傪懠偺栚揑偵揮梡偡傞偺傪僒僂僨傿嫵堢徣峫屆妛嬊偼嬛巭偟偨偑丄巆擮側帠偵偼偦傟埲慜偵堄恾揑偵攋夡偝傟偰偟傑偭偰嫃傞丅儚僨傿 傾儖乕傾僋僟乕儖(Wadi al Akhdar)傪尒惏傜偡媢偺忋偐傜價乕儖僈僩(Birqat丄塉悈傪棴傔傞挋憛)傪敽偆巐妏側婎慴偺屆揟揑嵲偺攝抲傪捁嵴偱偒傞丅崱偱偼擇偮偺戝偒側熆傟扟(Wadi)偺崌棳揰偺偙偺攑毿偼嶒偱埻傢傟丄嬤戙揑側嵐敊僷僩儘乕儖偺捈愙曐岇壓偵偁傞丅

 

傾働儊僱僗挬乮Achaemenid dynasty, 550 – 330 BC乯丗 傾働儊僱僗壠乮Achaemenes乯偺僉儏儘僗擇悽(Cyrus II)偑惣傾僕傾傪惇暈丅僟儗僀僆僗堦悽乮Dareios I, 558 – 486 BC乯偺帪戙偵僆儕僄儞僩傪摑堦偟偰慡惙婜傪寎偊偨偑丄僊儕僔儍墦惇乮儁儖僔儍愴憟 492 – 449 BC乯偵偼幐攕偟偨丅掗崙偼儁儖僙億儕僗(Persepolis)偵戝揳傪憿塩偟丄斏塰傪鎼壧偟偰偄偨偑丄婭尦慜4悽婭偵偼廈憤撀乮僒僩儔僢僾乯偺斀棎偵擸傑偝傟丄傾儗僉僒儞僟乕戝墹(Alexander the Great)( 336-323 BC)偺搶惇偵傛傞怤峌偱柵朣偟偨丅

 

傾僒乕儖(Athar) 僸僕儏儔楋473擭丄惣楋1081擭偵傾儔僽懓偑傗偭偰棃偰丄僕僢僟(Jiddah)偺挰偼曪埻偝傟偨丅僕僢僟(Jiddah)偺廧恖偼悈偑朢偟偔惉偭偨偺偱帺暘払帺恎偺慏偵忔偭偰摝憱偟偨丅斵摍偼奀傪渇渞偭偨偑偦偺撪偺埥傞幰払偼僔僢儔僀儞(al-Sirrayn)丄儔僴(al-Raha)偍傛傃傾僒乕儖(Athar)偵嫃傪峔偊偨丅

 

乽傾僕傾偺億儖僩僈儖(Asia Portuguesa)乿丗 儅僰僄儖 僼傽儕傾 僜僂僒(Manuel De Fariia Y Sousa)挊丄1666 - 1674擭偵儕僗儃儞(Lisboa)偱弌斉丅

 

傾僕僕儎愹峴惌嬊(Ain Aziziyah administration) 僕僢僟傊偺媼悈偼姰慡偵屘傾僽僪僁儖傾僕僘(Abdulaziz)偑婑晅偟偨廆嫵揑怣戸婎嬥(Waqf)偱愝棫偝傟偨傾僕僕儎愹峴惌嬊(Ain Aziziyah Administration)偺愑擟傪帩偭偰偄偨丅偙偺巗偺庡梫側悈帒尮偼熆傟扟僼傽僥傿儅(Wadi Fatima)偵壛偊偰丄僕僢僟偺杒栺70km梋傝偵熆傟扟僇儔僀僗(Wadi Khalais)偲僋僢僶僩 傾僔儍儔(Kubbat Asharah)偺扙墫憰抲偱偁偭偨丅

 

傾僕儏儅儞(Ajman) 傾儔僽庱挿崙楢朚(United Arab Emirates (UAE))7庱挿崙偺堦偮丄儁儖僔傾榩偵椪傒丄恖岥3.6枩恖丅

 

傾僔儏乕儖暥壔(Acheulean) 150枩擭彮偟慜偵儂儌 僴價儕僗(Homo habilis)傛傝傕戝偒偔傕偭偲恑壔偟偨儂儌 僄儗僋僩僗(Homo erectus)偲屇偽傟傞恖椶偑尰傢傟偨丅偦偺慶愭払傛傝傕懱椡揑偦偟偰抦揑偵桪傟丄戝抇偱恑庢偺婥惈偵晉傫偱偄偨丅儂儌 僄儗僋僩僗(Homo erectus)偼屻婜僆儖僪儚儞宆愇婍(Developed Oldowan types)傪庤晙(hand ax)丄愇曪挌偍傛傃撍偒婍摍偺怴偟偄傾僔儏乕儖宍懺(Acheulean forms)偺愇婍偵師戞偵庢傝懼偊偰丄慶愭偺惗傒弌偟偨摴嬶偺拞偵怴偟偄宍懺傪庢傝擖傟偨丅偙偺暥壔偼偦偺屻150枩擭嬤偔懕偒恖椶偺嶌偭偨嵟傕挿偄暥壔偲惉偭偨丅傾僼儕僇偱偼庤晙(Hand Ax)傪摿挜偲偡傞偡傋偰偺暥壔偺憤徧偱偁傞偑丄儓乕儘僢僷偱偼嵟弶婜偺Hand Ax傪摿挜揑側愇婍偲偡傞慜婜媽愇婍暥壔偱偁傞傾僽償傿儖暥壔(Abbevillian)偵懕偔丄摨偠偔愇晙傪摿挜揑側愇婍偲偡傞慜婜媽愇婍暥壔偱偁傞丅偙偺暥壔偵柦柤偝傟偨僙儞僩 傾僔儏乕儖(St. Acheu)l偼僼儔儞僗杒晹僜儞儉(Somme)導偺導挕強嵼抧傾儈傾儞(Amiens)偵嬤偄堚愓偱偁傞丅

 

傾僔儑乕儖(Ashour) 廫暘偺堦惻(Tithe)19悽婭弶傔偵僕僢僟偱偼娭惻傪傾僔儑乕儖(Ashour)偲屇傫偱偄偨丅

 

傾僔乕儖('Asir) 撿偺僀僄儊儞偐傜杒偼傾僇僶榩傑偱懕偄偰偄傞傾儔價傾敿搰惣偺嶳柆傪僒儔儚僩(Sarawat)偲屇傃丄傾僔乕儖('Asir)傕偦偺堦晹偱偁傞丅傾僔乕儖('Asir)偼僀僄儊儞杒晹偐傜杒偼僶僴傾(Bahah)廈偺廈嫬偺僶僴傾 僈傾儈僪(Bahah Ghamid)傑偱懕偄偰偄傞丅傾僔乕儖偺柤偼拞悽偵惉偭偰丄摿偵僒儔僩 傾僓僪(Sarat al-Azad)傪拞怱偲偟偨僒儔儚僩崅抧(Heights of Sarawat)偵廧傓晹懓摨柨偺柤偲偟偰巊傢傟偨丅傾儔僽偺抧棟妛幰傾儖 僴儉僟僯(al-Hamdani)偼乽墦偔愄偺10悽婭崰偵偼偙偺抧曽偺恖乆偵庢偭偰傾僔乕儖(Asir)偲塢偆尵梩偼傾僔乕儖(Asir)晹懓摨柨偑廧傫偱偄偨傾僽僴(Abha)廃曈偺尷傜傟偨抧曽傪堄枴偡傞揱摑揑側晹懓揑梡岅偱偁偭偨乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅傗偑偰丄偙偺抧偼傾僔乕儖偲偟偰抦傜傟傞條偵側偭偨丅偙偺抧偺懡偔偺嶳傗扟偺娫偵擄楬偱偁傞嵶摴傗嶳摴偑偁偭偨堊丄懡偔偺愱栧壠偼乽傾僔乕儖偺柤偼傾儔價傾岅偱崲擄傪昞偡傾儖 僂僗儖(al 'Usr) 偲塢偆堄枴傕帩偮傾僪僫儞懓(Adnan)偺屆偄廧恖偺柤偵場傫偱晅偗傜傟偨乿偲峫偊偰偄傞丅19悽婭屻敿偵僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Turks)偼僸僕儍僘(Hijaz)偍傛傃僀僄儊儞(Yemen)傪巟攝偟丄偦偺僀僄儊儞廈偺嵟傕杒偵埵抲偡傞4偮偺僒儞僕儍僌(sanjaq)偵傾僔乕儖(Asir)偲柤晅偗偰偄偨丅傾僔乕儖(Asir)偺拞怱偱偁傞傾僽僴(Abha)傪峴惌晎偲偡傞偙偺嫄戝側僒儞僕儍僌(sanjaq)偼僞僀僼(Taif)偺撿100 km偐傜撿偼杦偳僫僕儔儞(Najran)偍傛傃僕僓儞(Jizan)傑偱峀偑傝丄僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)奀娸暯抧傪娷傫偱偄偨丅傾僔乕儖(Asir)偲塢偆尵梩偺尰戙偺夛榖偱偺巊梡偝傟傞堄枴偼偙偺僆僢僩儅儞掗崙巟攝偺帪戙偵晛媦偟偨丅尰嵼偱偼傾僔乕儖偺柤偼僟傾儔儞 僕儏僰僽(Dharan al-Junub)偲屇偽傟傞儚僨傿 傾儗乕儞(Wadi al-Areen)偐傜杒偺價儔僪 僇傾僔儍傾儉 (Bilad Khash'am)傑偱丄偦偟偰惣偺峠奀娸偐傜搶偺儕儅儖 僞僥傿儕乕僗(Rimal Tathleeth)傑偱傪娷傓抧傪巜偡傛偆偵惉偭偨丅廬偭偰丄傾僔乕儖抧曽偼僒僂僨傿傾儔價傾偺撿惣晹偺拞墰偵埵抲偟丄杒堒1720暘偐傜2050暘丄搶宱4130暘偐傜4430暘偺斖埻偵偁傞丅偙偺抧曽偺墑挿偼偍偍傛偦巐昐僉儘儊乕僩儖偱偁傞丅

 

傾僗僇(Asca) 僕僃僢僟(Jeddah)偲僋儞僼僟乕(Qunfudah)偺傎傏拞娫偵埵抲偡傞峠奀娸偺峘挰儔僀僗(Al-LithAl-Laith)偺屆戙柤丅

 

傾僗僟乕儖(Al-Asdar) 僕僶儖 僒儔僩(Jibal al-Sarat)偺忈暻偺惁傑偠偔愗傝棫偭偨抐奟愨暻偼傾僗僟乕儖(Al-Asdar)偲屇偽傟傞丅

 

傾僗僩儔(ASTRA) 傾儔價傾嫙媼捠彜夛幮 (Arab Supply & Trading Corporation)偺擾墍偼1979擭偵僞僽僋(Tabuk)偵愝棫偝傟偨丅帩偪庡偼僞僼傿乕儖 僒價儞 儅僗儕 僢僔巵(Mr. Tafir Sabin Masri Al-Ma'ssi)偱丄摨巵偺壠懓偼僷儗僗僠僫(Palestine)弌恎偱偁傞堊丄ASTRA偺姴晹怑堳偼傎偲傫偳偑僷儗僗僠僫恖偱偁傞丅枖丄ASTRA偼惗嶻偟偨擾嶌暔傪儓乕儘僢僷傗榩娸彅崙(GCC)偵桝弌偟偰偄傞帠偱傕抦傜傟偰偄傞丅ASTRA擾応偺峀偝偼30 km2 (3,000ha)偱僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾(Saudi Arabia)偺擾応偲偟偰偼摿偵峀偔偼柍偄偑偦偺嶌暔偼惗慛栰嵷丄愗傝壴丄壥暔丄梴寋偦偟偰12昐枩塇偺闓偺梴怋偲庬椶偑懡偄丅

 

傾僗僩儔僇儞(Astrakhan) 儘僔傾撿搶晹償僅儖僈(The Volga)愳壓棳偺嶰妏廈偵偁傞巗丅

 

傾僗儖儔(Athrula) 尰嵼偺傾僽僴(Abha)偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

傾僛儖僶僀僕儍儞(Azerbaijan) 僀儔儞杒惣晹偺抧堟偱僞僽儕乕僘(Tabriz)丄屆戙柤儊僨傿傾(Media)埥偄偼傾僩儘僷僥僱(Atropatene)摍偑娷傑傟傞丅

 

傾僝僼奀乮Sea of Azov乯丗 崟奀杒晹偵偁傞撪奀偱丄働儖僠奀嫭(Strait of Kerch)偵傛偭偰崟奀偲寢偽傟偰偄傞丅杒偼僂僋儔僀僫偵愙偟丄搶偺儘僔傾楢朚偲惣偺僋儕儈傾敿搰(Crimea)偵嫴傑傟偰偄傞丅惣娸偵偼110km偵傢偨傝丄傾儔僶僩丒僗僺僢僩乮懲愊暔偑奀拞偵撍婲偟偨傕偺乯偑峀偑傝丄僔僶僗乮Syvash乯偵偼墫暘擹搙偺崅偄幖抧懷偺擖傝峕偑偁傞丅戝偒偝偼挿偝340km丄暆135km丄柺愊37,555km2偱偁傞丅僪儞愳(The Don)偲僋僶儞愳(Kuban River)偑棳傟崬傒丄偦傟偵傛偭偰斾妑揑掅擹搙偺墫悈偲怴慛偝偑曐偨傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僟儉(Adam) 揤抧憂憿偵嵺偟偰恄偑嵟弶偵憿偭偨抝偱丄恖椶偺巒慶丅

 

傾僠儏乕僩(Dalits) 僷乕儕傾(Pariah)偲傕塢偄丄僇乕僗僩(caste)奜偺乽晄壜怗柉(Untouchable)乿偲傕東栿偝傟傞丅椡偑側偔僸儞僪僁乕嫵(Hindu)偺斴岇偺傕偲偵惗偒偞傞傪摼側偄恖乆偱偁傞丅偵傕娭傢傜偢1壄恖傕偺恖乆偑傾僠儏乕僩偲偟偰僀儞僪崙撪偵曢傜偟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僠儏儕傾儞暥壔(Acheulean) 乮傾僔儏乕儖暥壔(Acheulean)嶲徠丅乯

 

傾僢僔乕僕(Assisi) 僀僞儕傾拞晹僂儞僽儕傾廈(Umbria)偺挰乮2.5枩乯偱僀僞儕傾偺廋摴巑惞僼儔儞僠僃僗僐(St Farncis )(1181/82 - 1226)偺惗抧丅

 

傾僢僔儏乕儖(Ashur) 傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偺屆戙柤偱傕偁傝丄傾僢僔儕傾偺庡梫搒巗偺堦偮偱偁傞丅

 

傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria) 儊僜億僞儈傾杒晹傪拞怱偲偟偨屆戙墹崙偱婭尦慜18悽婭崰偐傜慜7悽婭偵傢偨偭偰僆儕僄儞僩嵟弶偺悽奅掗崙偲偟偰塰偊偨丅庱搒偼弶婜偵偼傾僢僔儏乕儖(Ashur)偱丄屻偵僯僱償僃(Nineveh)偵慗搒偟偨丅婭尦慜612擭偵僇儖僨傾(Chaldea)丒儊僨傿傾(Media)楢崌孯偵傛偭偰柵朣偟偨丅傾僢僔儕傾偼尰嵼偺僔儕傾偺岅尮偱傕偁傞丅

 

傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid Dynasty) 僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh)偱梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)偺廸晝傾僢僶僗(Abbas)偺捈宯偱偁傞傾僢僶乕僗挬偼惣楋750擭偵僂儅僀儎僢僪挬(Umayyad Dynasty)傪搢偟丄庱搒傪僟儅僗僇僗偐傜僶僋僟僢僩(Baghdad)偵堏偟偨僀僗儔儉掗崙(Caliphate)2偺悽廝墹挬乮749 - 1258擭乯偱偁偭偨丅傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasids) 偑惣楋750擭偵扗尃偟丄僀僗儔儉崙搒傪僶僋僟僢僩(Baghdad)傊偲慗搒偟偨丅偙偺帠偱傾儔價傾榩岎堈偼10悽婭傑偱懕偔怴偨側墿嬥帪戙傊偲摫偐傟丄嵟惙婜偵偼偦偺巟攝偼惣偼儌儘僢僐偐傜搶偼拞墰傾僕傾傑偱媦傫偩丅傾僢僶乕僗挬偺僀僗儔儉掗崙偺巟攝偼惣楋1258擭偺儌儞僑儖(Mongol)偺拞搶惇暈偵傛偭偰廔鄟偟偨丅

 

傾僢儔乕僩(Allat) 僀僗儔儉嫵埲慜偺偄傢備傞僕儍乕僸儕乕儎帪戙(Jahiliyyah or Jahalia)(Ignorance of Divine Guidance)偵悞傔傜傟偰偄偨彈恄偱丄偦偺柤偼傾僢儔乕僼(Allah)偺彈惈宍偱乽彈恄乿偺堄枴偱偁傞丅傾儔價傾偺彜嬈搒巗僞乕僀僼(Taif)嬤偔偺宬扟偵庡恄揳偑偁傝丄忺傝偮偗傜傟偨敀偄棫曽愇傪埶戙偲偟偰偄偨丅儅僫乕僩(Manat)丄傾儖 僂僢僓乕(Al-Uzza)偲嫟偵丄嵟崅恄傾僢儔乕僼(Allah)偺嶰恖偺柡偺堦恖偲偝傟偰偄偨偑丄僋儖傾乕儞(Qur乫an)偵偼_偵偼巕懛偑偄側偄茝q傋傜傟偰偄傞丅乮弌揟丗 Wikipedia

 

傾僥傿儖僩儗僗(Athil Tress) 傾僥傿儖僩儗僗偼傾僥傿儖 僞儅儕僗僋(Athel tamarisk or Tamarix aphylla)偱擔杮柤偼屼桍乮僊儑儕儏僂乯偱偁傞丅僞儅儕僗僋偺嵟戝庬偑Tamarix aphylla偡側偼偪Athel tamarisk偱偁傝丄忢椢庽偱庽崅偼15m偵払偡傞丅懴姡惈偵桪傟丄塉偑崀傜側偔側偭偰傕庽栘偺拞偱堦斣丄嵟屻傑偱惗偒巆傞丅偝傜偵懴墫惈偑嫮偔墫暘擹搙15,000 ppm傑偱嫋梕偱偒丄懴傾儖僇儕惈偱傕偁傞丅巬偼斾妑揑嵶偔梩偼奃椢怓傪偟偰偄傞丅壴偼僺儞僋偐敀偱偁傞丅嵐敊抧懷偺婱廳側椢偱偁傞偲嫟偵丄僫僣儊灲巕墍偺杊嵒椦偲偟偰巊傢傟偰偒偨丅姴偼寶暔傗壠嬶摍偺庡梫側寶嵽偲傕側傞丅

 

傾僥僶懓(Ateba) 僫僕僪(Najd) 4偮偺晹懓偺堦偮偱偁傞傾僥僶懓偑梀杚偺堊偵弰夞偡傞斖埻偼僸僕儍僘(Hijaz)偺嫬奅偐傜僇僔儉(Qasim)曽岦偺摴偵増偭偰儅僢僇(Makkah)傑偱峀偑偭偰偄偨丅

 

傾僨儏僢儅僣偲屲恖偺彈墹 (Five Queens of Adummatu) 僨儏儅僩 傾儖 僕儍儞僟儖(Dumat al-Jandal)偼婭尦慜8悽婭偐傜7悽婭偵偐偗偰杒傾儔價傾杒晹偺庡梫側傾儔僽嫃廧抧偱偁傝丄傾僢僔儕傾(Assyrian)偺擭戙婰偵偼傾僨儏僢儅僣(Adummatu)偲塢偆柤偱婰榐偝傟偰偄傞嵐敊偺墹崙偱偁傞丅傾僨儏僢儅僣偲偼晄栄嵐敊偺峳傟抧偺拞怱偵偁傞傾儔僽偺嵲偲塢偆堄枴偱偁傝丄偙偺僆傾僔僗偼僎僟乕儖(Qedar)偲塢偆傾儔僽晹懓偺椞抧偺拞偵偁偭偨丅僷儖儈儗僫(Palmyrena)偲屇偽傟偨撿搶僟儅僗僇僗(Damascus)傪娷傓抧堟偑僎僟乕儖偺惗妶寳偱偁傝丄僎僟乕儖晹懓偺奺巟懓傗僎僟乕儖偵廬懏偟偰偄偨懠晹懓偺巟懓偺梀杚抧偼墦偔僫僼僪嵐敊(An Nafud)傑偱峀偑偭偰偄偨丅僨儏儅僩 傾儖 僕儍儞僟儖偺廧恖偼僎僟乕儖偺曐岇偑柍偗傟偽偦偺戉彜(Caravan)偑嵐敊傪墇偊傜傟側偐偭偨偺偱僎僟乕儖偵楆懏偟偰偄偨丅傾僢僔儕傾(Assyrian)偺擭戙婰偵偼僨儏儅僩 傾儖 僕儍儞僟儖偼堦楢偺傾儔僽彈墹宯晥偺庱搒偱偁偭偨偲婰榐偝傟偰偄傞丅偦偺彈墹払偲偼彈墹僓價儀 (Queen Zabibe)丄彈墹僒儈僔 (Queen Samisi)丄彈墹儎僥傿 (Queen Yati'e)丄彈墹僥僄儖僋僰 (Queen Te'elkhunu)偍傛傃墹彈僞僽 (Princess Tabu'a)偱偁偭偨丅

 

乽傾僨儖崙偲僔儑傾墹崙傊岦偐偆搑忋偺峠奀搶梞娸偺峲奀乿丗 儘僔僃 僨儕僋乕儖(Rochet d'Héricourt) 挊丄1841擭僷儕偱弌斉(Rochet D'Hèricourt, C.E.X  Voyage sur la côte orientale de la mer Rouge, dans le pays d'Adel et le Royaume de la Choa Paris 1841.)

 

乽傾僨儖崙偲僔儑傾墹崙傊岦偐偆搑忋偺峠奀椉娸偺峲奀乿丗 儘僔僃 僨儕僋乕儖(Rochet d'Héricourt) 挊丄1846擭僷儕偱弌斉(Rochet D'Hèricourt, C.E.X. Voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays d'Adel et le Royaume de la Choa Paris 1846. )

 

傾僨儞(Aden) 傾儔價傾敿搰偺撿惣晹偺尦塸崙曐岇椞偱偁偨撿僀僄儊儞偺峠奀擖岥偺奀峘偱僀僄儊儞偺宱嵪偺拞怱抧丄恖岥29枩恖丅

 

傾僪僕儑僂僄(Adjoue) 僨僀僣偑弉偡偲戝偒側僶僗働僢僩偵擖傟偰寴偔屌宍偺儁乕僗僩偁傞偄偼働乕僉偵惉傞傑偱埑弅偝傟丄乽傾僪僕儑僂僄(Adjoue)乿偲屇偽傟攧傝偵弌偝傟傞丅 

 

僥儏乕儖(At Tur) 僔僫僀敿搰偺僩乕儖 (Tor in the Sinai)乮僩乕儖傪嶲徠乯丅

 

傾僪儖僼 僼僅儞 償儗乕僨(Adolf von Wrede) 1870擭偵H.F. 儌儖僣傾儞(H.F. Maltzan)偑曇廤偟 僽僂儞僔儏償傽僀僋(Braunschweig)偱弌斉偟偨乽僴僪儔儅僂僩偺椃(A. Reise in Hadramaut ed. by H.F. Maltzan, Braunschweig 1870.)乿偺挊幰丅

 

傾僫僩儕傾(Anatolia) 尰嵼偺僩儖僐椞彫傾僕傾丅

 

傾僶乕(Abba) 傾儔價傾恖偺懗偺側偄備傞偄堖暈乮閜閗傗嶳梤偺栄偺怐暔偱晛捠偼幦暱乯丅

 

傾僶僀儎(Abaiyah) 傾僢僶(Abbah)丄傾僶(Aba)偲傕塢偆丅傾儔僽懓偑梡偄傞懗偺柍偄備傞偄奜搮丅

 

傾僶僟儞搰(Abadan Island) 僔儍僢 僞儖 傾儔僽愳(The Shatt-al-Arab)偺僨儖僞偵偁偨傞搰偱摨搰偵偼30BPD偺愇桘惛惢丒桝弌婎抧偑偁傞丅

 

傾僴儅僪 僀僽儞 僴儞僶儖(Ahamad ibn Hanbal) 僴儞僶儕乕攈(Hanbali)偼僗儞僫攈(Sunna)4妛攈偺堦偮偱儚僢僴乕僽庡媊偺嫵媊(Wahhabism)偲堦抳偡傞丅

 

傾僴儅僪 僀僽儞 儅僕僪(Ahmad ibn Majid) 嵟崅偺奀梞壢妛偵娭偡傞傾儔價傾岅偱彂偐傟偨昐壢帿揟乽桳梡側忣曬埥偄偼峲奀壢妛偺婎慴偲尨懃(Book of Useful Information or Basis and Principles of Nautical Sciences)乿偺挊幰偱丄僀儞僪梞傪搉傞弰楃偺堊偺奀忋捠峴傪彮側偔偲傕4悽戙偵搉偭偰庴偗宲偖丄桬姼偱攷妛側峲奀幰偱偁傞僫僕僨傿懓(Najdi)偵懏偡傞寙弌偟偨傾儔價傾恖峲奀幰偱偁偭偨丅乽僀僽儞 儅僕僪偼儅儗儌 僇僫僋(Malemo Canaqua)乮儅儗儌 僇僫(Malemo Cana)乯偺柤偱儅儕儞僨傿(Malindi)偐傜報搙傑偱償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)巜婗偺僀儞僪墦惇戉偺悈愭埬撪恖傪柋傔偨乿偲億儖僩僈儖偺楌巎壠払偼婰榐偟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僴儅僪 僋僂儖僔僪 僷僔儍(Ahmad Khurshid Pasha) 傾僴儅僪 僷僔儍偼僼儔儞僗偑1801擭偵僄僕僾僩偐傜揚戅偟偨屻偵僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottomans, 1299 – 1923)偑惓幃偵擟柦偟偨傾儗僋僒儞僪儕傾(Alexandria)偺巗挿偱偁傝丄儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕(Muhammad Ali Pasha, 1769 - 1849)偺偨偭偰偺婅偄偱1804擭偵僄僕僾僩偺峴惌扴摉憤撀(Wali or Vali or Governor))偵擟柦偝傟偨丅塸崙偺奜岎戙昞偲摨柨偟丄傾僴儅僪 僷僔儍偼僔儕傾(Syria)偐傜僨儕乕晹戉(Delhi Troop)傪楢傟偰偒偰丄儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕偲偦偺婙壓偺傾儖僶僯傾晹戉(Albanians)傪僄僕僾僩偐傜攔彍偟傛偆偲偟偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕偼僇僀儘(Cairo)偺僀僗儔儉恄妛幰(Ulema or Mullah)偲摨嬈幰慻崌(Guild)偺巜摫幰偵巟墖偝傟偰丄僨儕乕晹戉傪帺恮偵堷偒崬傓帠偵惉岟偟丄18055寧偵帺傜傪僄僕僾僩憤撀(Governor of Egypt)偵擟柦偟偨丅帺暘偺孯戉偵尒幪偰傜傟偨傾僴儅僪 僷僔儍偼乽儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕傪僄僕僾僩憤撀偵擟偠傞乿偲偺捄椷(Firman or Decree)偑弌傞傑偱僇僀儘偺梫嵡(Cairo Citadel)偵桯暵偝傟偰偄偨丅

 

傾僴儊僪 僷僔儍(Ahmed Pasha) 1832擭偵僩亅儖僋僠僃 價儖儊僘(Turkche Bilmez)偲偟偰抦傜傟傞僸僕儍乕僘孯彨峑(Hejazi officer)偑僀儅儉(Imam)偲儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕(Muhammad Ali)*偵斀峈偟丄儂僨僀僟(Hodeida)丄僛價僪(Zebid)偍傛傃儌僇(Moka) 傪愯嫆偟偨丅偙偺婡夛傪偲傜偊偰丄傾僔乕儖抧曽偺崅抧懓偼僄僕僾僩孯偵懳偟栤戣傪婲偙偟巒傔丄偦傟偵懳偟偰儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕偼帯埨傪夞暅偡傞堊偵18愮恖偺挦敱墦惇孯傪慻怐偟偨丅偦偺巜婗姱偑僗儖僞儞戙棟恖傾僴儊僪 僷僔儍(Ahmed Pasha)偱偁偭偨丅偙偺墦惇孯偵偼6柤偺儓乕儘僢僷恖偑嶲壛偟偰偍傝丄墦惇孯偵愴摤寢壥偵偮偄偰偼偦偺撪偺堦恖儌乕儕僗 僞儈僔僄(Maurice Tamisier)1840擭偵僷儕(Paris)偱弌斉偟偨乽傾儔價傾偱偺峲奀乮僸僕儍乕僘懾嵼偲傾僔乕儖偱偺愴摤乯(Voyage en Arabie. Sèjour dans le Hedjaz. Campagne d'Assir)乿偵婰榐偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僶乕儖 傾儉(Abar Na'am) 傾僔乕儖廈惣晹偺僇乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)偐傜杒傊偲壓傞熆傟扟僫傾儉(Na'am)尮摢偺晹棊偱乽閗捁偺堜屗乿偲偺堄枴偺柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia) 傾儔價傾岅偑岅尮偺僄僠僆僺傾(Ethiopia)偺暿柤丄媽徧丅

 

乽傾僽儖僼傿僟(Prince Abu'lfida)偺抧棟乿丗 傾僽儖僼傿僟(Prince Abu'lfida)挊偺乽僞僋僂傿儉 僽儖僟儞乮崙乆偺昤幨乯(Takwin al-Buldan)乿傪M. 儗僲乕(M. Reinaud)偑東栿丒曇廤偟丄傾僽儖僼傿僟(Prince Abu'lfida)偺抧棟乿偲塢偆戣柤偱1848擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偟偨(Géographie d'Abu'l Feda tr. and ed. by M. Reinaud. Paris.)

 

傾價僔僯傾奀懐(Abyssinian Pirate) 7悽婭偵傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)偺傾僋僗儉墹崙(Aksumite Empire or Kindom of Axum)偼悐戅偟巒傔偨偑丄傾價僔僯傾奀懐((Abyssinian Pirate)偼偦偺屻傕悢悽婭偵傢偨偭偰惃椡傪曐偪丄僟僢儔僋彅搰(Dahlak Archipelago)傪惉攕偡傞堊偺墦惇傊偺曬暅偱丄702擭偵偼僕僃僢僟傪廝寕偟丄攑毿偵偡傞掱偺椡傪帩偭偰偄偨丅

 

乽傾價僔僯傾偺惗妶(Life of Abyssinia)乿丗 1853擭偵儘儞僪儞偱弌斉偝傟丄挊幰偼柍柤偱偁偭偨偑丄儅儞僗僼傿乕儖僪 僷乕僉儞僗(Mansfiled Parkins)偱偁傞偺偑傢偐偭偨丅偨傑偨傑丄僷乕僉儞僗(Parkins)偼堎側傞峘偐傜桝擖偝傟傞彜昳偺擭娫庢傝埖偄妟偺傒傪婰嵹偟偨廤寁昞傪東栿偟偰偍傝丄墲帪偺婱廳側帒椏傪採嫙偟偰偄傞丅

 

乽傾價僔僯傾偱偺擟柋偵偮偄偰乿丗 儘乕儖僼僗(Gerhard Rohlfs)挊丄1883擭儔僀僾僠僢僸偱弌斉(Rohlfs, G. Meine Mission nach Abessinien Leipzig 1883.)

 

乽傾價僔僯傾偱偺僼僃儗偲僈儕僯僄偺椃峴乿丗 1847擭偵僷儕偱弌斉(Ferret - Galinier Voyage en Abyssinie Paris 1847)丄偙偺杮偺壗張偵傕僼僃儗偺摢暥帤偑婰榐偝傟偰嫃側偄(ch. X. Nowhere in the book are Ferret's initials recorded.)

 

乽傾價僔僯傾偲峠奀偱偺埥傞擟柋乿丗 僗僞僯僗儔僼 儔僢僙儖(Stanislas Russel)棨孯彮嵅挊丄1884擭僷儕偱弌斉(Russel, S. Une Mission en Abyssinie et dans la Mer Rouge Paris 1884.)

 

傾僽 傾儕僔儏(Abu Arish) 僒僂僕撿惣晹僕僓儞廈偺廈搒僕僓儞偺搶偵偁傞挰丅

 

傾僽 傾儖儚(Abu Arwa) 僕僢僟(Jeddah)偺惣杒惣70km梋傝偺嫍棧偵偁傞熆傟扟僼傽僥傿儅(Wadi Fatima)撪偺旍梹偱抧壓悈偺朙晉側懞丅

 

傾僼僅儞僜 僟儖儃働儖働(Afonso d'Alboquerque) 僀儞僪偺擭戙婰偱旕忢偵挊柤側億儖僩僈儖偺戞2戙僀儞僪憤撀(1508 - 1515)偱偁傝丄傾僼僅儞僜丒僨丒傾儖僽働儖働(Afonso de Albuquerque)偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅傾僼僅儞僜 僟儖儃働儖働(Afonso d'Alboquerque,1453 - 1515)1453擭儕僗儃儞(Lisbon)偱惗傑傟丄1503擭偵堦搙僀儞僪傊晪偄偨丅婣崙屻丄億儖僩僈儖墹儅僰僄儖1(Manuel I1495 - 1521)偺怣擟傪摼丄1506擭僀儞僪憤撀偲偟偰16惽偺娡戉傪棪偄偰儕僗儃儞傪弌敪偟偨丅峲奀偺搑拞偱偼峠奀擖傝岥偺僜僐僩儔搰(Socotra or Suqura)丄傾儔價傾榩偺儂儖儉僘搰(Hormuz Island)傪愯椞偟偨丅僼儔儞僔僗僐 僟儖儊僀僟Francisco d'Almeida, 1505 - 1508) 1505擭偵弶戙僀儞僪憤撀(Viceroy of India)偵擟柦偝傟偰偰埲棃丄僐乕僠儞(Cochin)傗僇僫僲傾(Cananore)偺彜娰傪忛嵡偵嶌傝懼偊丄屻偵僋僀儘儞(Quilon)偵傕傕偆堦偮偺梫嵡傪嶌偭偨丅150923擔偵偼僨傿僂(Diu)壂偱揋偲岎愴偟丄嫢朶側奀愴偱僼僒僀儞 僋儖僨傿(Husayn al-Kurdi)巜婗壓偺僄僕僾僩娡戉偵寣傒偳傠偺攕愴傪旐傜偣偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄懡偔偺尃椡偑1恖偺庤偵挿偔廤拞偡傞偺傪嫲傟偰偄偨儅僰僄儖墹(Manuel I)偼傾儖儊僀僟(Almeida)偵僀儞僪摑帯椞(the Viceroyalty of India)偺嵟崅尃埿傪傾僼僅儞僜 僟儖儃働儖働 (Afonso d'Alboquerque)偵搉偟丄婣崙偡傞條偵柦椷偟偰夝擟偟偨丅傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)偼戞俀戙僀儞僪憤撀(Viceroy of India)偵廇擟偡傞偲僀儞僪梞慡懱偵柍揋偺億儖僩僈儖偺攅尃傪妋棫偟傛偆偲偟偰丄傑偢1510擭僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)峌寕偟偨偑偵幐攕偟偨丅偦偺屻杒忋偟丄儉僈儖掗崙峜掗 (Great Mogul)偐傜1479擭偵撈棫傪彑偪庢偭偨朙偐側儉僗儕儉(Moslem)墹崙偺巟攝壓偵偁偭偨僑傾搰(Goa Island)傪堦帪愯椞偟丄8寧偵偄偭偨傫偼堷偒忋偘偨偑丄11寧偵嵞傃僑傾傪峆媣愯椞偟偨丅偙傟埲屻丄僑傾偼億儖僩僈儖偺傾僕傾巟攝偺嫆揰偲偟偰僀儞僪憤撀偺挀嵼抧偲側傞丅1511擭偵偼儅儗乕敿搰(Malay Peninsula)偵偍偗傞崄椏杅堈偺拞宲抧偲偟偰斏塰偟偰偄偨儅儔僢僇墹崙(Sultanate of Malacca1402 - 1511)偺愯椞偵惉岟偟丄儅儔僢僇(Malacca)1擭懾嵼偟偰億儖僩僈儖偺搶撿傾僕傾偵偍偗傞嫆揰偲偡傞丅偦偺屻傕僀儞僪梞(Indian Ocean)奺抧偺儉僗儕儉(Moslem)巟攝壓偺峘巗峌寕偵廬帠偟丄儂儖儉僘(Hormuz)丄僑傾(Goa)丄僇僫僲傾(Cananore)丄僐乕僠儞(Cochin)丄僋僀儘儞(Quilon)偍傛傃僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)摍偺嫆揰傪帩偭偰丄億儖僩僈儖偑傾儔價傾奀偺岎堈峲楬傪巟攝偟丄堄偺傑傑偵棯扗偡傞帠傪壜擻偵偟偨丅僀儞僪偵偍偗傞億儖僩僈儖偺抧埵偺奼戝偲嫮壔傪寽擮偟偨儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamuluk)偺僗儖僞儞(Sultan)僇儞僒僂 僈僂儕(Qansawh al-Ghawri)偼僗僄僘偱14鋤偺僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon)6鋤偺僈儗乕慏(Galley)傪娷傓怴偟偄娡戉傪寶憿偟偨丅偦偺巌椷姱偵擟柦偟偨儔僀僗 僗儔僀儅儞(Rais Sulayman)偵懳偟丄僼僒僀儞 僋儖僨傿(Husayn al-Kurdi)偺娡戉偲崌棳偟偰億儖僩僈儖偵懳偡傞嵞峌寕傪奐巒偡傞條偵柦椷偟偨丅怴僗僄僘娡戉偵傛傞僀儞僪椞撪怤棯偺壜擻惈偺嵎偟敆偭偨嫼埿偵懳峈偡傞堊偵丄儅僰僄儖墹(Manuel I)151547擔丄怴憤撀儘億 僜傾儗僗 傾儖儀傾僈儕傾(Lopo Soares de Albergaria)巜婗壓偺15鋤偺慏偐傜惉傞娡戉傪弌峲偝偣丄傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)巜婗壓偺娡戉偺巌椷傕擟偣偨丅扐偟丄傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)偑墹偺柦椷偑撏偔慜偺15151216擔偵僑傾(Goa)偱巰朣偟偨偺偱丄偙偺巜帵偼幚峴偝傟側偐偭偨丅53嵨傪墇偊偰偐傜巒傑傝丄婛偵10擭偵媦傫偩搶曽偺晄寬峃側婥岓偱偺崲擄偱晄埨偵枮偪偨栶栚偑傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)傪巰側偣偨丅傾儖儃働儖働偼拤幚偵丄姰慡側專恎傪帩偭偰崙墹偵巇偊偨偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄壎抦傜偢偺崙墹偼儕僗儃儞(Lisbon)偱嶔杁傪傔偖傜偣丄嫮堷偱晄摉側傗傝曽偱傾儖儃働儖働傪巜婗偐傜奜偟丄幐堄偺撪偵巰朣偝偣偨丅

 

乽傾僼僅儞僜 僟儖儃働儖働偺愴婰乿丗 (Commentaries of Afonso d'Alboquerque)丄摨彂戞IV34 - 35(op. cit., t. IV, p. 34 - 35)偐傜僕僢僟偵忛嵡偑傔偖傜偝傟偨偺偼(Jiddah Circumvallation) 僼僒僀儞 僋儖僨傿(Husayn al-Kurdi) 偑僀儞僪墦惇(Indian campaign)偐傜栠偭偰棃偰偐傜偱偁傞偺偑暘偐傞丅

 

傾僽 僓僀僪 傾儖-僶儖僸(Abu Zayid al-Balkhi) 850擭崰偵僐儔僒儞 (Khorasan) 抧曽偺僶儖僸 (Balkh) 偵嬤偄僔儍儈僗僩儎儞 (Shamistyan) 懞偱惗傑傟丄934擭偵杤偟偨丅傾儖-僶儖僸偼偙偺抧曽偺僒乕儅乕儞挬(Samanid, 819–999)偺掛恇 (courtier) 偱偁傝丄梋壣傪抧宍妛傗抧棟妛偺挷嵏偵巊偄丄抁偄抧棟揑婰弎偟偐婰偝傟偰偄側偄堦懕偒偺抧恾孮偱峔惉偝傟偨僀僗儔儉崙抧恾挔傪廋惓偟偰嫃偨丅

 

傾僽 僞儕乕僽 價儞 傾僽僨儏儖 儉僢僞儕乕僽(Abu Talib bin `Abd al-Muttalib, 549 – 619) 傾僽 僞儕乕僽偼僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraish)僴乕僔儉壠(Clan of Banu Hashim)偺摉庡偱丄彜恖偱偁偭偨丅僀僗儔乕儉嫵偺奐慶儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad, ca, 570 632)偺攲晝偱堢偰偺恊偱傕偁傝丄儉僴儞儅僪偺桳椡側巟墖幰偱偁傝懕偗偨丅偙偺堊丄惗奤僀僗儔乕儉偵擖怣偡傞偙偲偼側偐偭偨偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄僀僗儔乕儉嵟弶婜偵偍偗傞廳梫恖暔偺堦恖偲偝傟傞丅傾僽僪丒傾儖 儉僢僞儕僽(Abdul al-Muttalib, c. 497 -578)偼晝丄戞4戙惓摑僇儕僼(4th Rashidun Caliph, 656 -661) 傾儕乕(Ali ibn Abi Talib, 598/599 - 661)偼懅巕偵偁偨傞丅

 

乽傾僽僪 僄儖 儚僸僪偵傛傞儊僢僇弰楃乿丗 儕僠儍乕僪 僼儔儞僔僗 僶乕僩儞嫧 (Sir Richard Francis Burton)挊偱1893擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉偝傟偨乽儊僨傿傾偍傛傃儊僢僇傊偺屄恖揑弰楃婰乮婰擮斉乯乿偺晅懏彂VIIBurton, R.F. A Personal Narrative of a Pligrimage to al-Madinah and Meccah (Memorial Edition). London 1893. Appendix VIII. Mecca Pligrimage by El Ha abd El Wahid.)

 

傾僽僨儏儖僴儈僩2(Sultan Abdul Hamit II, 1842 - 1918) 僗儖僞儞 傾僽僨儏儖僴儈僩2(Sultan Abdul Hamit II, 1842 - 1918)傪嶲徠丅

 

傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Abdullah bin Saud) 傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Abdullah bin Saud, 1814 - 1818)偼晝僒僂乕僪(Saud Ibn Abdul Aziz Ibn Mohammed Ibn Saud, 1803 - 1814)偑巰朣偟偨1814擭偵僒僂乕僪僨儖僀乕儎岒崙乮戞堦師僒僂乕僪岒崙丄(First Saudi Sate, 1744 – 1818)乯偲屻偵屇偽傟偨儉儚僸僨傿乕儞(Wahhabis or Muwahhideen)偺戞4戙偱嵟屻偺僀儅儉(Imam)偲側傝丄1818擭傑偱儉儚僸僨傿乕儞傪摑帯偟偨丅僒僂僪壠(House of Saud)偼僒僂僪偑僀儅儉偱偁偭偨帪戙偵惃椡傪奼戝偟丄偦偟偰1811擭偐傜1818擭傑偱懕偄偨僄僕僾僩丒儚僢僴乕僽愴憟(Egyptian – Wahhabi War)偲傕傛偽傟傞僆僗儅儞丒僒僂僕愴憟(Ottoman – Saudi War)傪巒傔偨丅傾僽僪僁僢儔乕偼僀儅儉偵側傞偲捈偖偵僆僗儅儞掗崙僄僕僾僩憤撀孯(Ottoman – Egyptian Army)偵傛傞帺暘偺椞抧傊偺怤棯偵捈柺偟偨丅偙偺怤棯孯偼僄僕僾僩憤撀(Governor of Egypt, 1805 - 1848) 儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍(Muhammad 'Ali Pasha or rahimah-Allahu ta'ala, 1769 - 1849)*偺懅巕僀僽儔僸儉 僷僔儍(Ibrahim Pasha, 1789 - 1848)*偑巜婗偟偰偄偨丅僆僗儅儞孯偼偡偽傗偔儊僢僇(Meca)偲儅僨傿乕僫(Madinah)傪扗夞偟丄嶌愴峴摦傪奐巒偟偨丅悢偱偼彑傞偑憰旛偺昻庛側堊偵僒僂僕孯(Saudi Force)偼夊忛偺僫僕僪(Najd)偵戅媝偟偨丅帺暘偺椞搚偱怤棯幰偲奐愴偡傞傛傝傕傾僽僪僁僢儔乕偼僫僕僪偺挰乆偱帺暘偺孯戉偺杊旛傪屌傔丄怤棯幰傪怘偄巭傔條偲寛堄偟偨丅寢壥偲偟偰傾僽僪僁僢儔乕偼僀僽儔僸儉偑掞峈偡傞懞傪棯扗偟側偑傜丄師乆偲僫僕僪偺懞乆傪峌棯偟丄偮偄偵僒僂僕壠偺庱搒僨傿儔僀儎(Diriyah, Dir乫iyah or Dir乫aiyah)偵敆傞偺傪挱傔傞帠偲側偭偨丅悢儢寧懕偄偨曪埻傪庴偗丄嵟廔揑偵1818擭搤丄戞堦師僒僂乕僪岒崙偺廔鄟偲側傞崀暁傪偟偨丅僀僽儔僸儉偼惍慠偲僨傿儔僀儎傪偦偺愓宍偑柍偔側傞傑偱攋夡偟丄懡悢偺曔椄偲側偭偨僒僂僪堦懓傪僄僕僾僩宱桼偱僀僗僞儞僽乕儖(Istanbul)偵憲偭偨丅傾僽僪僁僢儔乕帺恎偼僀僗僞儞僽乕儖偵拝偔偲捈偖偵僆僗儅儞僩儖僐偺僗儖僞儞(Ottoman Sulta)偺柦椷偱庱傪檰偹傜傟丄偦偺摢晹偼儃僗億儔僗奀嫭(Bosphorus)偵搳偘崬傑傟偨丅僆僗儅儞掗崙偼僫僕僪偵婔偮偐偺梫嵡傪堐帩偟偨偑丄僒僂僕堦懓偺僩儖僉傿 僀僽儞 傾僽僟僢儔 僀僽儞 儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Turki ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Saud, 1755 - 1834)偑戞僯師僒僂乕僪岒崙丄(Second Saudi Sate, 1824 – 1891)傪庽棫偡傞偺傪杊偘傜傟側偐偭偨丅

 

傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞丒僘僶僀儖(Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr624 - 692) 僀僗儔乕儉嫵偺僇儕僼偺堦恖偱683擭偵僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad, 661 – 750)偺僂儞儅(Umma)乮僀僗儔乕儉嫟摨懱乯摑帯偵堎媍傪彞偊偰斀棎傪婲偟丄儊僢僇偱僇儕僼偵懄埵偟偨丅扐偟丄摉帪偺僂儅僀儎挬偺僇儕僼(Umayyad Caliph)偼儉傾乕僂傿儎2(Muawiyah II ibn Yazid, 683 - 684)偱偁傝丄惓摉側僇儕僼偲偟偰尒傜傟傞偙偲偼婬偱偁傞丅僀僽儞 僘僶僀儖偺晝偼656擭偺"閜閗偺愴偄(Battle of Bassorah or Battle of Camel)"偱愴巰偟偨僇僨傿乕僕儍(Khadija bint Khuwailid, 555 – 619)偺墮偺巕僘僶僀儖 (Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) 偱丄曣偼弶戙惓摑僇儕僼(First Rashidun Caliph, 632 - 634)偱偁傞傾僽乕 僶僋儖(Abu BakrAs-Siddiq, c. 573 634)偺挿彈偱偁偭偨堊僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh)偺寣傪堷偔傕偺乮儉僴儞儅僪偺嬤恊偲偦偺巕懛乯偲偄偆僇儕僼偺忦審傪枮偨偟偰偄偨丅斵偺僇儕僼愰尵屻丄僂儅僀儎壠偵晄枮傪書偔丄僔儕傾丄僀儔僋丄僄僕僾僩側偳儓儖僟儞埲奜偺奺抧偺儉僗儕儉偑斵偺傕偲偵拤惤偺惥偄(僶僀傾)傪偟丄擇恖偺僇儕僼偑懚嵼偡傞偲偄偆忬懺偑婲偙偭偨 (戞擇師撪棎偺巒傑傝) 丅僀僽儞 僘僶僀儖偼僀儔僋丄僄僕僾僩傪惂攅偟丄僔儕傾偺敿暘埲忋傪偦偺嵟戝惃椡斖埻偵帯傔丄堦帪偼僂儅僀儎挬傪埑搢偡傞傎偳偺惃椡傪尒偣偨偑丄偦偺屻丄戞5戙僂儅僀儎挬僇儕僼(5th Umayyad Calph, 685 - 705)傾僽僪 儅儕僋(Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, 647 705)偺傕偲偱峌惃偵揮偠偨僂儅僀儎挬偵傛偭偰偦偺椞抧偼庢傝曉偝傟偰偄偒丄嵟屻偼惞抧儊僢僇廃曈偺傒傪椞桳偡傞偩偗偲側偭偨丅傾僽僪 儅儕僋偼僴僢僕儍乕僕儏丒僽儞丒儐乕僗僼(al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf)傪巌椷姱偲偡傞俀愮偺僂儅僀儎挬孯傪儊僢僇偺僇儕僼丄僀僽儞 僘僶僀儖偺傕偲偵嵎偟岦偗丄儊僢僇傪曪埻偟丄淲媩(偳偒傘偆)(愇媩丄淲)偵傛傞搳愇偱儊僢僇偺庣旛戉丄僇乕僶恄揳(Ka乫ba or Ka乫aba)側偳傪峌寕偝偣偨丅偦偺偨傔丄儊僢僇偺庣旛戉偼嬯愴傪嫮偄傜傟丄夡柵偟偨丅僇乕僶恄揳傕戝偒偔旐奞傪庴偗偨丅692擭丄偙偆偟偨拞偱丄僀僽儞 僘僶僀儖偼僴僢僕儍乕僕儏丒僽儞丒儐乕僗僼偵傛偭偰丄儊僢僇傪6儢寧曪埻偝傟偨偺偪丄愴巰傪悑偘偨丅(戞擇師撪棎偺廔寢)

 

傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 價儞 傾僢僶僗(Abdullah bin al-Abbas) 梐尵幰偺廬孼掜乮晝払偼孼掜偱丄傾僽僪 儉僢僞儕乕僽(Abd al-Muttalib)偺懅巕払乯偱傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid Caliphate, 750 - 1258)偺慶愭偱偁傞價儞 傾僢僶僗偼僸僕儏儔(Hijirah)3擭慜偵惗傑傟偨丅梒偄帪偐傜價儞 傾僢僶僗偼婛偵僋儖傾乕儞(Quran)傗僀僗儔儉巎偺夝庍偐傜巌朄栤戣傑偱條乆側暘栰偺尋媶傗挷嵏偵栚棫偮婥幙傪帵偟偨丅價儞 傾僢僶僗偼偦偺妛栤偺峀偝偐傜乽奀(al-Bahr or Sea)乿偲偺偁偩柤傪晅偗傜傟傞掱丄偡偖傟偨抦幆傪拁愊偟偨丅價儞 傾僢僶僗偼乽僋儖傾乕儞偺夝庍偺梕擣偝傟偨晝乿偱偁傝丄梐尵幰偺拠娫傗壠懓傊偺幙栤偡傞庤抜偱梐尵幰偵娭偡傞傕偭偲傕憗婜偺忣曬廂廤幰偺堦恖偱偁傞丅執戝側妛幰偱偁傞偺傪棧傟偰傕價儞 傾僢僶僗偼妶摦揑側恖暔偱傕偁傝丄儉僗儕儉孯偺僄僕僾僩(Egypt)丄杒傾僼儕僇(North Africa)丄杒晹僀儔儞(Northern Iran)偍傛傃僐儞僗僞儞僥傿僲乕僾儖(Costantinople)偺弌惇偵傕廬孯偟偰偄傞丅價儞 傾僢僶僗偼3恖偺僇儕僼傊怣棅偱偒彆尵幰偲偟偰傕巇偊丄僸僕儏儔楌36擭乮惣楋657擭乯偵僶僗儔抦帠(Governor of Basra)偵擟柦偝傟偨丅僸僕儍乕僘傊塀戅偡傞慜偺23擭偼帠柋強偵嬑柋偟偰偄偨丅屻偵傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僘僶僀儖(Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, 624 - 692)偑僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad Caliphate, 661 – 750)摑帯偵斀棎偟丄儊僢僇(Mecca)偱僇儕僼(Caliph)偵懄埵偟偨帪偵偙傟偵斀懳偟偨丅偙偺堊丄價儞 傾僢僶僗偼儅僢僇(Makkah)偱搳崠偝傟偨偑丄僋僼傽(Kufa)偐傜儉僼僞乕儖(al-Mukhtar, 622 - 687)偑攈尛偟偨摿暿婻暫孯抍偵傛傞椡偯偔偺峌寕偱帺桼偵側偭偨丅惌帯惗妶偱偺偙偺楢嵗傪嵟屻偵塱媣偵僞乕僀僼(Taif)偵塀戅偟丄僸僕儏儔楌68擭乮惣楋688擭乯偵杤偟偨丅

 

傾僽僪 儔僀儖 僀僽儞 傾儉儖(Abd-Ya-Layl ibn Amr) 僞僀僼(Taif)偑僀僗儔儉(Islam)偵揋懳偟偰偄偨崰偺僒僉僼懓挿(Thaqif乫I Chieftain)偺堦恖偱偁傞偑丄631/632擭偵僀僗儔儉傊偺夵廆傪庴偗偨僞僀僼巗戙昞抍偺堦恖偱傕偁偭偨丅乮弌揟丗 Wikipedia)

 

傾僽僪儖 儔僼儅儞 僗僟僀儕(Amir 'Abd al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Sudairi) 1943擭偐傜1990擭傑偱僕儑僂僼廈抦帠偱偁傝丄乽傾儔價傾偺嵐敊曈嫬丄僕儑僂僼偺曄慗(The Desert Frontier of Arabia, Al-Jawf Trough the Ages)乿傪挊嶌偟偨丅摨尦抦帠偼偦偺挿偄擟婜傪捠偠偰僕儍僂僼偵廧傒丄偙偺抧曽偵婑梌偡傞堊偵僗僟僀儕嵿抍(The 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sudairi Foundation)傪愝棫偡傞掱丄偙偺抧曽傪垽偟偨恖偱偁傞丅偙偺嵿抍傪捠偠偰摨尦抦帠偼廈搒僒僇僇(Sakaka)偱巹棫恾彂娰(Dar al-Jawf lil-'Ulum)丄攷暔娰寭儂僥儖(Al-Nusl)偍傛傃嶰偮偺晅懏梒抰墍傪帩偮帨慞抍懱(Jam'iyyat al-Birr al-Khairiyya) 傪愝棫偟塣塩偟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僽 僰儅僀僀(Abu Numayy) 儊僢僇庱挿(the Sharif of Mecca)偺僶儔僇僩擇悽(Barakat II, 1497–1525)偑恇廬傪帵偡偨傔偵僆僗儅儞僩儖僐(Ottoman Turks)偺僗儖僞儞 僒儕儉堦悽(Sultan Salim I, 1516-1520)偺墹媨偵憲偭偨師抝丅

 

傾僽僴(Abha) 乽慺惏傜偟偄旤偟偝乿偲塢偆柤傪帩偮偙偺巗偼傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)偺廈搒偱偁傝惌帯偺拞怱偱偁傞丅昗崅 2,050 m偺帺慠偼僒僂僕崙撪偱偼崀塉検偑懡偔丄壞偱傕椓偟偔丄朙偐側扞敤偵埻傑傟偨擾嬈抧懷偱偁傞偲嫟偵崅嶳悪乮價儍僋僔儞丄juniper乯偵旐傢傟偰偄傞丅巗偼搊傝崀傝偺偁傞娐忬摴楬偱埻傑傟丄戝偒側僐僲僇儖僾僗(ConocarpusButton Mangrove)偺椢偺暲栘摴偲惉偭偰偍傝丄崅戜枅偵偼岞墍偑愝偗傜傟偰偄傞丅偙傟偼帺慠偲宨娤傪妝偟傔傞岞墍搒巗傪栚巜偟偨扥壓寬嶰巵偺愝寁偲塢傢傟丄傾僽僴(Abha)偺旤偟偝傪堦憌嵺棫偨偣偰偄傞丅挰偺拞怱晹偼墇偟壆崻傪帩偮崅憌偱撈摿側揇偺壠暲傒偑摿挜偱偁偭偨偑丄崱偱偼愄偺寶暔偼杦偳壗傕巆偭偰嫃傜偢丄150擭埲忋傕慜偵傾僽僴(Abha)偺摑帯幰(Amir)偺嫃忛偱偁偭偨僔儍僟忛(Shada Palace)偑婏柇偵傕応堘偄偵尒偊傞掱偱偁傞丅傾僽僴(Abha)偺廡巗偼壩梛擔偱丄廡巗偱偼嫮偄朏崄偑嬻婥傪枮偨偟偰偄傞丅曈傝堦懷偵峀偑傞彫壆偵偼慡偰偺庬椶偺暔帒偑偁傞丅偦傟傜偼饽嵶岺丄巋廕偟偨儘乕僽丄婄椏傪揾傜傟偨崄楩丄僷儞從偒嶮丄崄悈時摍抧曽偺怓嵤偲惣梞偺埨暔偺婏柇側崿偤崌傢偣偱偁傞丅傾僽僴(Abha)偺楌巎偼屆偔丄乽傾僔乕儖(Asir)抧曽偼屆戙偵偼崄椏(incense)丄崄恏椏(spice)傗杤栻(myrrh)偺廳梫側岎堈楬偱偁傝丄屆戙僄僕僾僩彈墹僴僩僔僃僾僗僩(Hatshepsut, 1473-1458 BC)偼峠奀傪墇偊偰戝偒側慏傪傾僽僴(Abha)偵巊傢偟偨乿偲偺婰榐偑僄僕僾僩偺屆戙帥堾偺暻偵徾宍暥帤(Hieroglyphic)偱巆偝傟偰偄傞丅慺惏傜偟偄宨娤偲椓偟偄婥岓偺壎宐偱傾僽僴(Abha)偲偦偺廃曈偵偼崙棫岞墍偑愝偗傜傟丄僒僂僕偺戙昞揑儕僝乕僩抧偲惉偭偰偍傝丄恖岥栺10枩恖偺偙偺巗偵偼傾僽僴 僷儗僗(Abha Palace)傪巒傔丄旔弸抧偲偟偰偺懡偔偺儂僥儖(Hotel)丄僐儞僪儈僯傾儉(condominium)丄儁儞僔儑儞(Pension)傗暿憫偑寶偰傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾僽僴 僀儞僞乕僐儞僠僱儞僞儖儂僥儖(Abha Intercontinental Hotel) 僀儞僞乕僐儞僠僱儞僞儖儂僥儖(Intercontinental Hotel) 偼崙嵺夛媍応偲栚傪堷偔夞嫵撈摿偺墌壆崻偺嫄戝側儌僗僋乮楃攓摪乯傪帩偮丄僒僂僕惌晎偑崙埿傪偐偗偰偙偺昗崅2,910 m偵寶憿偟偨傾儔僽儅僱乕傪戙昞偡傞偲塢傢傟偰嫃偨儂僥儖偱偁傝丄僒僂僕偺嬤戙寶愝傪戙昞偡傞寶暔偱傕偁傞丅宱塩傪僀儞僞乕僐儞偵埾戸偟偰偄傞堊偵偙偺柤偑偁傞丅偙偺儂僥儖偺廃埻偺崅嶳悪(攼隊丄Juniper)偺怷偵偼峀戝側梀曕摴偑愝偗傜傟丄摿偵壞偺娫丄旔弸偺堊偵壠懓偱戄偟價僢儔(Villa)偵懾嵼偡傞悁棷媞偵偼愨岲偺娐嫬偱偁傞丅儂僥儖偺峏偵忋偵偼崙墹偺媨揳偑偁傞丅

 

傾僽乕僶僋儖(Abu Bakr)(632-634) 傾僽乕僶僋儖傾儖 僗傿僢僨傿乕僋(Abu Bakr as-Siddiq)632擭偵梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)偑巰嫀偟偨屻丄乽恄偺巊搆儉僴儞儅僪偺戙棟恖僇儕僼(Calif)乿傪柤忔傝丄弶戙惓摑僇儕僼(Calif) (632-634)偵廇擟偟偨嫵桭(Sahaba)偺堦恖偱偁傝丄僋儔僀僔儏懓乮Quraysh tribe乯偺僞僀儉乮Banu Taym branch乯壠偺弌恎偱丄儉僴儞儅僪偺恊愂嬝偱傕偁傞丅

 

傾僽僴 僷儗僗 儂僥儖(Abha Palace Hotel)乮昗崅 2,170 m乯丗 傾僽僴(Abha)偺恖岺屛(As Sad Lake)偺撿懁偵惍旛偝傟偨戝婯柾側梀墍抧晅偒偺戝偒側儂僥儖偱偁傞偑丄奜尒偐傜偼戝偒夁偓偰偲偰傕儂僥儖(Hotel)偵尒偊柍偄丅儘價乕傕媞幒傕嬤戙揑崑壺偱偟偐傕晅懷巤愝偑晅偒丄偟偐傕巗奨抧偵傕捈偖偺応強偩偟丄僟儉(As Sad Lake)偺屛斎偵偁傞偺偱傾僽僴偵悁棷偡傞偵偼椙偄応強偩丅偦偺忋丅僐儞僪儈僯傾儉(Condominium)傗娤岝嬻拞働乕僽儖偺敪拝強傪娷傓杮奿揑側梀墍抧偑摨偠晘抧偵偁傞偟丄偙偺儂僥儖(Hotel)偺帩偪庡偑偙偙偺傾僔乕儖廈抦帠(Governor)傕娷傓墹懓(Prince)偺僼傽僀僒儖(Faisal)壠偱偁傞偺偱丄擖傝岥(Gate)偵偼寈姱偑尒挘偭偰(Watch)嫃傝丄儉僞儚乮廆嫵寈嶡偺庤愭乯偲偺娭傢傝崌偄(Trouble)傕柍偄丅偙偺儂僥儖偺憢偐傜挱傔傞偲傾僽僴(Abha)偼壗搙朘傟偰傕旤偟偄挰偩偲巚偆丅

 

傾僽 儈僼僕儍儉(Abu Mihjam Al-Thaqifu, ? - 650 A.D.) 636擭偺僒乕僒乕儞挬儁儖僔傾(Sassanid Empire, 224 - 651)偲偺僇乕僨傿僔乕儎偺愴偄(Battle of Al-Qadisiyah)偵傕嶲愴偟偨婻巑摴惛恄傪帩偭偨桬姼側僞乕僀僼(Taif)弌恎偺傾儔僽帊恖偱忢偵塰岝傪戣嵽偲偟偰偄偨丅

 

傾僽儔僴(Abraha) 傾儕傾僗(Ariath)傪堷偒宲偄偩傾價僔僯傾偺僀僄儊儞憤撀(Abyssinian Governor, his death to some time after 553)偱丄傾僽儔儌僗(Abramos)埥偄偼乽旲傪愗傞乿傪堄枴偡傞儃儖僴 傾僔儏儔儉(Al Borha Al Ashram)偲傕屇偽傟傞丅傾僽儔僴(Abraha)570擭偵孯戉傪儊僢僇(Mecca)偵恑寕偝偣偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜僇乕僶(Ka'ba)偼傾僽儔僴(Abraha)偑堷偒楢傟偨7,8摢偺徾偑儊僢僇乮Mecca乯偵擖傠偆偣偢偵嵗傝崬傓偲塢偆婏愓偑婲偒偰丄彎偮偔帠柍偔擄傪摝傟偨丅偦偺婏愓偑傾價僔僯傾孯傪堷偒曉偝偣偨丅偙傟傪傾儔僽懓偼枩恄揳(pantheon)傪摑妽偡傞恄奿(deity)偱偁傞傾僢儔乕(Allah)偺偛壛岇偩偲偟丄偙偺擭傪乽徾偺擭(Year of Elephant)偲屇傫偱偄傞丅

 

傾僽儔僴偺斀棎丗 傾僽儔僴(Abraha)偑僄僔儊僼傽僄僂僗(Esimephaeus)傪偆偪晧偐偣偨屻偱丄傾價僔僯傾峜掗偼僄僔儊僼傽僄僂僗偵懳偟偰峏偵擇孯抍偺墖孯傪憲偭偨丅嵟弶偺孯抍偼斀棎傪婲偙偟丄傾僽儔僴(Abraha)偲摨柨偟丄偦偺孯抍偺巜婗姱偱峜掗僄僢儔 傾僗儀僴嶰悽(Ella Asbeha III)偺恊椶偱偁傞傾儕傾僗(Ariath)傪嶦偟偨丅擇搙栚偺孯抍偼愴摤偱懡偔傪嶦偝傟偨丅偦偺屻傕鎦偄偼懕偄偨偑丄僄僢儔 傾僗儀僴嶰悽(Ella Asbeha III)偺巰屻丄傾僽儔僴(Abraha)偼傾價僔僯傾掗崙偺怴墹偵拤惤傪惥偭偨丅

 

傾僼儔儉恖(Ahlamû) 乮傾僇儔儉恖(Akhlamu)嶲徠乯丅

 

乽傾僼儕僇偺慡斒揑婰弎乮儌僴儊僢僩嫵偺憂愝偐傜1571擭傑偱偺愴憟偲惙悐偵偮偄偰乯乿丗(Descripción General de Africa, sus guerras y vicisitudes, desde la fundación del Mahometismo el aňo 1571 )丄儖僀僗 僨儖 儅儖儌儖 僇儖償傽僴儖(Luis del Mármol Carvajal)挊丄1573擭偐傜偵1599擭傑偱偵僌儔僶僟(Granada) 偲儅儔僈(Málaga)偱弌斉丅

 

傾僽儖僼傿僟丗 惣楋1273擭僟儅僗僇僗偱惗傑傟偨傾僀儐乕僽挬(Ayyubid)偺墹巕傾僽儖僼傿僟(Prince Abulfida)偼乽僞僋僂傿儉 傾儖-僽儖僟儞(Takwin al-Buldan)乿偺挊幰偱丄偦傟埲慜偺弌揟偐傜偺嵽椏傪庡偵曇廤偟偰偄偨丅傾僽儖僼傿僟偺庡梫側岟愌偼23悽婭慿偭偨惓妋側忣曬偱偺嵟怴壔偱偁偭偨偑丄擭寧偑宱偮偲嫟偵偦偺岠椡偼幐偣偰偟傑偭偨丅

 

傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗(Abu'l Abbas) 傾儔價傾岅偱僒僢僼傽乕(Saffah)懄偪嶦滳幰(Slaughterer)偲屇偽傟傞傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗 傾僽僪僢儔 僒僢僼傽乕 僀僽儞 儉僴儞儅僪(Abu al Abbas Abdullah as Saffah ubn Muhammad)偼傾僢僶乕僗挬(the Abbasid)偺弶戙僇儕僼(Caliph, 750-754)偱偁偭偨丅傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗(As-Saffah)偼僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh tribe)偱丄梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)偺慭慶晝僴乕僔儉(Hashim偐傜暘偐傟偨僶僰 僴乕僔儉壠(Banu Hashim clan)偺堦暘壠僶僰 傾僢僶僗(Banu Abbas)偺搹椑偱偁偭偨丅僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad Dynasty)僇儕僼 僸僔儍儉 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 傾儖 儅儕僋(Hisham ibn Abd al Malik, 723-743)偑杤偡傞偲僀僗儔儉掗崙撪偱偼撪愴偑杣敪偟偨丅僔乕傾攈(Shi乫as)丄僴儚乕儕僕儏(戅嫀偟偨幰)(Kharijis)偍傛傃儂儔乕僒乕儞(Khurasan)偺廧柉払偺巟墖傪摼偨傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗偼帺孯傪棪偄偰彑棙偟丄僂儅僀儎挬嵟屻偺僇儕僼 儅儖儚乕儞擇悽(Marwan II)750擭偵捛曻偟丄僂儅僀儎壠偺巆傝慡偰偺峔惉堳傪傪杘嶦偟偨丅桞堦偺惗懚幰傾僽僪 傾儖 儔僴儅儞堦悽(Abd ar Rahman I)偼傾儞僟儖僔傾(Andalusia or al Andalus)傊摝朣偟丄偦偙偱嶰悽婭偵搉偭偰塰偊偨屻婜僂儅僀儎挬(Caliphate of Cordoba, 756-1031)傪奐偄偨丅傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗偼柍帨斶側曽朄偱僂儅僀儎壠傪崻愨傗偟偵偟偨偺偱僒僢僼傽乕(Saffah)偲塢偆徧崋傪摼偨丅偙傟偼乽嶦滳幰(Slaughterer)乿埥偄偼乽寣傪拲偖幰(Shedder of Blood)乿偲塢偆堄枴偱偁傞丅偙偺撪愴偼乽傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗(As-Saffah)偑僀僗儔儉嫵搆偺夝曻幰儅僴僨傿(Mahdhi)偱偁傞乿偲偺僔乕傾攈(Shi乫as)偺怣嬄偵傛傞1000擭婜偺梐尵偵婎偯偄偰堷偒婲偙偝傟偰偄偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗(As Saffah)偼乽帺暘偺堊偺僇儕僼崙壠(Caliphate)傪寶崙偡傞乿偲偺僔乕傾攈嫵搆払(Shi乫as)偲偺栺懇傪庣傜側偐偭偨偺偱丄僔乕傾攈嫵搆払偼棧斀偟偨丅754擭偵丄傾僽儖 傾僢僶乕僗偼揤慠摋(smallpox)偱朣偔側傞慜偵帺暘偺孼掜偺傾僽 僕儍僼傽乕儖 傾儖 儅儞僗乕儖(Abu Ja乫far al Mansur)屻宲幰偲偟偰巜柤偟偰偄偨丅

 

傾儀僋僗(Abex) 僄僕僾僩丒僰價傾(the Egyptian - Nubian乯崙嫬偐傜僶僪 儅儞僨僽奀嫭(Strait of Bad al-Mandeb)傑偱偺峠奀娸偵増偭偨抧堟偺惓幃柤徧丅

 

傾儅僌(Amaq) 傾儅僌(Amaq)偼價儖僋梠娾抧懷(Harrat al Birk)偺峠奀娸偺堦斣杒偵埵抲偡傞儊僢僇廈(Emirate of Makkah)偺廤棊偱丄儎僣僨偺條側梩傪偟偨攎徳灲巕乮僄僟僂僠灲巕乯偲巹偑壖偵熡柤偟偨僄僟僂僠儎僔偑孮惗偟偰嫃傝丄梠娾抧懷偲敾傞丅傾儅僌(Amaq)偵棳傟崬傓熆傟扟(wadi)偼暆20m掱搙偺愳偵惉偭偰偄傞丅偦偺悈偺偣偄偐傾儅僌(Amaq)晅嬤偺奀娸偼儅儞僌儘乕僽(mangrove) )偵暍傢傟偰偄傞丅傾儅僌(Amaq)偺撿偱偼僫僣儊灲巕傕偙偺孮惗偵崿偞偭偰帺惗偟偰偄傞偺偑傾儅僌(Amaq)偺杒偲偼堘偆丅

 

傾儅儗僋懓(Amalekites) 憂悽婰(Book of Genesis)偺宯晥偵傛傟偽乽傾儅儗僋(Amalek)偼僄僒僂(Esau)偺懅巕僄儕僼傽僘(Eliphaz)偲儘僞儞(Lotan)偺巓枀偱儂儕僥懓偺懁幒僥傿儉僫(Timna)偲偺懅巕偱偁偭偨乿偲婰嵹偝傟偰偄傞偑丄幚嵺偵僫僼儅僯僨僗(Nahmanides, 1194 - 1270)偵傛偭偰婰榐偝傟偨惞彂偺梋榎偼乽傾儅儗僋懓偼僄僒僂偺懛偺巕懛偱偼柍偔丄偙偺懛偑偦偺柤偵場傫偱柤晅偗傜傟偨傾儅儗僋偲塢偆柤偺抝偺巕懛偱偁傞乿偲弎傋偰嫃傝丄傾儅儗僋懓偺柤偺桼棃偲側偭偨偦偺愭慶偵偮偄偰偼屆偄傾儔價傾偺帊偺拞偱傕搊応偟偰偄傞丅僀僽儞 僴儖僪僁乕儞(Ibn Khaldun, 1332 – 1406)丄僀僽儞 傾僗傿乕儖(Ali ibn al-Athir, 1160 - 1233)偺條側傾儔價傾偺楌巎壠偵傛傟偽乽傾儅儗僋(Amalek)偼摨偠寣摑偺傾儉儖恖(Amorites)丄僇僫儞恖(Canaanites)偍傛傃僸僋僜僗恖(Hyksos)偵梌偊傜傟偨柤慜偱偁傞乿偲尵偄丄偙偺柤偼帪偵偼乽扟偺廧恖(Dweller in Valley)偲栿偝傟傞帠傕偁傞偑丄懡偔偺愱栧壠偼弌強偼傢偐傜側偄偲峫偊偰偄傞丅枖丄憂悽婰偵偼乽傾儅儗僋懓偼儐僟儎恖偺愭慶偺傾僽儔僴儉(Abraham)偺帪戙偵偼屻偵儘乕儅椞傾儔價傾懏廈(Arabia Petraea)偲側偭偨抧曽偵偡偱偵廧傫偱偄偨乿偲婰弎偑偁傞偑丄傾儔價傾偺楌巎壠儉僗僨傿(Abu al Hasan 乪Ali al-Mus乫ud, 896 - 956)偼乽傾儅儗僋懓偼傾僽儔僴儉偺帪戙偺慜偵儊僢僇抧曽傪婲尮偵偙偺憗偄帪戙偵懚嵼偟偰偄偨乿偲弎傋偰偄傞丅儌乕僛屲彂(Prntateuch)*偵偼乽傾儅儗僋懓(Amalekite)偼弌僄僕僾僩偺嵺偵儐僟儎恖(Hebrews)傪僔僫僀敿搰偺嵐敊(Desert of Sinai)偺儗僼傿僨傿儉(Rephidim)偱廝偭偨梀杚晹懓偱偁傞乿偲婰弎偝傟偰偄傞丅僒儉僄儖婰偺忋(1 Samuel)偱偼偙偺廝寕偵偮偄偰乽嵟屻晹傪廝偄丄偦傟偼抶傟偰偄偨庛偄幰払偱偁偭偨乿偲弎傋傜傟偰偄傞丅儐僟儎嫵偺惞彂僞僫僴(Tanakh)偼傾儅儗僋懓(Amalekite)傪搚拝偺晹懓偲偟偰擣傔丄柉悢婰(Numbers)偵偼乽戞堦斣偺堎嫵搆乿偲弎傋傜傟偰偍傝丄嫲傜偔尰嵼偺僱僎償嵐敊(Negeb)偲巚傢傟傞姡偄偨杚憪抧偱偁傞撿偺掅抧偵傕搚拝偺傾儅儗僋懓偑嫃偨丅偙偺傾儅儗僋懓偼憗婜偺儐僟儎恖偵偲偭偰栵夘側揋懳幰偱偁傝丄乽傾儅儗僋懓偼僴償傿儔(Havilah)偐傜僔儏(Shu)傑偱撿偺搚抧偵廧傫偱愜傝丄帪偵奺乆偺墹偑摨偠僄僀僈僌(Agag)偲塢偆悽廝偺柤傪帩偮儌傾僽恖(Moabites)*傗儊僨儎儞恖(Midianites)*偲摨柨偟偨乿偲尵傢傟偰偄傞丅枖丄僒儉僄儖婰偺忋(1 Samuel)偍傛傃巑巘婰(Judges)偵傛傟偽儗僶儞僩抧曽(Levant)偺曻杚柉堦栧偺働僯懓(Kenites)*偼帪偵摨柨傪寢傫偱偄偨丅傾儅儗僋懓偼儐僟儎恖(Israelites)傪儂儖儅(Hormah)偱傕廝偭偨偺偱儐僟儎偺弶戙偺墹僒僂儖(Saul)*偼晹懓挿払偲儐僟儎孯傪巜婗偟偰傾儅儗僋懓偺恖乆傪杦偳夡柵偝偣偨丅偙偺帪丄僒僂儖偼恄(Lord)偺柦椷偵斀偟偰恖乆傗壠抺偺堦晹傪惗偐偟偨傑傑偱奐曻偟偨偺偱梐尵幰僒儉僄儖(Samuel)偼寖搟偟偨丅僒僂儖偲晹懓挿払偼暯抧偵偁傞晄徻偺傾儅儗僋懓搒巗偵墦惇偟庱旜傛偔傾儅儗僋懓偺墹僄僀僈僌(Agag)傪曔椄偵偟偨偑丄僄僀僈僌傪嶦偡偺傪鏢鏞偟偨偺偱僒儉僄儖(Samuel)帺恎偑傾儅儗僋懓(Amalekite)偺墹傪張孻偟偨丅僒僂儖偺懅巕僟價僨(David, c.1037–970 BC)*偼儐僟儎偺晄曄偺揋傾儅儗僋懓(Amalekite)傪愨柵偝偣傞堊偺惞愴傪悑峴偟丄偦偺寢壥丄傾儅儗僋懓偼楌巎偐傜徚柵偟偨丅峏偵僸僛僉儎(Hezekiah, 12th King of Kingdom of Judah, regned 715/716 – 687 BC)偺帪戙偵500恖偺僔儊僆儞懓(Simeonites)偵傛偭偰僙僀乕儖嶳(Mount Seir)偵摝傟丄掕廧偟偰偄偨傾儅儗僋懓偺嵟屻偺惗偒巆傝偑奆嶦偟偵偝傟偨丅儐僟儎恖(Israelite)偑婰弎偟偨惞彂偱偺儐僟儎恖(Hebrew)偲傾儅儗僋懓偺娭學偼乽屳偄偵揋懳偟偰偍傝丄傾儅儗僋懓偼僼傽儔僆(Pharaoh)傗儁儕僔傾恖(Philistine)傛傝傕椻崜偱嶔棯傪傔偖傜偟丄墶朶偱偁偭偨乿偲塢偆丅乮弌揟丗 Wikipedia

 

傾儈乕儖(Amir) 傾儈乕儖偼巟攝幰埥偄偼戙姱摍偺堊惌幰丄僀僗儔儉嫵崙偺墹懓丒庱挿丄孯巌椷姱丒戉挿丄儉僴儞儊僪(Mohammed偺柡僼傽乕僥傿儅(Fatima)偺巕懛偺懜徧丅

 

傾儈乕儖 僟僂僪 僀僽儞 僴僔儉(Amir Dawud ibn Hashim) 僸僕儏儔楋473擭丄惣楋1081擭偵僕僢僟(Jiddah)傪曪埻偟丄愯嫆偟偨儀僪僂僀儞偺巟攝幰丅

 

傾儉僟儕傾愳(The Amu Darya) 僷儈乕儖崅尨(Pamir)傪敪偟丄傾儔儖奀(the Aral Sea)偵拲偖愳丅

 

傾儉僴儔岅(Amharic) 僙儉宯偱僄僠僆僺傾偺岞梡岅丅

 

傾儉儖恖(Amurru) 乮傾儌儕恖(Amorite)嶲徠丅乯

 

傾儉儖 價儞 乫傾乕僗(Amr bin al-'As, 583/589 - 664) 傾儉儖偼640擭偺乽儌僗儕儉偺僄僕僾僩惇暈(Muslim Conquest of Egypt)乿傪巜婗偟偰峷專偟偨傾儔價傾偺晲彨偱偁傞丅傾儉儖偼儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)偲摨擭戙偱偁傝丄629擭偵僀僗儔儉嫵偵夵廆偟偨屻丄儉僗儕儉巟攝懱惂偺拞偱媫懍偵戜摢偟偨丅傾儉僗偼僄僕僾僩偺庱搒僼僗僞僩(Fustat)傪憂寶偟丄傾僼儕僇戝棨偱偺弶傔偰偺儌僗僋(Mosque of Amr bin al-As)傪寶憿偟偨丅傾儉儖偼僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh)偺僒僼儉壠(Banu Sahm)弌恎偱偁傝丄杤偟偨帪偵乽90嵨傪挻偊偰偄偨乿偲塢傢傟丄惗擭偼573擭埲慜偱偼柍偄偐偲傕巚傢傟傞丅尦乆偼彜恖偱戉彜偲嫟偵傾僕傾傗僄僕僾僩傪娷傓拞搶偺岎堈楬偱彜偄傪塩傫偱偄偨丅僀僗儔儉嵟弶婜偵偼儊僢僇(Makkah)偺懡偔偺巜摫幰偨偪偲嫟偵斀僀僗儔儉恮塩偵恎傪抲偄偰偄偨丅傾儉儖偼僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh)偑儉僗儕儉(Muslims)傪捛曻偡傞條偵愢摼偡傞堊偵傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)傊攈尛偟偨巊愡偺戙昞偱偁偭偨偑丄偙偺擟柋偼惉岟偣偢丄幐攕偵廔傢偭偨丅622擭偵儉僴儞儅僪偑儅僨傿乕僫(Madina)偵堏偭偨惞慗(hegira)偺屻丄傾儉儖偼僋儔僀僔儏懓偑儉僗儕儉偲憟偭偨偡傋偰偺愴偄偵嶲壛偟丄625擭偺僂僼僪偺愴偄(Battle of Uhud)偱偼僋儔僀僔儏孯暘尛戉偺巜婗傪偟偨丅偦偺屻丄傾儉儖偼629擭偵僴乕儕僪 僀僽儞 儚儕乕僪(Khalid ibn al-Walid, 592 - 642)偲嫟偵儊僢僇偐傜儊僨傿乕僫偵晪偒丄僀僗儔儉偵夵廆偟偨丅搶儘乕儅椞僔儕傾(Syria under Byzantian Control)崙嫬偺傾儔僽懓(Arabian Tribes)偲偺怣棅娭學傪抸偒丄搶儘乕儅偐傜棧斀偝偣傞堊偵630擭偵峴傢傟偨僓僩 僒儔僔儖墦惇(Campaign of Dhat As-Salasil)偱偼傾儉儖偼傾僽乕 僶僋儖(Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, 573 - 634)丄僂儅儖 僀僽儞 僴僢僞乕僽(Umar ibn al-Khattab, 586/590 - 644)偍傛傃傾僽乕 僂僶僀僟(Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, 583 - 638)傪廬偊偨偽偐傝偱柍偔丄壗廡娫偵傕傢偨偭偰楃攓偺愭摫傪峴偭偨堊偵孯偺巌椷姱偩偗偱偼柍偔丄廆嫵忋偺揟楃偺巜摫幰偵傕側偭偨丅偦偺屻丄傾儉儖偼儉僴儞儅僪偵傛偭偰僆儅乕儞(Oman)偺巜摫幰僕儍僀僼傽乕儖(Jayfar)偍傛傃傾僢僶僪 僀僽儞 僕儏儔儞僟(`Abbad ibn Julanda)傪夵廆偝偣傞堊偵攈尛偝傟丄儉僴儞儅僪偺杤屻偺捈屻傑偱偦偙偺憤撀傪柋傔偨丅632擭丄梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammad)偺巰屻偺攚嫵幰偲偺儕僢僟愴憟(Ridder War)偱妶桇偟偨丅偝傜偵6344寧偵偼傾儉儖偼弶戙僇儕僼(1st Rashidun Caliph, 632 - 634)傾僽乕 僶僋儖偵傛偭偰儉傾乕僂傿儎乕晝偱偁傞儎僕乕僪 僀僽儞 傾價乕 僗僼儎乕儞(Yazid Ibn Abi Abu Sofyan, ? - 640)丄僔儏儔僼價乕儖 僀僽儞 僴僒僫(Shurhabil ibn Hassana, 583 - 639)偲傕偵僔儕傾墦惇孯偺巌椷姱偲偝傟丄僷儗僗僥傿僫抧曽偺惇暈(Conquest of Palestine)傪柦偠傜傟偨丅傾儉儖偼僀僗儔儉掗崙(Rashidun Caliphate)偺搶儘乕儅(Byzantine)偲偺嵟弶偺戝婯柾側愴摤偱偁偭偨傾僕儍僫僟僀儞偺愴偄(Battle of Ajnadayn, 634)丄搶儘乕儅孯傪攋傞偙偲偵惉岟偟偨儎儖儉乕僋偺愴偄(Battle of Yarmouk, 636)偍傛傃僟儅僗僇僗娮棊(Fall of Damascus)偱妶桇偟偨丅僔儕傾(Syria)偺搶儘乕儅惃(Byzantines)堦憒偺屻丄傾儉儖偼2戙栚僇儕僼(2st Rashidun Caliph, 634 - 644) 僂儅儖偵僄僕僾僩墦惇寁夋傪恑尵偟丄僂儅儖偺摨堄傪摼偨丅640擭枛偵岦偗偰丄傾儉儖偼3,500偐傜4,000偺暫椡傪廬偊偰僔僫僀敿搰(Sinai Peninsula)傪墶抐偟丄幚嵺偺怤棯傪巒傔偨丅僄僕僾僩偱偼僐僾僩攈僉儕僗僩嫵搆(Coptic Christians)傪枴曽偵偮偗丄僫僀儖嶰妏廈(Nile Delta)偱偺儁儖僔僂儉(Pelusium)傪峌棯丄偍傛傃價儖僶僀僗(Bilbais)嬤峹偱偺搶儘乕儅孯(Byzanyine Forces)偺嫮廝傪斀寕偟偨屻丄傾儉儖偼尰嵼偺僇僀儘巗(Cairo)偵偁偭偨僶價儏儘儞忛(Babylon Fortress)偵岦偗偰恑寕偟偨丅彫嫞傝崌偄偺屻丄傾儉儖偼僔儕傾偐傜偺憹墖晹戉傪摼偰丄僄僕僾僩挀棷偡傞僥僆僪乕儖(Thedore)巜婗壓偺搶儘乕儅孯庡椡偲懳洺偡傞堊偵傾僀儞丒僔儍儉僗(Ain Shams)乮屆戙偺僿儕僆億儕僗(Heliopolis)乯偵岦偗偰偝傜偵杒傊偲恑寕偟偨丅僀僗儔儉掗崙孯(Rashidun Caliphate Forces)偼僿儕僆億儕僗偺愴偄(Battle of Heliopolis, 640)偱偺彑棙偱僄僕僾僩偺戝敿傪庤偵擖傟丄悢儢寧曪埻偟偰偄偨僶價儏儘儞忛傪棊忛偝偣丄偦偺悢儠寧屻偵偼悢愮擭偵傢偨偭偰僄僕僾僩偺庱搒偱搶儘乕儅(Byzantine)偺嫆揰偱偁偭偨傾儗僋僒儞僪儕傾(Alexandria)傪崀暁偝偣偨丅641擭枛偵偼儊儞僼傿僗(Memphis)偵偁傞媨揳愓偱暯榓忦栺偑掲寢偝傟偨偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄搶儘乕儅孯(Byzanyine Forces)645擭偵僄僕僾僩扗夞傪婜偟偨偑丄僯僉僂偺愴偄(Battle of Nikiou, 646)偱僀僗儔儉掗崙孯(Rashidun Caliphate Force)偼彑棙偟丄僄僕僾僩偼姰慡偵僀僗儔儉掗崙(Rashidun Caliphate)偺巟攝壓偲側偭偨丅怴庱搒偑昁梫偲側傝丄傾儉儖偼戝婯柾偵惍旛偝傟偰偄傞僫僀儖嶰妏廈惣抂偵偁傞傾儗僋僒儞僪儕傾偵峴惌晎傪抲偔傛偆偵恑尵偟偨偑丄僂儅儖(Umar of Omar)偼怴椞抧偺庱搒偑壨愳偱妘偰傜傟傞偺傪寵偭偰摨堄偟側偐偭偨丅偦偙偱641擭偵傾儉儖偼僫僀儖愳搶娸偺僶價儏儘儞忛嬤偔偵挘偭偨帺暘偺揤枊傪拞怱偵怴搒巗傪憂寶偟偨丅揱愢偵傛傟偽乽傾儉儖偑傾儗僋僒儞僪儕傾偱偺彑棙偐傜栠傞偲數偑帺暘偺揤枊偵憙傪嶌偭偨偺傪尒偮偗偨丅偙偺怴搒巗偼揤枊偺搒巗偡側偼偪儈僗儖 僼僗僞僩(Misr al-Fustat)偲屇偽傟傞條偵側傝丄偙傟偑傾儔價傾岅偱偺僄僕僾僩(Misr)偺岅尮偱偁傞乿偲塢偆丅偨偩偟丄僄僕僾僩偺傾儔價傾柤偼僀僗儔儉惇暈(Islamic Conquest or Muslim Conquests, 632–732)偺偢偭偲慜偐傜椙偔抦傜傟偰偄偨偲偺愢傕偁傞丅傾儉儖偼偙偺搒巗偺拞怱偵儌僗僋(Mosque)傕寶憿偟偨丅偙傟偼僄僕僾僩傪娷傓傾僼儕僇戝棨偱偺嵟弶偺儌僗僋偱偁偭偨丅傾儉儖丒儌僗僋(Mosque of Amr)偼崱偱傕僇僀儘(Cairo)媽巗撪偵寶偭偰偄傞偑丄婔悽婭傕偺娫偵寶偰捈偝傟偰偄傞偺偱峔憿偺尨宆偼巆偝傟偰偄側偄丅懡偔偺孯帠揑惇暈帠嬈偺屻偵傾儉儖偼僀僗儔儉掗崙()偺撪暣偵戝偒側栶妱傪壥偨偟偨丅3戙栚僇儕僼(3rd Rashidun Caliph, 644 - 656)僂僗儅乕儞 僀僽儞 傾僢僼傽乕儞(Uthman ibn Affan)偺埫嶦偺屻丄屻宲幰傪憟偭偰傾儕乕(Ali)偺巟帩幰払偲偲儉傾乕僂傿儎(Muawiyah)偺巟帩幰払偺榑憟偲側偭偨丅傾儉儖偼嵟弶偼4戙栚僇儕僼(4th Rashidun Caliph, 656 - 661)傾儕乕 僀僽儞 傾價 僞乕儕僽(Ali ibn Abi Talib)傪巟帩偟偰偄偨偑丄屻偵儉傾乕僂傿儎(Muawiyah)偺懁偵晅偄偨丅僼僗僞僩傪憂寶偟偨屻丄傾儉儖偼儊僢僇(Makkah)偐傜僟儅僗僇僗(Damascus)偵慗搒偟偨庱搒偵彚娨偝傟丄傾儉儖偼偦偙偱僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad, 661 - 750)弶戙僇儕僼 儉傾乕僂傿儎(Muawiyah I or Muawiyah ibnAbi Sufyan, 661 680)偺恊偟偄屭栤偲側偭偨丅乮弌揟丗 僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乮Wikipedia乯乯

 

傾儌儕恖(Amorite) 傾儉儖恖(Amurru)偲傕屇偽傟丄庡偵婭尦慜2000擭婜慜敿偵儐乕僼儔僥僗愳(The Euphrates)惣堟偱尃椡傪埇偭偨僙儉岅傪榖偡彅晹懓(Semitic Language People)偺柤徧偱丄傾儉儖(Amurru)偲偼偙偺晹懓偺柤偱偁傝丄偦偺庡恄(Principal Deity)偺柤偱傕偁偭偨丅梀杚柉傾儌儕恖(Amorites)偺椞搚偼尦乆傾儔價傾敿搰偱偁偭偨偑丄婭尦慜栺2400擭偺弶傔偵偼僔儕傾(Syria)偍傛傃僇僫傾儞(Canaan)傪娷傓儐乕僼儔僥僗愳惣堟傪愯傔丄乽傾儌儕恖偺嶳(Mountain of the Amorites)乿偲屇偽傟傞僔儕傾偺價僔儏儕嶳(Jabal Bishri)嶳妜抧曽偲摿暿側偮側偑傝偑偁偭偨丅婭尦慜22悽婭偐傜21悽婭偵妡偗偰儊僜億僞儈傾(Mesopotamia)傪巟攝偟偨僂儖戞嶰墹挬(Ur -Third Dynasty)偺嵟屻偺墹僀僢價-僔儞(Ibbi-Sin)偺帯悽偺娫偵澺榀偱儊僜億僞儈傾(Mesopotamia)傊戝婯柾側堏廧傪偟偨傾儌儕恖(Amorites)偼懡偔偺抧曽偱椡傪拁偊丄僀僔儞(Isun)丄儔儖僒(Larsa)偍傛傃僶價儘儞(Babylon)傪娷傓條乆側応強偱尃椡傪彾埇偟丄嵟廔揑偵偼婭尦慜栺2004擭偵僄儔儉恖(Elamites)偑僂儖(ur)傪柵傏偟偨丅偦偺彮偟屻偱丄僶價儘儞(Babylon)偺僴儞儉儔價(Hammurabi, c. 1795 BC – c. 1750 BC)偑戜摢偡傞丅偍傛偦婭尦慜2000擭偐傜1600擭偺娫偺傾儌儕墹挬孮(Amorite Kingdom)偼儊僜億僞儈傾楌巎(Mesopotamia History)偺拞偱傾儌儕帪戙(Amorite Period)偲偝傟傞帠傕偁傞丅庡側傾儌儕墹挬偼儅儕(Mari)丄儎儉僴僪(Yamhad)丄僇僩僫(Qatna)丄傾僢僔儏乕儖(Assur)丄僀僔儞(Isin)丄儔儖僒(Larsa)偍傛傃僶價儘儞(Babylon)偱戜摢偟偨丅偙偺帪戙偼婭尦慜栺1595擭偺僸僢僞僀僩(Hittite)(ca.1680BC – ca.1190BC)偵傛傞僶價儘儞(Babylon)偺惂埑偱廔鄟偟偨丅傾儌儕恖(Amurru)偑巊偭偰偄偨傾儌儕岅(Amorite Language)偼傾僼儘丒傾僕傾岅懓(Afro-Asiatic Language)偺僙儉岅攈(Semitic Linguages)偺杒惣僙儉岅曽尵(Northwest Semitic Dialect)偲悇掕偝傟傞丅

 

傾乕儌儞僪(Almonds) 滸搷傗攂扷埱乮偼偨傫偒傚偆乯偲傕屇偽傟傞丅僶儔壢偺棊梩崅栘丄拞墰傾僕傾尨嶻丄崅偝6m偵払偟丄梩丒壴丒壥幚偲傕搷偵帡傞偑丄壥擏偼敄偔丄弉偡偲楐奐偟丄暯偨偄妀偑偁傞丅妀拞偺恗偺偆偪丄娒偄傾乕儌儞僪偼怘梡丄嬯偄昳庬偺嬯滸搷(Bitter Almonds)偼捔奝乮偪傫偑偄乯丒捔醶乮偪傫偗偄丒醶澒傪捔傔傞乯摍偺栻梡偲偡傞丅

 

傾儎僢僘墹(Meliqu Az or Malik Ayyaz) 僀儞僪偺僨傿僂(Diu)偺摢椞乮15 - 16悽婭崰乯丅

 

傾儔僇(Alaca) 傾僨儞(Aden)偺僴僒儞嶳(Jebel Hasan)偺嬤偔偺儔僗 傾乕儖枽(Ras al-Argh)

 

傾儔僟(Aradh) 194816擔丄僙僔僕儍乕(Wilfred Thesiger)偑儅儞儚僋(Manwakh)偐傜擇搙栚偺嬻敀抧懷嵐敊墶抐偟偨嵺偵埬撪偺儀僪僂僀儞偑乽儚僨傿 僪儚僔乕儖(Wadi Dawasir)偺挰僗儔僀僀儖(Sulayyil)偺撿偵偁傞僴僢僔(Hassi)偲塢偆悈堜屗偱閜閗偵悈傪堸傑偣偨帠偑偁傝傾儔僟(Aradh)偲塢偆撿偺嵒媢抧懷傑偱挿偔墑傃傞愇奃娾奟抧偵偝偊扝傝拝偗偽偦偺悈堜屗傪扵偟弌偡帺怣偑偁傞乿偲婰弎偑偁傞丅僙僔僕儍乕(Wilfred Thesiger)ha乽傾儔價傾敿搰偺愐椗僕儍僶儖 僩儚僀僌(Jabal Tuwayq)偺僗儔僀僀儖(Sulayyil)偐傜撿偺愇奃娾偺奟傪傾儔僟(Aradh)偲屇傫偱偄傞乿偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

傾儔僢僋(Arrack) 拞嬤搶偱儎僔偺廯傗摐枿側偳偱憿傞儔儉偵帡偨嫮偄忲棷庰丅

 

乽傾儔價傾墶抐椃峴婰乿丗 僕儑乕僕 僼傽乕僗僞乕 僒僪儔乕戝堁(Captain George Forster Sadleir)偺椃峴婰偺傕偭偲姰慡側宍偼乽傾儔價傾墶抐椃峴婰乿偲尵偆戣柤偱1866擭偵P. 儔僀傾儞 僶僀僇儔(P. Ryan. Byculla)偑曇廤偟丄杮偺宍偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞(A more complete edition was published later in book form. The title is Diary of Journey across Arabia... ed. by P. Ryan. Byculla 1866.)

 

乽傾儔價傾奀娸傪弰偭偰(Around the Courts of Arabia)乿丗 傾儈乕儞 儕僴僯(Ameen Rihani)挊丄1930擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉丅

 

傾儔價傾岅尮妛丗 Arabic Etymology.

 

傾儔價傾岅惓帤朄乮捲傝曽乯丗 Arabic Orthography.

 

傾儔價傾恖(Arabians) 乽傾儔價傾恖乮傾儔僽恖乯乿偲偼 杮棃偼傾儔價傾敿搰偵廧傓僙儉宯偺梀杚柉偺憤徧偱偁偭偨偑丄尰嵼偱偼傾儔價傾岅傪巊梡偡傞恖乆偺憤徧偲偟偰巊傢傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾儔價傾摿桳偺帺慠嬥(Fireless Gold Peculiar of Arabia) 偙傟偼懠偺慡偰恖乆偑峴偭偰嫃傞條偵峼愇偐傜惢楤偣偢偵抧拞偐傜捈愙孈傝弌偝傟偰偄傞丅偍偍傛偦孖偺幚戝偺嬥夠偱尒偮偐傝丄偦傟偼擱偊棫偮傛偆側愒偝側偺偱怑恖偑嵟崅偵婱廳側曮愇偺堊偺偼傔崬傒戜偲偟偰巊偆帪偵憰忺偺崑壺偝傪嶌傝弌偟偨丅

 

乽傾儔價傾嵐敊偺椃峴(Travels in Arabia Deserta乿丗塸崙偺嶌壠丒椃峴壠(1843 - 1926)僠儍乕儖僘 儌儞僞僊儏乕 僟僂僥傿(Charles Montague Doughty)挊丄1926擭偵儘儞僪儞偱弌斉乮扐偟丄弶斉偼1888擭乯(Doughty, C.M. Travels in Arabia Deserta London 1926. )

 

乽傾儔價傾偺怤峌(Penetration of Arabia)乿丗 僟償傿僪 僕儑乕僕 儂僈乕僗(David George Hogarth)挊丄1904擭偵儘儞僪儞偱弌斉丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偱偺峲奀乮僸僕儍乕僘懾嵼偲傾僔乕儖偱偺愴摤乯乿丗 儌乕儕僗 僞儈僔僄(Maurice O, Tamisier)挊丄1840擭僷儕偱弌斉(Tamisier, M.O. Voyage en Arabie. Sèjour dans le Hedjaz. Campagne d'Assir Paris 1840.)

 

乽傾儔價傾偺怱(Heart of Arabia)乿丗 僼傿儖價乕(H.St. John B. Philby)挊丄1922擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉偝傟偨丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偺嵐敊偵娭偟偰(Concerning Arabia Deserta)乿丗 乮儃儘乕僯儍(Bolognese)弌恎偺朻尟壠儘僪償傿僐 償傽儖僥儅(Lodovico de Varthema)偺乽1502擭偐傜1508擭傑偱偺椃峴婰(the Itinerary)乿偺戞擇復傪嶲徠乯丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偺椃(Travels in Arabia)乿丗 僕僃乕儉僗 R. 僂僄儖僗僥僢僪拞堁(Lieut. James R. Wellsted)挊丄1838擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉(Travels in Arabia by Lieut. James R. Wellsted, London 1838, t. II, P. 264 - 290.)丅乮僕僢僟偵娭偡傞婰弎偼摨彂戞II264 - 290暸偺乽峠奀偺奀娸偲岎堈偺曪妵揑婰弎乿傪嶲徠乯丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偺僸僕儍乕僘抧曽偺椃(Travels in The Hedjaz of Arabia)乿丗 僽儖僋僴儖僩(Johana Ludwig Burckhardt)挊丄1829擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偺僼僃儕僢僋僗(Arabia Felix)乿丗 僨儞儅乕僋偺1761擭偐傜1767擭傕墦惇偵偮偄偰婰弎乽僇儖僗僥儞 僯乕僽乕儖(Carsten Niebuhr)偲偦偺拠娫偺朻尟偲嬈愌乿偺姰慡側塸栿偼乽傾儔價傾偺僼僃儕僢僋僗(Arabia Felix)乿偲偺戣偝傟丄H. 僜乕儖僉儖僪(H. Thorkild)偵傛偭偰儘儞僪儞(London)1964擭偵弌斉偝傟偨丅

 

乽傾儔價傾敿搰(Arabian Peninsula)乿丗 僒儞僈乕(R.H. Sanger)挊丄1954擭僯儏乕儓乕僋偱弌斉丅乮摨彂偺2-3暸偵僕僢僟偺忛暻偺庢傝夡偟偵偮偄偰弎傋傜傟偰偄傞乯丅

 

傾儔價傾 僼傿乕儕僢僋僗(Arabia Felix) 僊儕僔傾(Greek)偱偼傾儔價傾敿搰撿晹偼乽宐傑傟偨傾儔價傾乿傪堄枴偡傞乽傾儔價傾偺岾暉(Arabia Eudaimon)乿偲屇偽傟丄偦偟偰儔僥儞(Latin)乮屆戙儘乕儅恖乯偱偼乽岾暉側傾儔價傾(Happy Arabai)乿傪堄枴偡傞乽晉桾側傾儔價傾(Arabia Felix)乿偲屇偽傟偰偄偨丅傾儔價傾 僼僃儕僋僗偵偮偄偰婭尦慜450擭崰偵僿儘僪僩僗(Hērodotos)偑乽偙傟偼悽奅偱擕崄(frankincense)偑堢偮桞堦偺崙偱偁傝丄杤栻乮儈儖儔乯(myrrh)丄宩旂(cassia)丄擏宩旂(cinnamon)乮僔僫儌儞乯偍傛傃儔僽僟僫儉(ladanum)乮敿擔壴偐傜嵦偭偨揤慠庽帀乯傕嶻偡傞偺偱丄崙拞偱偙偺悽偺傕偺偲偼巚偊側偄擋偄偑敪嶶偟偰偄傞乿偲弎傋偰偄傞丅擕崄傪嵧攟偟偰偄傞晹懓傪惇暈偡傞偺偼傾儗僉僒儞僟乕戝墹(Alexander the Great)偺彮擭帪戙偺柌偱偁傝丄巰偸慜偺婭尦慜323擭偵戝墹偼傾儔價傾 僼僃儕僋僗(Arabia Felix)偵懳偟偰奀孯墦惇傪峴偭偰偄傞丅婭尦慜25擭偵傕儘乕儅峜掗傾僂僌僗僩僁僗(Augustus)偼僄僕僾僩傪峌棯愯椞偟偨屻丄峠奀娸偺峘孮偲僸僕儍乕僘嶳柆(Hijaz Mountains)傪墇偊偰偺擕崄岎堈儖乕僩傪妋曐偟丄傾儔價傾敿搰撿晹偺擕崄偺惗嶻抧堟傪惇暈偡傞堊偵丄僄僕僾僩懏廈挿姱(the Prefet of Egypt)偺傾僄儕僂僗 僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)傪憲偭偨丅傾僄儕僂僗 僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)偼僫僕儔儞傑偱2,500km恑孯偟丄僫僕儔儞傪曪埻偟丄棯扗偟丄從偒暐偭偨屻丄峏偵恑寕偟丄儅乕儕僽(Marib)傪曪埻偟偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄僈儖僗偺孯戉偼悈晄懌偺堊偵 6擔娫偩偗偱儅乕儕僽(Marib)偐傜戅媝偣偞傞傪摼偢丄擕崄惗嶻抧偵偼扝傝拝偗側偐偭偨丅傾僄儕僂僗 僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)偼僄僕僾僩偵戅媝偟偨偑丄偦偺娡戉偼報搙傊偺儘乕儅彜慏偺峲楬傪妋曐偡傞堊偵傾僨儞峘乮the port of Aden)傪攋夡偟偨丅偙偺墦惇偑惉岟偟側偐偭偨堊丄儘乕儅恖払偼惣楋1悽婭偐傜掕婜揑偵擕崄偲杤栻偺抧偵峠奀宱桼偱朘傟丄偦傟偑儉僓(Muza)傗僇僫(Qana)摍偺傾儔價傾敿搰撿晹偺峘傪敪揥偝偣偨丅戉彜楬偺愴棯揑偵埵抲偵偁傝丄懠崙偐傜偺怤棯傪杊偖偨傔偵嫮椡側墹崙偱偁偭偨儅乕僀儞(Ma'in)傪拞怱偵僔僶(Saba or Sheba)丄僴僪儔儅僂僩(Hadhramaut) 偍傛傃僫僕儔儞(Najran)偼楢実偟偰偄偨丅楌巎妛幰傗僆儕僄儞僩妛幰偼乽僫僕儔儞偺屆戙儅乕僀儞(Ma'in)墹崙偲偺楢崌偺徹嫆偼抧拞奀(Mediterranean Sea)偲僀僄儊儞偲偺娫偺岎堈楬偱尒偮偐偭偨娾偵崗傑傟偰偄傞乿偲尵偆丅偄偢傟偵偣傛丄傾儔價傾 僼傿乕儕僢僋僗(Arabia Felix)偼挿偄戉彜帪戙偺杦偳傪捠偠偰擕崄(frankincense)摍偺崄枴椏偲崄椏傪塣傇戉彜岎堈楬偺岎嵎揰偵埵抲偡傞彜嬈偺戝偒側拞怱偱偁傝懕偗丄悢悽婭偵搉偭偰塰偊偨偑丄3悽婭偺儘乕儅悽奅偺宱嵪晄怳偵傛偭偰偦偺嶻暔偺廀梫偑棊偪崬傓偲悐戅偟偰偟傑偭偨丅傗偑偰丄僔僶(Saba or Sheba)丄儅乕僀儞(Ma'in)丄僇僞僶乕儞(Qataban)丄傾僂僒乕儞(Awsan)偍傛傃僴僪儔儅僂僩(Hadramawt)摍偺屆偄撿傾儔價傾搒巗崙壠孮偼僀僄儊儞嶳妜崅抧偺僓僼傽乕儖抧曽(Zafar)偺僸儉儎儖懓(Himyarite)偲塢偆堦抧曽惃椡偵暪撣偝傟偰偟傑偭偨丅

 

乽傾儔價傾椃峴擔帍(Journal d'un voyage en Arabie)(1883-1884)乿丗 僔儍儖儖 儐儀乕儖(Charles Huber)偺巰屻偺1891擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偨(Huber, C. Journal d'un voyage en Arabie (1883 - 1884) Paris 1891, p. 754 - 757. Huber was entered in the Jiddah European Cemetery.)

 

乽傾儔價傾偺椃峴婰乮僸僕儍乕僘偲傾僔乕儖偱偺懾嵼乯乿丗 (Voyage an Arabie. Séjour dans le Hedjaz. Campagne D'Assir Paris 1840. )丄儌乕儕僗 僞儈僔僄(Maurice O, Tamisier)挊丄1840擭僷儕偱敪峴丅

 

乽傾儔價傾偺楌巎揑抧棟 (Histrocal Geography of Arabia) 乿丗 僼僅乕僗僞乕(Forster)挊丅

 

傾儔價傾 儁僩儔僄傾(Arabia Petraea) 2悽婭巒傔偵儘乕儅掗崙偼尰嵼偺儓儖僟儞丄撿僔儕傾丄僔僫僀敿搰偍傛傃杒惣僒僂僕傾儔價傾傪娷傓媽僫僶僥傾墹崙椞傪傾儔價傾懏廈(Privincia Arabia)偁傞偄偼扨偵傾儔價傾偲屇傫偱偄偨丅

 

傾儔價傿 僨僀儔僯傿(Araby Djeylany) 僪僀僣偺椃峴壠偱丄應検巑寭揤暥娤應幰偱偁偭偨僯乕僽乕儖(M.[C.] Niebuhr)偑僨儞儅乕僋惌晎偑攈尛偟偨傾儔價傾扵専戉偵嶲壛偟偰丄僕僢僟傪朘栤偟偨帪偵僕僢僟(Djidda)偱傕偭偲傕嬥帩偪偺彜恖偱偁偭偨偺偑僨僀儔僯傿偱偁傞丅僯乕僽乕儖 (M.[C.] Niebuhr)偼僨僀儔僯傿偺奜崙恖傪墖彆偡傞巔惃傪敾抐偟丄偦偺撪梕偵娫堘偄偺柍偐偭偨帠偵帺暘帺恎偱擺摼偟偨丅

 

傾儔僼傽僩(Arafat) 傾儔僼傽('Arafa)偼儅僢僇傊偺弰楃峴帠偱嵟廳梫側僂僋乕僼(Wuquf)傪峴偆弰楃抧偱丄堦斒揑偵暋悢宍偺傾儔僼傽僩偱屇偽傟丄儅僢僇偵偁傞惞儌僗僋偐傜搶偵25km棧傟偨峀戝側尨栰偱偁傞丅傾儔僼傽偺拞墰偵偼儔僼儅嶳偑偁傝丄偦偺嶳偱抧忋偵崀傝偨傾僟儉偲僀償偑嵞奐偟偨偲揱偊傜傟偰偄傞丅傾儔僼傽偵偼 嵞奐偺堄枴偑偁傝傾僟儉偲僀償偺嵞奐偵場傫偱弰楃偑偙偺抧偱夛偆偨傔偵傾儔僼傽偲屇偽傟偰偄傞偲傕塢偆丅乮娾攇僀僗儔乕儉帿揟偐傜堷梡乯

 

傾儔僽攏(Arabian Horse) 嵐敊傗扟偱婻忔偝傟偨傝丄彫偝側扟娫偱曻杚偝傟偨傝偡傞彫暱側攏傪栚偵偡傞丅偙偺攏偑晽傪堸傓摦暔(Drinkers of the Wind)乭偲屇偽傟丄抦擻丒桬婥丒懴媣椡偱儀僪僂僀儞偑晹懓枅偵屩傝偵巚偆僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺柤嶻偱偁傝丄乽傾儔僽攏偺婥昳偺偁傞奜尒偼宍偲婡擻偑帺慠偵惗傒偩偟偨寢崌偺柇偱偁傞乿偲尵傢傟偰偄傞丅揱愢偱偼乽傾儔僽攏偼傾儔僽晹懓偺愭慶偲側偭偨僀僗儅僄儖(Ishmael ibn Ibrahim)偺帩偪攏偱偁偭偨傾僴儚僕(Ahwaj)偺巕懛偱偁傞乿偲塢傢傟丄僶價儘僯傾偺擭戙婰摍偱傕屆偔偐傜徯夘偝傟偰偄傞丅偙偺傾儔僽攏偑儓乕儘僢僷偵揱偊傜傟偨偺偼廫帤孯偵傛偭偰偱偁傝丄乽桬姼姲梕側揟宆揑拞悽婻巑偱偁傞偲徧巀偝傟偨巶巕怱墹儕僠儍乕僪(Richard, 1157-1199)偼婔偮偐偺懅傕偮偐側偄愴摤偺崌娫偵傾儔僽攏傪尒偰偦偺旤偟偝偵懪偨傟偨乿偲尵傢傟偰偄傞丅儚僔儞僩儞(George Washington, 1732-1799)偼傾儊儕僇撈棫愴憟偺娫丄傾儔僽攏偵忔偭偰偄偨偟丄償傿僋僩儕傾彈墹(Queen Victoria, 1837-1901)偼傾儔僽攏偵孧復傑偱庼偗偰偄傞丅僫億儗僆儞(Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769-1821)偼垽攏儅儗儞僑崋(Marengo)8枩僉儘埲忋傕婻忔偟丄偦偺桬巔偼僪儔僋儘傾(Delacroix)偺桳柤側奊偵昤偐傟偰晄柵偵側偭偨丅

 

傾儔僽攏偺塸崙婻暫戉傊偺桝弌丗 僾儔僢僔乕偺愴偄(Battle of Plassey)偺屻丄僀儞僪掗崙(1858-1947擭乯偵傛傞報搙偺巟攝偑屌傑傞傑偱偺娫丄塸崙搶報搙夛幮孯塸崙婻暫戉梡偵傾儔僽攏偑嵟傕埨掕偟偰戝検偵傾儔價傾偐傜僀儞僪偵桝弌偝傟偨丅

 

傾儔僽慏(Arab Ship) 傾儔僽慏(Arab Ship)偵偼僶僢僈儔(Baggalah)丄僽乕儉(Boom)丄僒儞僽乕僋(Sambuk)偍傛傃僓儖僋(Zaruk)偺庡梫側4偮偺宆偑偁傝丄僀儞僪梞(the Indian Ocean)偲峠奀奀堟傪峲峴偟偰偄偨丅

 

乽傾儔僽懓偺搰(Sifat Jazirat al-Arab)乿丗 僴儉僟僯(al-Hamdani)偼挊嶌乽傾儔僽懓偺搰(Sifat Jazirat al-Arab)(Description of the Island of the Arabs)乿偺拞偱乽偙偺崙偼嶰曽傪奀偵埻傑傟丄杒晹偼儐乕僼儔僥僗愳(The Euphrates) 偲抧拞奀 (the Mediterranean sea) 偑崙嫬偱偁偭偨偺偱丄傾儔僽懓偼偙偺崙傪Jazirat al-Arab 偡側偼偪亀傾儔僽懓偺搰(Island of the Arabs)亁偲屇傫偱偄偨乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

乽傾儔僽懓偺搰(Island of the Arabs)乿偺D.H. 儈儏儔乕偺東栿斉丗 傾儖-僴儉僟僯(al-Hamdani)偺挊嶌乽傾儔僽懓偺搰(Sifat Jazirat al-Arab)乿傪D.H. 儈儏儔乕(D.H. Müller)偑東栿丒曇廤偟丄1884擭偐傜1891擭偵偐偗偰儔僀僨儞(Leyden)偱弌斉偟偨(Al Hamdanis Geographie der Arabischen Halbinsel ed. by D.H. Müller, Leyden 1884 - 1891.)

 

傾儔僽偺5恖偺彈墹丗 僓價儀 (Queen Zabibe)丄僒儈僔 (Queen Samisi)丄儎僥傿 (Queen Yati'e)丄僥僄儖僋僰 (Queen Te'elkhunu)偍傛傃僞僽 (Princess Tabu'a)偼乽嵐敊偺墹崙傾僨儏僢儅僣(Adummatu)乿偺嬼憸恄偺涋彈偱偁傝丄彈墹偱傕偁偭偨丅斵彈払5恖偼婭尦慜8悽婭偐傜俈悽婭崰偵儀僪僂僀儞偺庱挿傪棪偄偰傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偵懳峈偟偨丅乮乽傾僨儏僢儅僣偲屲恖偺彈墹 (Five Queens of Adummatu)乿嶲徠丅乯

 

傾儔僽偺斀棎(Arab Revolt) 傾儔僽偺斀棎(Al-Thawra al-`Arabiya, June 1916 - October 1918)偼丄戞堦師悽奅戝愴拞偵丄僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Empire)偐傜偺傾儔僽恖撈棫偲丄撿偼傾僨儞(Aden in Yemen)偐傜杒偼傾儗僢億(Aleppo in Syria)偵帄傞摑堦傾儔僽崙壠偺庽棫傪栚巜偟偰丄儊僢僇乮儅僢僇乯(Makkah)偺懢庣僔儍儕乕僼 僼僒僀儞 僀僽儞 傾儕乕(Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, 1908 - 1916)偑婲偙偟偨愴偄丅僴乕僔儉壠(Heshemite)偑庡摫偡傞傾儔僽彅晹懓偼丄僀僊儕僗偺巟墖傪庴偗偰拞搶奺抧偱僆僗儅儞掗崙孯(Ottoman Turks)偲愴偄偦偺巟攝偐傜偺扙媝偵偼惉岟偟偨丅偟偐偟傾儔僽偺抧偼僀僊儕僗傗僼儔儞僗偵傛傞埾擟摑帯椞偲側傝暘抐偝傟丄摑堦崙壠傪嶌偭偰撈棫偡傞偙偲偼偱偒側偐偭偨丅乮弌揟丗 僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

傾儔僽柉懓丗 旍梹側嶰擔寧抧懷偱偼杒傾儔價傾傗僔儕傾嵐敊偵廧傓晹懓揑偵慻怐偝傟岲愴揑側閜閗杚抺柉偑傾儔僽(Arab)偲屇偽傟偰偄偨丅婭尦慜9悽婭偐傜婭尦慜6悽婭偵妡偗偰偺傾僢僔儕傾(Assyrian)傗僶價儘僯傾(Babylonian)偺旇暥偵偼乽傾儖僽(Arubu)偼晹懓揑偵慻怐偝傟閜閗偵婻忔偟杒偍傛傃杒惣傾儔價傾偺傾僪僢儅僣(Adummatu)丄僞僀儅(Tayma)丄僨僟儞(Dedan)傗僂儔('Ula))摍偺庡梫側僆傾僔僗廤棊傪寢傫偱岎堈傪峴偆柉懓偱偁傞乿偲婰弎偝傟偰偍傝丄傾儔僽柉懓偑撿惣傾儔價傾偐傜尰嵼偺儗僶僲儞偱偁傞儗償傽儞僩(Levant)傊暔帒傪桝憲偡傞忋偱偺彜嬈揑偵廳梫側栶妱傪扴偭偰偄偨帠傪帵偟偰偄傞丅屆戙偺傾儔僽偲塢偆梡岅偼偙偺條偵埥傞惗妶條幃傪峴偆柉懓傪堄枴偟偰嫃傝丄尵岅妛揑側寢傃偮偒偱偼柍偐偭偨偑丄偙偺梡岅偼奼挘偝傟偰拞墰傗惣傾儔價傾偺晹懓傕堄枴偡傞條偵惉偭偨丅僀僄儊儞偵掕廧偟偨僒僀僴僪(Sayhad)柉懓偼4悽婭傑偱傾儔僽(Arab)偲塢偆梡岅傪拞墰偍傛傃惣傾儔價傾偺晹懓揑側杚抺梀杚柉傪屇傇偺偵巊偭偰偍傝丄乽梀杚杚抺柉傪傾儔僽(Arab)乿偲屇傇偺偼僀僗儔儉帪戙偵擖偭偰傕懕偄偰嫃偨丅偙偺抧堟偱偼梀杚柉偲掕廧柉偑摨偠尵岅偲暥壔傪帩偭偰偄偨偺偱傾儔僽偼偙偺椉曽傪堄枴偡傞條偵惉傝丄崱擔偱偼傾儔價傾岅傪曣崙岅偲偟偰榖偡柉懓傪傾儔僽偲屇傫偱偄傞丅

 

傾儔儉僐丗 Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) 尰嵼偺僒僂僕傾儔儉僐(Saudi ARAMCO)

 

乽傾儔儉僐僴儞僪僽僢僋乿丗 僟僴儔儞偱廋惓丒曇廤偺屻偵1968擭偵弌斉( Aramco Hand book Revised ed/, Dhahran 1968.)

 

傾儔儉岅偲傾儔儉暥帤(Aramaeans and Aramaic Alphabet) 傾儔價傾偱尒偮偐偭偨僀僗儔儉埲慜偵巊傢傟偨暥帤偵偼撿傾儔價傾旇暥乮撿僙儉岅(South Semitic)乯丄僒儉僨傿僋(Thamudic)棳偲傾儔儉岅(Old Aramaic Language)偺嶰偮偺庡梫側僌儖乕僾偑偁傞丅偦偺撪偺傾儔儉岅偼儗償傽儞僩(Levant)摍偺杒惣僙儉懓(West Semitic)棳偵懏偟偰嫃傝丄乽偙偺傾儔儉岅傪巊梡偟偰偄偨偺偑傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偱偁傞乿偲塢偆丅傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偼旍梹側嶰擔寧抧懷(Mesopotamia)偺暥柧壔偟偨搒巗偺廧恖偐傜偼嫲傟偲晭曁傪帩偭偰尒傜傟偰嫃偨偑丄婭尦慜2,000擭婜偵閜閗偵傛傞梀杚傗戉彜杅堈偱宱嵪揑偵孯帠揑偵嫮椡側晹懓偲側傝丄婭尦慜11悽婭崰傑偱偵丄儐乕僼儔僥僗愳乮The Euphrates乯忋棳偵掕廧偟丄婭尦慜1,000擭婜拞崰傑偱偵偼旍梹側嶰擔寧抧懷慡懱偺嫟捠岅(lingua franca)偑傾儔儉岅(Aramaic)偵惉偭偰偒偨丅閜閗傪梡偄偰僔儕傾嵐敊(Syrian Desert)側偳傪晳戜偟偨戉彜杅堈偼偝傜偵奼戝偟丄傾儔儉岅(Aramaic Language)偼屆戙僆儕僄儞僩悽奅偺彜嬈岅偲偟偰掕拝偟偨丅傾儔儉岅(Old Aramaic Language1100BC – AD 200)偼嵟弶丄杒惣僙儉暥帤傪婎偵偟偰婭尦慜1050擭崰偵妋棫偟偨僼僃僯僉傾暥帤(Phoenican Alphabet)傪巊偭偰彂偐傟偰偄偨偑丄帪娫偲嫟偵偦傟傪夵憿偟丄婭尦慜8悽婭傑偱偵偼傾儔儉暥帤(Aramaic Alphabet)偱彂偐傟傞條偵側傝丄灦宍暥帤(Cuneiform)偱彂偐傟偨傾僢僇僪岅(Akkadian Language)偺婰弎偵旵揋偡傞傑偱偵敪揥偟偨丅婭尦慜9悽婭偐傜7悽婭偺娫偺杒傾儔價傾愴栶偵偮偄偰偺傾僢僔儕傾偺婰榐(Assyrian records)偱傕乽晹懓揑偵慻怐偝傟偨傾儖僽(Arubu)偡側偼偪傾儔僽(Arabs)偑杒偍傛傃杒惣傾儔價傾偺嵐敊偲僆傾僔僗傪愯嫆偟偰嫃偨乿偲弎傋傜傟偰偄傞丅傾儖僽(Arubu)偼愴応偵戝惃偺閜閗婻忔愴巑傪憲傝崬傓擻椡傪帩偪丄撿惣傾儔價傾偲偺岎堈偵廬帠偟偰偄偨丅婭尦慜6悽婭傑偱偵杒惣晹偺僞僀儅(Tayma)傗僨僟儞(Dedan)摍偑戉彜挰(caravan towns)偲偟偰廫暘偵偦偺婡擻偑妋棫偟偰丄梀杚柉偲掕廧柉偼暔帒偩偗偱偼柍偔丄栕偗偺懡偄棨忋岎堈偺塣塩偵懳偟偰憡屳埶懚偡傞條偵惉偭偰棃偨丅偦偺屻丄傾儔儉岅(Aramaic)偼婭尦慜500擭崰傑偱偵僆儕僄儞僩(Orient)拞偵峀傑傝丄傾働儊僱僗挬(Achaemenid Empire, 550 BC - 330 BC)偺嫟捠岅(Lingua Franca)偱傕偁傝丄僱僆-傾僢僔儕傾(Neo-Assyrian)偍傛傃儁儖僔儍掗崙(Persian Empire)偺岞梡岅偲傕側偭偨丅僿儗僯僘儉帪戙(Hellenism Period, 323BC - 31/30BC)偵偼慾奞偝傟偨偑丄惣楋7悽婭偺僀僗儔乕儉嫵搆偺儁儖僔傾惇暈(Islamic Conquest of Mesopotamina)傑偱曄傢傜偢偵偙偺抧曽偺嫟捠岅(Lingua Farnca)偱偁傝懕偗偨丅偙偺堊丄傾儔儉岅(Aramaic Language)偺巊梡偼峀偔峴偒搉傝丄儐僟儎嫵(Judaism)丄僀僗儔儉嫵(Islam)傗僉儕僗僩嫵偺堦晹偺廆攈偺惞彂傗暓嫵(Buddhist)偺宱揟偼傾儔儉暥帤(Aramaic Alphabet)偐傜敪揥偟偨暥帤偱彂偐傟偰偄傞丅椺偊偽儁儖僔傾掗崙偺屻婜屆傾儔儉岅(Late Old Aramaic Language)偼僔儕傾嫵夛(Syriac Christianity)偺尵岅偲側偭偨儘乕儅偺僔儕傾懏椞偺拞婜傾儔儉岅宯僔儕傾岅(Middle Aramaic Syriac Language)偵敪揥偟偨丅傑偨丄偦傟偵枾愙偵娭楢偟偰攈惗偟偨偺偑僫僶僞僥儞岅(Nabataean)偱偁傞丅

 

傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans) 傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偼婭尦慜3,000擭婜埲崀僷儗僗僞僀儞(Palestine)偐傜儊僜億僞儈傾(Mesopotamia)偵帄傞抧堟傪惇暈偟偰偄偨傾儌儕恖(Amorites)抧堟偐傜弌尰偟偨摨偠杒惣僙儉岅(Northwest Semitic languages)傪榖偡杚抺晹懓偱丄乽傾僢僔儕傾(Assyria)偺彂帤斅偱偼傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偺柤偼傕偭偲愄偺晹懓柤儅儖僩僁(Mar.tu) 乮傾儉儖恖(Amorites)丄乮傾儌儕恖(Amurru)乯丄惣曽偺恖乯偺曽偑惓妋偱偁傞乿偲偺婰弎傕偁傝丄乽摨偠柉懓偑堎側傞柤慜偱屇偽傟偨乿偲偺愢偑桳椡偱偁傞丅旍梹側嶰擔寧抧懷(Mesopotamia)偺暥柧壔偟偨搒巗偺廧恖偐傜偼嫲傟偲晭曁傪帩偭偰尒傜傟偰嫃偨偑丄婭尦慜2,000擭婜偵閜閗偵傛傞梀杚傗戉彜杅堈偱宱嵪揑偵孯帠揑偵嫮椡側晹懓偲側傝丄婭尦慜11悽婭崰傑偱偵丄儐乕僼儔僥僗愳乮The Euphrates乯忋棳偵掕廧偟偨丅偦偺嫆揰偲偟偰偼丄僥傿儖丒僶儖僔僢僾(Til Barsip)丄僒儅儖(Sam乫al)乮尰嵼偺僛儞僕儖儕(Zenjirli)乯丄傾儖僷僪(Arpad)丄價僩丒傾僨傿僯(Bit-Adini)側偳偑嫇偘傜傟傞丅偦偺屻丄僔儕傾(Syria)偵恑弌偟偰怴偨側搒巗崙壠傪宍惉偟丄摉弶偼僴儅(Hama)丄偦偺屻偼僟儅僗僋僗(Damascus)偑傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)惃椡偺拞怱偲側偭偨丅婭尦慜1,000擭婜拞崰傑偱偵偼旍梹側嶰擔寧抧懷慡懱偺嫟捠岅(Lingua Franca)偑傾儔儉岅(Aramaic)惉偭偰偒偨丅閜閗傪梡偄偰僔儕傾嵐敊(Syrian Desert)側偳傪晳戜偟偨戉彜杅堈偼偝傜偵奼戝偟丄傾儔儉岅(Aramaic Language)偼屆戙僆儕僄儞僩悽奅偺彜嬈岅偲偟偰掕拝偟偨丅僼僃僯僉傾暥帤(Phoenician Alphabet)偐傜傾儔儉暥帤(Aramaic Alphabet)偑嶌傜傟丄惣傾僕傾丒撿傾僕傾丒拞墰傾僕傾偺條乆側暥帤偵塭嬁傪梌偊偨丅堦曽丄摿壔偝傟偨閜閗曻杚幰廤抍偼傗偑偰傾儔僽晹懓偺慶愭偲側偭偨丅婭尦慜9悽婭偐傜7悽婭偺娫偺杒傾儔價傾愴栶偵偮偄偰偺傾僢僔儕傾偺婰榐(Assyrian records)偱傕乽晹懓揑偵慻怐偝傟偨傾儖僽(Arubu)偡側偼偪傾儔僽(Arabs)偑杒偍傛傃杒惣傾儔價傾偺嵐敊偲僆傾僔僗傪愯嫆偟偰嫃偨乿偲弎傋傜傟偰偄傞丅傾儖僽(Arubu)偼愴応偵戝惃偺閜閗婻忔愴巑傪憲傝崬傓擻椡傪帩偪丄撿惣傾儔價傾偲偺岎堈偵廬帠偟偰偄偨丅婭尦慜6悽婭傑偱偵杒惣晹偺僞僀儅(Tayma)傗僨僟儞(Dedan)摍偑戉彜挰(caravan towns)偲偟偰廫暘偵偦偺婡擻偑妋棫偟偰丄梀杚柉偲掕廧柉偼暔帒偩偗偱偼柍偔丄栕偗偺懡偄棨忋岎堈偺塣塩偵懳偟偰憡屳埶懚偡傞條偵惉偭偰棃偨丅

 

傾儔儖償僃僗(Alarves) 傾儔價傾恖(Arabs)

 

傾儔儗僱(Ararenê) 儊僢僇(Mecca)偲儊僨傿僫(Medina)偺娫偺梀杚柉偵婣懏偡傞戝晹暘偼嵐敊偺搚抧偱丄僈儖僗(Gallus)孯偼婭尦慜24擭偵偙偙傪捠夁偟偨丅

 

傾儕乕 僀僽儞丒傾價乕 僞乕儕僽(Ali ibn Abu Talib) 傾儕乕 僀僽儞丒傾價乕 僞乕儕僽(Ali ibn Abu Talib, 656-661)偼戞3戙僇儕僼偺僂僗儅乕儞('Uthman) (644-656)偑埫嶦偝傟偨屻丄戞4戙惓摑僇儕僼(656-661)偲惉偭偨丅傾儕乕偼梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)偺晝曽偺廬掜偱丄斵偺曣傕儉僴儞儅僪偺晝偺廬巓枀偱偁傞丅屻偵儉僴儞儅僪偺梴巕偲側傝丄儉僴儞儅僪偺柡僼傽乕僥傿儅(Fatimah)傪沇偭偨丅儉僴儞儅僪偑僀僗儔儉嫵偺晍嫵傪奐巒偟偨偲偒丄嵟弶偵擖怣偟偨恖乆偺傂偲傝丅捈忣偺恖偱恖朷岤偔丄晲桬偵桪傟偰偄偨偲尵傢傟傞丅懳峈惃椡偲偺愴偄偵捛傢傟丄傾儕乕傕661擭偵埫嶦偝傟偰偟傑偭偨丅偦偺屻丄傾儕乕偺巟帩攈偼僔乕傾攈(Shia)偲側傝丄傾儕乕偼僔乕傾攈偵傛偭偰弶戙僀儅乕儉(Imam)偲偟偰儉僴儞儅僪偵彑傞偲傕楎傜側偄懜悞傪庴偗傞偙偲偲側偭偨丅

 

傾儕傾僗(Ariath) 傾價僔僯傾峜掗僄僢儔 傾僩僗儀僴嶰悽 (the Abyssinian Emperor, Ella Asbeha III)525擭偵攈尛偟偨僸儉儎儖(Hymyar)摙敯孯偺巜婗姱偱偁偭偨丅乽僸儉儎儖(Hymyar)偺惃椡傪夡柵偝偣丄傾儕傾僗(Ariath偑巜婗偟偨孯戉偼丄偙偺帪偵曇惉偝傟丄7,000恖偱偼側偔丄70,000恖偱偁偭偨乿偲偺婰弎傕偁傞丅 枖丄傾儕傾僗(Ariath)偼傾僽儔僴儉(Abraham)偺娰偱偁傞儅僢僇偺僇傾僶(Kaaba)恄揳傪攋夡偟偨堦恖偲峫偊傜傟偰偄傞丅傾儕傾僗(Ariath)偼傾儖儎僩(Arethas丄傾儖儎傾僪(Aryaad)丄傾儗僓僗丄僄乕儖儎僩(Eryat)偁傞偄偼傾儖儎僩(Arethas or Aryat)偲傕屇偽偰偄傞丅

 

傾儕 傾價 僴僔儈(Ali Abi Hashimi) 乽撿傾儔價傾偺婰弎(subtitle: Descripyio Arabiae Meridionalis)乿偺挊幰僀僽儞 傾儖-儉僕儍僂傿乕儖(Ibn al-Mujawir, 1204 - 1291)偼婔偮偐偺弌揟偱乽杒傾僼儕僇恖乮儅僈儕僶乯(Magharibah)偑僕僢僟(Jiddah)偱庱挿乮傾儈乕儖乯(Amir Ali ibn Fulayta ibn Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Hashim)偵乮僊僕儎乯(Giziya)乮屄恖揑峷偓暔乯傪巟暐偭偨乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

傾儕僇(Arikah) 寉偔從偄偨僷儞惗抧(dough)傪娵偄偍杶偺忋偵峀偘偰丄偨偭傉傝偲拑怓偺朓枿傪揾傞丅

 

傾儕僇儞僥(Alicante) 僗儁僀儞撿搶晹償傽儗儞僔傾(Valencia)帺帯廈偺抧拞奀偵柺偡傞導偺導搒偱峘挰乮27枩乯丅

 

傾儕僗僩僥儗僗(Aristotle)丗傾儕僗僩僥儗僗(Aristotle, 384 BC – 322 BC)偼屆戙僊儕僔儍偺揘妛幰僾儔僩儞(Plato)偺掜巕偱偁傝丄傑偨偦偺挻崕幰偱偁傞丅僾儔僩儞偼帠暔偺杮幙傪僀僨傾偲柤晅偗丄挻墇揑側傕偺偲偟偨偑丄傾儕僗僩僥儗僗偼偦傟傪宍憡乮僄僀僪僗乯偲側偢偗丄幙椏偵撪嵼偡傞傕偺偲偟偨丅宍憡偲幙椏偼懚嵼幰傪峔惉偡傞晄壜暘偺2尨棟偲偟偰丄宍憡偑尰幚懺丄幙椏偑壜擻懺偲傕屇偽傟傞丅傾僥僱偵儕儏働僀僆儞(Lykeion)偲偄偆妛峑傪奐偒丄偦偺尋媶偼榑棟丄帺慠丄幮夛丄寍弍偺偁傜備傞曽柺偵媦傃丄偦偺妛搆偼傌儕僷僩僗乮鐤梱乯妛攈(Peripatetics)偲屇偽傟偨丅乽宍帶忋妛乿丄乽帺慠妛乿傪巒傔丄榑棟妛丄椣棟妛丄惌帯妛丄巹妛丄攷暔妛側偳偵娭偡傞懡悢偺挊嶌偑偁傞丅傾儗僋僒儞僟乕(Alexander)戝墹偺嫵巘傕偮偲傔偨丅

 

傾儕乕 儀僀('Alī Bey) 僇僼僇僗(Caucasusu)偱惗傑傟丄搝楆偲偟偰僄僕僾僩偵攧傜傟偨丅搝楆梑暫偺庱挿偲側傝丄1768擭僗儖僞儞傪愰尵偟丄僩儖僐偐傜撈棫丄僔儕傾傪惇暈偟丄傾儔價傾偺堦晹傕惇暈偟丄僄僕僾僩偺巟攝幰(1728 - 73)偲側偭偨偑丄棤愗傝偵偁偭偰捛曻偝傟丄暅埵傪帋傒偰攕巰偟偨丅

 

乽傾儕 儀僀(Ali Bey)1803擭偐傜1807擭偺娫偺椃峴婰乿丗 僪儈儞僑 僶僨傿傾 儗僽儕僔儏(Domingo Badía y Leblich)挊丄乽傾儕 儀僀(Ali Bey)偺儌儘僢僐丄僩儕億儕丄僒僀僾儘僗丄僄僕僾僩丄僔儕傾媦傃僩儖僐偵偍偗傞1803擭偐傜1807擭偺娫偺椃峴婰(Travels of Ali Bey in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria and Turkey between the Years 1803 and 1807)乿偼1816擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉偝傟偨丅尨暥偼僼儔儞僗岅偱偁傝丄1814擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞(The title of the original edition was Ali Bey Voyages en Aftique et en Asie, pendant les années 1803 à1807. Paris 1814.)丅塸岅斉偼僂僃僗僩儈乕僪偱1870擭偵嵞斉偝傟偨(The English edition has been reissued in Westmead, 1870.)

 

傾儖僊儕僂儉(Argyrium) 僔僔儕乕搰偺撪棨晹(in Interior of Sicily)

 

傾儖僑傾榩(Algoa Bay) 撿傾僼儕僇嫟榓崙搶働乕僾廈(Eastern Cape)撿晹偺榩偱峀偔愺偄擖峕丅

 

傾儖僐乕僩(Arcot) 僀儞僪撿晹僞儈儖僫乕僪僁(Tamil Nadu)廈杒晹偵偁傞廈搒儅僪儔僗(Madras)偺惣撿惣偵偁傞巗偱恖岥4.5枩恖丄1712擭僇儖僫僥傿僢僋(Carnatic)偺庱搒丄偦偺屻塸暓偱憟扗偑峴傢傟偨丅

 

RCAG僗僥乕僔儑儞丗 Remote Center Air to Ground Facility (Saudi Arabia)

 

傾儖僟僢僽(Ardeb) 拞搶偺悢僇崙偱巊傢傟偰偄傞扨埵偱丄僄僕僾僩偱198儕僢僩儖傑偨偼暷5.62僽僔僃儖(bushels)偵昗弨壔偝傟偨乮Bushel=35.24 Liters乯丅

 

傾儖僥儈僗 (Artemis) 僊儕僔儍恄榖偺寧偲庪椔偺彈恄偱儘乕儅偺僨傿傾乕僫(Diana)偵摉偨傞丅

 

傾儖僼儗僢僪 僊儑乕儉(Alfred Guilaume) 僊儓乕儉(A. Guillaume)嶲徠丅

 

傾儖儊僯傾(Armenia) 僐乕僇僒僗(Caucasus)嶳柆偺撿懁偵嵼傞崙(Republic of Armenia)偱恖岥350枩恖丅屆戙偺傾儖儊僯傾墹崙(Kingdom of Armenia)(戝傾儖儊僯傾(Greater Armenia) 乮惞彂柤偼儈僯埥偄偼儈儞僯(Minni)乯偼墹崙偲偟偰撈棫偡傞傑偱偼傾働儊僱僗挬(Achaemenid Empire, 550 BC - 330 BC)偺傾儖儊僯傾抧堟(Armenia)偺僒僩儔僢僾(Satrapy)偱偁偭偨丅儅働僪僯傾(Macedonia, 800s BC - 146 BC)偺庤傪庁傝偰僆儘儞僥僗挬(Orontid Dynasty, 6th Century - 72 AD)偲偟偰撈棫偟偨丅僙儗僂僐僗挬(Seleucid Empire, 312 BC - 63 BC)偺曵夡偺屻丄婭尦慜190擭偵傾儖僞僋僙僗1(Artaxias I, 190 BC/189 BC - 160 BC/159 BC)偵傛偭偰僿儗僯僘儉(Hellenism)偺塭嬁傪庴偗偨傾儖儊僯傾惌尃偑抋惗偟偨丅傾儖僞僋僔傾僗挬(Artaxiad Dynasty, 189 BC - AD 12)偺僥傿僌儔僱僗2(Tigranes II, BC 95 - BC 55)(戝墹(Tigranes the Great))偑墦惇傪峴偭偨婭尦慜95擭偐傜婭尦慜66擭偺愨捀婜偵傾儖儊僯傾偼巟攝尃傪僐乕僇僒僗(Caucasus or Caucas)傪墇偊偰丄尰嵼偺僩儖僐搶晹(Eastern Turkey))偐傜僔儕傾(Syria)丒儗僶僲儞(Lebanon)偵傑偱媦傏偟丄傾儖儊僯傾墹崙偼偦偺椞搚傪嵟戝斖埻偵峀偘偨丅偟偽傜偔偺娫偼儘乕儅搶曽偺嵟傕嫮戝側崙偲偟偰懚嵼偟偰偄偨偑丄傾儖儊僯傾偼偟偽偟偽儘乕儅偲儁儖僔傾偺娫偱榑憟偺揑偲側傝丄婭尦慜66擭偵偼儘乕儅偺塭嬁壓偵擖偭偨丅惣楋堦悽婭偵側傞偲僷儖僥傿傾(Parthia, BC 247 – AD 228)37擭偐傜47擭傑偱傾儖儊僯傾傪孅暈偝偣偨丅儘乕儅偼傾儖儊僯傾墹崙偺廆庡尃傪庢傝栠偦偆偲丄僱儘(Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, AD 37 - AD 68)偺帯悽壓丄儘乕儅偼摨柨傪寢傫偩傾儖儊僯傾偵怤棯偟偰偒偨僷儖僥傿傾偲55擭偐傜63擭傑偱愴偭偨丅60擭偺傾儖儊僯傾扗娨偲62擭偺憆幐偺屻丄儘乕儅偼僔儕傾憤撀僐儖僽儘(Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, AD 7- AD 67)傪攈尛偡傞丅僐儖僽儘偼63擭丄傾儖儊僯傾偺墹埵傪僥傿儕僟僨僗1(Tiridates I of Armenia, AD 63 - unknown)偵暅埵偝偣傞帠偱偦偺孼偱僷儖僥傿傾墹偺償僅儘僈僙僗1(Vologases I of Parthia, 51 - 78)偲榓媍傪寢傫偩丅 偙傟埲棃丄傾儖儊僯傾墹崙偼傾儖僒働僗挬(Arsacid Dynasty, 54 - 428)乮傾儖僔儍僋挬 (Arshakuni Dynasty)乯偺帯悽偲側傝丄僷儖僥傿傾偑朷傓恖暔傪墹偵廇偗丄懻姤偼儘乕儅峜掗媦傃偦偺戙棟偑峴偆偲偄偆椉懏懱惂偑弌棃偨丅柤栚忋偼儘乕儅掗崙偺懏崙偱丄幚幙偼僷儖僥傿傾偺懏崙偲偄偆愜拸埬偱偁傞丅償僅儘僈僙僗4(Vologases I of Parthia, 147 - 191)偑傾儖儊僯傾偵怤棯偟丄婙壓偺彨孯傪墹埵偵廇偗偨偙偲偵傛偭偰162擭偐傜165擭傑偱儘乕儅嫟摨峜掗儖僉僂僗丒僂僃儖僗掗(Lucius Aurelius Verus, 161 - 169)偺愴栶偑堷偒婲偙偝傟偨丅僷儖僥傿傾偺嫼埿偵懳偟丄僂僃儖僗偼搶晹曈嫬傊弌敪偟丄偦偺孯惃偼戝彑傪帯傔偨丅庱搒傪庢傝曉偟丄儘乕儅巗柉尃傪帩偪丄傾儖儊僯傾偺憡懕尃棙傪帩偮僜僴僄儉僗(Sohaemus)偑橒橲墹(Client King)偲偟偰懄埵偝偣偨丅嶰悽婭偵擖偄傞偲僒乕僒乕儞挬儁儖僔傾(Sassanid Dynasty, 226 – 651)252擭偵傾儖儊僯傾傪愯椞偟丄儘乕儅偑287擭偵庢傝栠偡傑偱曐帩偟偨丅僥傿儕僟僥僗戝墹(Tiridates the Great)偲偟偰傕抦傜傟傞僥傿儕僟僥僗3(Tiridates III or Trdat III, 287 - c. 330)301擭偵僉儕僗僩嫵乮屻偺傾儖儊僯傾嫵夛(Armenian Orthodox Church)乯傪傾儖儊僯傾偺崙嫵偲偟偨偑丄偙傟偼悽奅弶偱偁偭偨丅傾儖儊僯傾恖偺娫偵偼僉儕僗僩嫵偼怹摟偟偰偍傝丄儘乕儅懁偵偍偄偰傕丄儁儖僔傾懁偵暪崌偝傟偨抧堟偱傕僉儕僗僩嫵偺怣嬄偼悐偊傞帠偼側偐偭偨丅384擭偵墹崙偼搶儘乕儅偲儁儖僔傾偺娫偱暘楐偟偨丅惣傾儖儊僯傾偼懄嵗偵彫傾儖儊僯傾(Armenia Minor)偲偄偆柤偱儘乕儅偺懏廈偲側偭偨丅405擭偵惞儊僗儘僾 儅僔儏僩僣(Saint Mesrop Mashtots, 361/362 - 440)偵傛偭偰婭尦慜2悽婭傑偱偺戝傾儖儊僯傾(尰嵼偺僇儔僶僼(Nagorno-Karabakh)傪娷傓)偱榖偝傟偰偄偨傾儖儊僯傾岅(Armenian language)偺堊偺傾儖儊僯傾暥帤(Armenian Alphabet)偑憂弌偝傟偨丅尰嵼偺傾儖儊僯傾恖偼捈愙偺尵岅妛揑側巕懛偱偁傞偲峫偊偰傛偄丅搶傾儖儊僯傾(Eastern Armenia)428擭傑偱儁儖僔傾偺撪晹偱偦偺傑傑墹崙偲偟偰巆偭偨(a Kingdom within Persia until 428)丅偦偺屻抧曽婱懓偑墹惂傪攑巭丄僒乕僒乕儞挬偑峴惌姱(Governor)傪憲傝崬傫偩丅乮尨暥偼僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

傾儖儊僯傾恖(Armenians) 僀儞僪乕儓乕儘僢僷岅懓偵懏偡傞撈棫偟偨堦攈傪側偡傾儖儊僯傾岅傪榖偡偺偑傾儖儊僯傾恖偱傾儖儊僯傾嫵夛偺怣搆偱傕偁傞丅

 

傾儗僉僒儞僟乕戝墹乮Alexander the Great336 BC – 323 BC乯丗 儅働僪僯傾墹崙僼傿儕僢億僗2(King Philip II of Macedon)偺墹巕偲偟偰抋惗偟偨傾儗僋僒儞僪儘僗(Aleksandros, BC356 – BC323乯偱丄20嵨偱懄埵偡傞偲丄晝墹偺寁夋傪堷偒宲偓丄搶曽墦惇傪奐巒偡傞丅暫椡偱偼埑搢揑晄棙偩偭偨偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄僀僢僜僗(the Battle at Issus, BC333)偍傛傃僈僂僈儊儔(the Battle of Gaugamela, BC 331)偲擇搙偺戝愴偱埑彑偟丄傾働儊僱僗挬乮the Achaemenid dynasty, BC550 - BC330乯傪柵朣偵捛偄傗偭偨丅偦偺屻傕夣恑寕傪懕偗丄惣偼尰嵼偺僄僕僾僩(Egypt)丒僊儕僔儍(Greek)丄搶偼僀儞僟僗愳(the Indus River)棳堟傑偱偵媦傇戝掗崙傪寶愝偟偨丅

 

傾儗僋僓儞僪儕傾(Alexandria) 僫僀儖愳僨儖僞(Nile Delta)偺忋偺挰偱傾儗僉僒儞僟乕戝墹(Alexander the Great) 偑婭尦慜332擭偵寶愝偟偨屆戙悽奅偺妛栤偺拞怱抧偱偁偭偨丅崱偱傕僄僕僾僩杒晹偵偁傞僄僕僾僩戞堦偺彜峘偺挰偱恖岥340枩恖偱偁傞丅

 

傾儗僒僗(Arethas) 52310寧偵僸儉儎儖 (Himyar)崙墹僘 僰儚僗(Yousuf Dhu Nuwas)偑僫僕儔儞(Najran)傪扗庢偟丄椻崜偵恊傾價僔僯傾搣傪奆嶦偟偵偟偨乽僫僕儔儞偺愴偄乿偺嵺偺僉儕僗僩嫵搆巜摫幰偱Aretas埥偄偼Harith偲傕捲傜傟傞丅

 

傾儗僞僗(Aretas) 僆儃僟僗(Obodas)偺寣懓偱偦偺巟攝偟偰偄偨搚抧偼崱擔偺儊僨傿僫(Medina)偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

傾儗僢億(Aleppo) 傾儔僽(Arab)柤偼僴儗僽(Haleb)埥偄偼僴儔僽(Halab)偱丄僔儕傾杒晹偺巗乮160枩乯丄屆戙柤偼儀儘僄傾(Beroea)

 

傾儘僄(Aloe) 儐儕壢偺懡擏偺忢椢懡擭憪偱丄梩偼懡擏偱丄烌愒怓偺摏宍傪壴傪奐偔丅娤徿梡丄栻梡偵嵧攟丅峀偔偼儐儕壢傾儘僄懓怉暔偱偁傝丄傾僼儕僇偺姡憞抧懷傪拞怱偵300庬偑暘晍偟丄桳宻丄柍宻摍丄宍懺偵曄壔偑懡偔丄偦偺拞偺悢庬偑懡擏広暔偲幪偰嵧攟偝傟偰偄傞丅暿柤傪錬錐乮傠偐偄乯丄堛幰偄傜偢偲塢偆丅

 

乽埫崟戝棨墶抐婰乿丗 傾儊儕僇偺扵専壠僗僞儞儕乕(Henry Morton Stanley 1841 - 1904)偺挊嶌丅

 

傾儞僒乕儖懓(Ansar)彆偗傞恖(Helpers)乭傪堄枴偡傞傾儔價傾岅偱丄梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammas)偵嫤椡偟偨儊僨傿僫偺廧柉(Median Citizens)傪偝偡丅610擭儉僴儞儅僪偼帺傜梐尵幰偲帺妎偟偰儊僢僇(Mecca)偱揱摴傪巒傔偨偑丄摉帪儊僨傿僫(Media)偱偼丄僴僘儔僕懓(Banu Khazraj)偲傾僂僗懓(Banu Aws)偲偑懳棫偟偰撪愴忬懺偱偁偭偨丅偨傑偨傑620擭偵儊僨傿僫偐傜儊僢僇偺嬼憸恄揳偵棃偨弰楃偑儉僴儞儅僪偺嫵偊偵嫟柭偟丄偦偙偱斵傪儊僨傿僫偵彽偒丄晹懓娫偺憟偄偺挷掆傪埶棅偟傛偆偲偟偨丅儉僴儞儅僪傕寖偟偄敆奞偱儊僢僇偵尒愗傝傪偮偗偨偺偱丄偦偺彽偒偵墳偠622擭堏廧(僸僕儏儔)傪寛峴偟偨丅儊僢僇偐傜梐尵幰偵摨峴偟偨堏廧幰(儉僴乕僕儖乕儞(Muhajirun))偲傾儞僒乕儖(Ansar)偼偲傕偵斵偺巜摫偡傞嫵抍崙壠偺廳梫側峔惉堳偱偁偭偨偑丄偙偺椉幰偺偁偄偩偵旝柇側懳棫偑偁偭偨傜偟偔丄梐尵幰偑巰偸偲丄傾儞僒乕儖偼撈帺偺巜摫幰傪梚棫偟傛偆偲偟偨丅寢嬊儉僴乕僕儖乕儞(Muhajirun)偺傾僽乕 僶僋儖(Abu Bakr As-Siddiq or Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafa, c. 573 - 634)偑僇儕僼埵(Prophet乫s Sucessor or Khalifat Rasul Allah, 632 - 634)偵偮偒丄偦偺屻傾儞僒乕儖偼嫵抍崙壠撪偺巜摫揑抧埵偐傜徚偊偨丅(弌揟丗 http://www.tabiken.com/history/doc/A/A272L200.HTM偍傛傃Wikipedia)

 

傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑(Dr. Angelo Pesce) 僀僞儕傾偺抧幙妛幰偺幏昅壠偱夁嫀25擭埲忋偵傢偨傝丄僒僴儔嵐敊偺拞墰晹傗僆儅儞榩杒娸摍偺傾僼儕僇偍傛傃拞嬤搶偵廧傫偩傝丄椃峴偟偰惛椡揑偵傾儔僽悽奅傪尋媶丄帇嶡偟偰棃偨丅摨攷巑偺挊彂偵偼乽僕僢僟埥傞傾儔價傾偺挰偺昤幨(Portrait of an Aranian City, Jiddah , 1977)乿偺懠偵乽傾儔僽晝慶偺抧偺怓(Clours of Arab Fatherland, 1975.12)乿丄乽傾儔僽攏偺弮寣庬 (The Pure Bred of Arabian Hose, 1984)乿丄乽100擭慜偺儊僢僇(Makkah, One Hundred Years, 1986.12)乿偑偁傝丄峏偵僉乕僗 僐僂儕(Keithe Colie)偲偺嫟挊偱乽晽偺楈(Spirit of the Wind, 1982.9)乿偲僄儖償傿儔 僈乕儖僶僲 儁僙攷巑(Dr. Elvira Garbano Pesce)偲偺嫟挊偱乽嵐敊偺嬃堎(Marvel of the Desert, 1983.12)乿偲乽僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺閜閗(The Camel in Saudi Arabia)乿偑偁傞丅

 

埨懅崄(Benzoin) 僄僑僲僉壢偺棊梩崅栘偱僗儅僩儔傗僕儍儚尨嶻丄庽旂偼拑妼怓丄梩偼棏宍偱塻摢偟偰偍傝丄壞偵梩偺晅偗崻偵愒怓傪懷傃偨彫壴傪憤忬偵偮偗傞丅僞僀丄僗儅僩儔偱嵧攟偝傟偨丅杮憪榓柤偼埨懅崄偺栘偲塢偆丅埨懅崄偼偙偺栘偵庽旂偐傜暘晍偡傞庽帀偱懷愒怓傑偨偼妼怓偺夠傪偟偰偍傝丄娒枴傪桳偟丄偦偺拞偵擕敀怓偺梓棻傪憼偟丄擬偡傟偽嫮偄朏崄傪曻偮丅孫崄偵梡偄丄埨懅崄僠儞僉偼嫀醾嵻丄屇媧巋寖嵻偱偁傞丅

 

傾儞僥傿僆僉傾(Antioch) 僩儖僐撿晹僆儘僔僥傿僗(The Orontes)愳偺壨岥偺搒巗偱傾儞僞僉傾乮傾儞僞僉傾乯偲傕屇偽傟偰偄傞丅僙儗僂僐僗挬僔儕傾(Seleucid Empire, 312 BC - 63 BC)偺庱搒(BC. 300 - BC 64)偱彜嬈偺拞怱抧偱偁偭偨丅傾儔價傾岅偱偼傾儞僞僉傾(Antakiya)丄僩儖僐岅偱偼傾儞僞僉傾(Antakya)偲柤晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

傾儞僪儗傾 僐儖僒儕(Andrea Corsali) 儕僗儃儞(Lisbon)偐傜僀儞僪傊峴偒丄偦偺峲奀婰傪僼儘儗儞僗(Florence)偺桳柤側巟攝壠懓偺僕儏儕傾乕僲(Giuliano)偍傛傃儘儗儞僝 僨僀 儊僨傿僠(Lorenzo dei Medici)埗偵擇捠偺庤巻偱巆偟偨丅僐儖僒儕(Corsali)偺恖惗偺偦偺懠偺徻嵶偵偮偄偰偼壗傕暘偐偭偰偼偄側偄偑丄偙偺擇捠偺庤巻偑楌巎揑側帒椏偲偟偰偼寁傝抦傟側偄傎偳偺壙抣偑偁傞丅偦傟偼摿偵摨偠帪戙偺億儖僩僈儖恖嶌壠偵懳偡傞専徹傪峴偆帪偵偁傜傢傟傞丅擇斣栚偺庤巻偼儘億 僜傾儗僗 傾儖儀儖僈儕傾(Lopo Soares de Albergaria)偺墦惇偲嫟偵丄1517擭偵僐儖僒儕(Corsali)偑峠奀偱峴偭偨峲奀偵偮偄偰弎傋偰偄傞偺偱摿偵廳梫偱偁傞丅僐儖僒儕(Corsali)偼嫮晽偑帺暘偺慏傪奜奅偵堷偒偢傝弌偟偰娡戉偲偺楢棈偑庢傟側偔側傞慜偵丄僕僢僟偑尒偊傞8儕乕僌(Leqague)乮栺24儅僀儖乯埲撪偵棃偰偄偨丅慏挿偼僇儅儔儞(Kamaran)峴偒傪寛傔偰偄偨偑丄悈愭埬撪偺娫堘偄偱丄僐儖僒儕(Corsali)偼懼傢傝偵僄僠僆僺傾偺奀娸偵拝偄偨丅偦偙偱僐儖僒儕(Corsali)偼悢擔娫傪柍懯偵偟丄偦偺忔慻堳偼嵟廔揑偵僟僴儔僋彅搰(Dahlac)偵拝偒丄媬彆偝傟傞枠偵岮偺妷偒偲婹偊偵搑曽傕側偔壵傑傟偨丅

 

傾儞僩儚乕僾(Antwerp) 儀儖僊乕杒晹偺杒奀偵拲偖僗働儖僩愳(The Scheldt)壨岥偵椪傓峘榩搒巗(46)偱摨廈偺廈搒偱傕偁傞丅

 

 

僀傾儉價傾(Iambia) 乮僀僄儞儃(Yenbo)嶲徠丅乯

 

僀傾儞僯(Giampietro Ianni) 傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑偺幨恀嶣塭偺傾僔僗僞儞僩(Mr. Giampietro Ianni)

 

僀僃僯僠僃儕(Janissaries or Janizary) 乽怴偟偄暫巑乿傪堄枴偟丄Odjakt偲傕屇偽傟丄14悽婭屻敿偵憂愝偝傟偨怴孯乮僩儖僐峜掗恊塹戉(1300 - 1826)丄僩儖僐偺嬤塹婻暫乯偱丄僆僗儅儞掗崙偺忢旛孯抍偱偁傝丄掗崙偺椞搚奼挘偵戝偒偔峷專偟偨丅愴憟曔椄傗挜梡偟偨僉儕僗僩嫵擾柉偺巕掜傪嫵堢偟孯抍堳偲偟偨丅18悽婭枛埲崀惣梞壔夵妚偵斀懳偟丄1826擭偵攑巭偝傟偨丅

 

僀僃僯僠僃儕壒妝(Janissary Music) 僔儞僶儖丄僩儔僀傾儞僌儖丄儀乕僗僪儔儉側偳傪懡梡偡傞僩儖僐孯妝晽偺壒妝丅

 

僀僄儊儞忦栺丗 僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偲僒僂僨傿傾儔價傾墹崙(Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)娫偵掲寢偝傟偨1934擭忦栺偱傾僔乕儖(Asir)偍傛傃僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)偺崙嫬暣憟偼廔椆偟偨丅傾僔乕儖(Asir)偺柉偼僒僂僕崙柉偵惉傝丄埨慡側惗妶偺壎宐偍傛傃夁嫀偺棯扗傗寣傒偳傠偺憟偄偐傜偺夝曻傪摼偨丅偦傟偱傕曻杚尃傗晹懓偺強桳抧傪弰偭偰榑憟偟偰偄傞擇偮偺晹懓偺愽傫偩懳棫偑廡巗偱憳嬾偟偨帪偵嵞擱偡傞婋尟惈偼埶慠偲偟偰廫暘偁偭偨丅

 

僀僄儞儃(Yenbo) 尰嵼偺儎儞僽乕(Yanbu)偱偁傝丄儎儉儃乕(Yambo)埥偄僀僄儞儃乕(Yenbo)偲傕塢偆丅僕僃僢僟乮Jeddah乯偺杒350km乮杒堒24亱05亴搶宱38亱00亴乯偵埵抲偟丄儊僨傿僫廈(Al Madinah Province)偵偁傞峠奀娸偺庡梫側峘偱偁傞丅2004擭搙偺恖岥偼188,430恖偱偁偭偨丅儎儞僽乕偺楌巎偼崄恏椏(spice)偲崄椏(incense)偑僀僄儊儞乮Yemen乯偐傜僄僕僾僩乮Egypt乯傗抧拞奀抧堟乮Mediterranian region乯偵塣偽傟偰偄偨2500擭慜偵慿傞丅僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Emipre)帪戙偼彫偝側峘偱偁偭偨偑丄1975擭偵傾儔價傾榩娸偺僕儏僶僀儖(Al Jubail)偲嫟偵2戝岺嬈抧懷偵巜掕偝傟偰偐傜敪揥偟偨丅

 

僀僋僔僪挬乮Ikhsids乯丗 僩僁乕儖乕儞挬(Tulunids)柵朣偺屻丄惣楋905擭偐傜941擭傑偱僫僀儖扟偼嵞傃傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasids)偵巟攝偝傟丄偦傟傪惣楋973擭傑偱僀僋僔僪挬(Ikhsids)偑堷偒宲偄偩丅

 

僀僒 僀僽儞 僼儔僀僞庱挿(Amir Isa ibn Fulayta) 乽僊僕儎(giziya)傪惂掕偟偨儊僢僇庱挿偼僀僒 僀僽儞 僼儔僀僞偱偁偭偨乿偲僀僽儞-傾儖-儉僕儍僂傿乕儖(Ibn al-Mujawir, 1204 - 1291)挊乽撿傾儔價傾偺婰弎(Descripyio Arabiae Meridionalis)乿偵弎傋傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僗僞僴儕(Auctore Abu Ishak al-Farisi al -Istakhri) 傾僽 僓僀僪 傾儖-僶儖僸(Abu Zayid al-Balkhi)偺栧壓丄儁儖僙億儕僗嬤偔偺懞偺弌恎偱偁傞僀僗僞僴儕偺恖惗偵偮偄偰偼僀儞僟僗扟偺僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖偲弌夛偄丄偦傟偵傛偭偰抧棟妛揑忣曬傪岎姺偟丄偦傟偧傟偺懜廳偡傞挊嶌傪斾妑偟偁偭偨帠傪彍偄偰偼幚嵺揑偵壗傕暘偐偭偰偄側偄丅950擭崰偵乽僞僋僂傿儉 傾儖-僽儖僟儞乮崙乆偺昤幨乯(Takwin al-Buldan)乿曇廤偟丄嵟怴忣曬壔偟丄憹曗偟偨斉傪嶌偭偨丅

 

乽僀僗僞僴儕斉崙乆偺昤幨乿丗 (Viiae Regnorum. Descriptio Ditionis Moslemicae - Auctore Abu Ishak al-Farisi al -Istakhri)M. J. 僕儑僄僕儏(M. J. de Goeje.)曇廤1927擭儔僀僨儞(Leyden)偱弌斉丅

 

僀僗儅乕僀乕儖攈(Ismaili) 僀僗儅乕僀乕儖攈偺怣搆(Ismaili)偼僔乕傾攈偺戞榋戙僀儅乕儉 (Ja'far ibn Muhammad)偺挿巕偱晝偵屻宲幰偲偟偰擟柦偝傟偨偑庢傝徚偝傟偨僀僗儅乕僀乕儖(Isma'il ibn Ja'far)傪戞幍戙僀儅乕儉偱偁傞偲彞偊丄旈枾揑揘妛傪怣曭偡傞僀僗儔儉嫵僔乕傾攈(Shi'ite)偺堦暘攈偱偁傞丅僀僗儅僀儖攈(Ismailiya)偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僗儅僀儖 僔儍乕(Ismail Shah) 1513擭偵僞僽儕乕僘(Tabriz)晅嬤偱攕杒偟丄1516擭偺弔偵僆僗儅儞偲儖僐乮Ottoman Turks乯偺僗儖僞儞 僒儕儉堦悽(Sultan Salim I, 1516-1520)偐傜嵟屻偺峌寕傪旐偭偨僒僼傽償傿乕挬儁儖僔傾(Safavid Dynasty of Persia, 1501 - 1736)偺寶崙幰偱弶戙墹(Shah Ismail I1487 – 1524)

 

僀僘儈儖(Izmir) 僩儖僐惣晹丄僄乕僎奀偺擖峕僀僘儈儖榩傪朷傓峘榩搒巗乮200)偱媽徧僗儈儖儅(Smyrna)

 

乽僀僗儔儉埲慜偺傾儔價傾巎偺尋媶乿丗 乽僀僗儔儉埲慜偺傾儔價傾巎偺尋媶乿(Etudes sur I'histoire des Arabes avant I'Islamisme)1840擭摉帪偺僼儔儞僗偺僕僃僢僟椞帠偱傾僕傾 僕儍乕僫儖(Journal Asiatique)偵傕婰帠傪嵹偣偰偄傞搶梞捠偺僼儖僕儍儞僗 僼儗僱儖(Fulgence Fresnel)偑挊嶌偟丄1836擭偵僷儕(Paris)偱弌斉偝傟偨(Paris 1836)乿丅

 

僀僗儔儉 僔儍儕乕傾朄(Law of the Islam or Shariah) 僀僗儔儉悽奅偱偼廆嫵偲悽懎幮夛偺椉曽偵懳偡傞朄棩偱偁傞丅僔儍儕乕傾偺偆偪庡偵廆嫵偵娭傢傞晹暘傪僀僶乕僟乕僩(Ibadhat)乮媀楃揑婯斖乯丄悽懎揑惗妶偵娭傢傞晹暘傪儉傾乕儅儔乕僩(Mu'amalat)乮朄揑婯斖乯偲徧偡傞丅僀僶乕僟乕僩(Ibadhat)偼屄乆恖偲恄偲偺娭學傪婯掕偟偨悅捈揑側婯斖丄儉傾乕儅儔乕僩(Mu'amalat)偼幮夛偵偍偗傞彅屄恖娫偺娭學傪婯掕偟偨悈暯揑側婯斖偲埵抲偯偗傜傟傞丅

 

僀僗儔儉掗崙(Caliphate) 儓乕儘僢僷偺楌巎壠偑挿傜偔惓摑僇儕僼(Rightly Guided Caliphs or Righteous Caliphs)偐傜傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid Dynasty)傑偱偺僀僗儔儉崙壠偵懳偡傞屇徧偲偟偰梡偄偰偒偨乽僒儔僙儞掗崙(Saracen Empire)乿傪僀僗儔儉(Islam)偲尵偄姺偊偨傕偺偱丄搨偱偼戝怘乮僞乕僕乯偲屇傫偱偄偨惌尃偱偁傞丅

 

僀僗儔儉偺惇暈(Islam Conquests): 乮儉僗儕儉偺惇暈乮Muslim Conquests乯嶲徠丅乯

 

僀僠僒儓僼傽僊(Inchthyophagi) 僀僠僒儓僼傽僊偼乽尰嵼偺儁儖僔傾偺撿搶晹偵摉偨傞僇儖儅僯傾(Carmania)偍傛傃僷僉僗僞儞撿惣晹偺僶儖僠僗僞儞(Baluchistan)廈偺曈傝堦懷偱偁傞僎僪儘僔傾(Gedorosia)偐傜僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀偺堦斣墦偄擖峕(峠奀)傑偱峀偑偭偨奀娸偵廧傫偱偄偨栰斬恖払乿偲偲僨傿僆僪儘僗(Diodorous)偺挊彂乽楌巎憄彂(Library of History)乿偱婰弎偝傟丄僆乕儖僪僼傽乕僓乕(C.H. Oldfather)偵傛偭偰乽嫑傪怘傋傞恖払乿偲東栿偝傟偰偄傞 ('Ichthyophagi' or Fish-eaters in Translation of C.H. Oldfather)

 

僀僢僘僢僥傿儞 傾僀僶僢僋(Izz al-Din Aybak) 傾僀儐乕僽挬(Ayyubid)偺戞7戙僗儖僞儞(Sultan) 僒乕儕僼(Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub, 1240-1249)1249擭丄儖僀9(Louis IX)(1214-1270)1偑巜婗偡傞戞7夞廫帤孯(Seventh Crusade 1248 - 1254)偑僄僕僾僩偵怤峌偟偨嵺丄攛昦傪滊偄巰朣偟丄孯抍偺摑惂偑偲傟偰偄側偐偭偨丅偙偺堊丄偦偺尦搝楆偺斳僔儍僕儍儖僪僁僢儖(Shajar al-Durr)3儢寧娫丄枴曽偺摦梙傪梷偊傞偨傔偵僒乕儕僼傪惗偒偰偄傞傛偆偵僗儖僞儞傪巄掕揑偵搘傔偨丅偦偺娫偵丄摉帪僗儖僞儞岇塹戉挿偱屻偺儅儉儖乕僋挬戞5戙栚僗儖僞儞偺僶僀僶儖僗(Sultan Baybars, 1233-1277) (al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al Din Baybars al Bunduqdari)偑孯抍挿晄嵼偺僶僼儕乕}儉儖乕僋孯(Bahri Mamluk)偺巜婗傪庢傝丄暠愴偟偨偍堿偱儅儞僗乕儔偺愴偄(Battle of El Mansurah)125028擔偐傜11擔乯偵偍偄偰儖僀9悽傪曔椄偲偡傞摍丄戝彑棙傪偍偝傔偨丅僔儍僕儍儖僪僁僢儖(Shajar al-Durr)偼晄榓偲側偭偨懅巕僩僁乕儔乕儞 僔儍乕(Turanshah)傪嶦奞偟丄傾僀儐乕僽挬傪柵朣偝偣丄儅儉儖乕僋(搝楆弌恎偺婻暫)傪巟帩婎斦偲偟丄帺暘帺恎傪僗儖僞乕僫(Sultana)偲偡傞僗儞僯乕攈僀僗儔儉墹挬偱偁傞儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamluk Sultanate, 1250 - 1517)傊偲堏峴偟偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄抧曽孨庡丄彨孯払丄傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid, 750 - 1258) 偺僇儕僼(Caliph)摍偺懡偔偑僗儖僞乕僫(Sultana)偵斀懳偟偨丅偙偺惃椡偵懳峈偡傞堊偵丄摉帪丄僥儏儖僋(Turkic peoples)宯偺儅儉儖乕僋乮搝楆孯恖乯(Mamluk)弌恎偱丄昅摢彨孯偱偁偭偨僀僢僘僢僥傿儞 傾僀僶僢僋(Izz al-Din Aybak)傪枴曽偵偮偗偰寢崶偟丄僗儖僞儞(Sultan)偺埵傪忳偭偨丅晇晈偺拠偼晄榓偑懕偒丄僔儍僕儍儖僪僁僢儖偼僀僢僘僢僥傿儞 傾僀僶僢僋傪埫嶦偟丄彮擭儅儞僗乕儖 傾儕(Al-Mansur Ali)傪戞2戙栚僗儖僞儞偵梚棫偟偨偑丄儌儞僑儖掗崙孯偺怤擖傪庴偗偨丅偙偺愴偄偺嵟拞偺125911寧偵孯帠懺惃傪嫮屌偵偡傞堊丄彨孯僋僩僁僘(Qutuz)偼彮擭僗儖僞儞傪攑偟偰丄帺傜儅儉儖乕僋挬戞3戙栚偺僗儖僞儞偲側偭偨丅梻擭丄僋僩僁僘(Qutuz)偼傾僀儞 僕儍乕儖乕僩偺愴偄(Battle of Ain Jalut)(126093擔乯偱僉僩 僽僇(Kitbuqa)棪偄傞儌儞僑儖掗崙孯(Mongols in Palestine) 丒僉儕僗僩嫵搆彅岒楢崌孯傪攋傝儌儞僑儖掗崙偺惣恑傪慾巭偟偨丅

 

僀僢僼儔儉(Ihhram) 儀僪僂傿儞(Bedouins)偑崢偺廃傝偵揨偆丅

 

乽婾傝偺椃恖偲搶梞椃峴偺暔岅(Travelers in Disguise - Narratives of Eastern Travel)乿丗 億僢僕儑 僽儔僢僠儑儕乕僯(Poggio Bracciolini)偲儕僪償傿僐 償傽儖僙儅(Lidovico de Varthema)偺挊弎偼僴僋儖乕僩(Hakluyt)嫤夛偺僕儑儞 僂傿儞僞乕 僕儑乕儞僘(John Winter Jones)偑東栿偟丄乽婾傝偺椃恖偲搶梞椃峴偺暔岅(Travelers in Disguise - Narratives of Eastern Travel)乿偲偺戣柤偱L.D. 僴儌儞僪(L.D. Hammond)偺徯夘傪晅偗丄1963擭偵働儞僽儕僢僕(Cambridge, Mass)偱弌斉偝傟偨丅偦偺杮偺24暸偵僕僢僟捠夁偺嵟傕昻庛側婰弎偑宖嵹偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僪儕僔(Idrisi) 戞堦師悽奅戝愴拞偵僕僓儞(Jizan)嬤偔偺僒僽儎(Sabya)偵峴惌晎傪峔偊偨儉僴僢儅僪 僀僽儞 傾儕 傾儖乕僀僪儕僔(Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi)偑僸僕儍僘(Hijaz)偺僔儍儕僼 僼僒僀儞(Sharif Husayn)摨條偵僩儖僐(Turk)偵媡傜偄乽塸崙懁偱偁傞乿偲愰尵偟偨丅僩儖僐偑傾儔價傾偐傜揚戅偟偨帪偵偼傾僔乕儖(Asir)偼僀僪儕僔(Idrisi)偺巟攝壓偵偁偭偨丅1920擭偵僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Ibn Saud)偼傾僔乕儖(Asir)偍傛傃墦偔僼僟僀僟乕(Hudaydah)傑偱偺僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah) 傪僀僪儕僔(Idrisi)偺柤栚巟攝偺樤偱曐岇椞偲偟偰傾僽僴(Abha)傪愯椞偟偨丅

 

僀僪儕乕僔乕 (Idrisi) 僀僪儕乕僔乕(捠徧 'ash-Sharīf al-Idrīsī, c 1098 – 1156)偼僔僠儕傾墹儘僕儍乕(Roger) 2悽偵巇偊丄偦偺姪傔偱椃傪廳偹悽奅抧恾媦傃抧棟彂乽悽奅墶抐傪朷傓幰偺堅傒偺彂乿(1154)傪姰惉偟偨丅拞悽偵偍偗傞傕偆堦恖偺庡梫側偍偦傜偔嵟傕執戝側僀僗儔儉偺塅拡峔憿榑妛幰偱偁偭偨僀僪儕乕僔乕偑惣梞偱傕嵟傕抦傜傟偰偄偨栿偼悽奅傪暯柺媴宍恾偱昤偄偨堦懙偄偺抧恾挔偱曗懌偝傟偨僀僪儕乕僔乕偺杮偑嵟弶偺庡梫側傾儔價傾抧棟妛幰偺挊嶌偲偟偰儓乕儘僢僷尵岅偱偁傞僼儔儞僗岅偵東栿偝傟偨堊偱偁傞丅儌儘僢僐(Morocco)偺僥僩僁傾儞(Tetouan)偱僼僃僗(Fez)偺巟攝幰乮惣楋791 - 惣楋926擭乯偺壠偵惗傑傟偨偑丄僼傽乕僥傿儅挬(Fatimid)偺敆奞偺偨傔偵崙傪摝傟丄偐側傝側帪娫傪儓乕儘僢僷偲彫傾僕傾傪椃峴偟偰夁偛偟偨丅偙偺堊偵僀僪儕乕僔乕偼僐儖僪僶偱嫵堢傪庴偗偰偄傞丅孾敪偝傟偨尦庱偱抧棟妛垽岲壠偱偁偭偨儘僕儍乕擇悽乮僲儖儅儞懓偱僔僔儕乕偺墹乯偼僀僪儕乕僔乕偺昡敾傪抦傝丄僀僪儕乕僔乕傪僷儗儖儌偺媨掛偵彽偄偨丅僀僪儕乕僔乕偼僔僔儕乕搰偵惣楋1125擭偐傜1150擭傑偱廧傒丄偦偟偰偦偺抧棟妛偺挊嶌偲嫟偵揤媴偲偦偺帪戙偵暘偐偭偰偄偨悽奅偺墌斦傪嶌偭偨丅椉曽偲傕嬧惢偱偁偭偨偺偱幐傢傟偰偟傑偭偨丅僀僪儕乕僔乕偼偙偺搰偵懾嵼偟偰偄傞娫偵丄僀僪儕乕僔乕偼偙偺搰傪峴偒棃偡傞慏忔傝傗彜恖偦偟偰婰弎偼柍偄偑嫲傜偔婣娨偟偨廫帤孯愴巑払偐傜朙晉側忣曬傪摼傞帠偑弌棃偨丅峏偵丄嵟怴偺抧棟妛揑抦幆傪摼偰丄僀僪儕乕僔乕偑偦偺挊嶌傪姰惉弌棃傞條偵丄儘僕儍乕墹偼條乆側崙偵枾掋傪攈尛偟偰丄娤嶡偝偣丄偦傟傪婰榐偝偣丄偦偟偰惓妋側帒椏偲幨惗恾傪帩偪婣傞擟柋傪柦偠偰偄偨丅偙偺堊偵僀僪儕乕僔乕偺桳柤側挊嶌偼師戞偵嬶懱揑偵傑偲傑傝丄師戞偵杮偺戣柤傪乽僉僞僽 傾儖-儖僕儍儕乮儘僕儍乕偺杮乯乿埥偄偼乽僰僓僩 傾儖-儉僔儍僞僌 僼傿 僀僋僥傿儔僋 傾儖 傾僼傽僋(Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq)乮悽奅偺條乆側抧曽傪曻楺偟傛偆偲偡傞幰払偺婌傃乯乿偲柤晅偗偨丅

 

乽僀僪儕乕僔乕偺抧棟(Géographie d'Edrisi)乿丗 僉僞僽 傾儖-儖僕儍儕(Kitab al-Rujari)乮儘僕儍乕偺杮乯埥偄偼僰僓僩 傾儖-儉僔儍僞僌 僼傿 僀僋僥傿儔僋 傾儖 傾僼傽僋(Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq)乮悽奅偺條乆側抧曽傪曻楺偟傛偆偲偡傞幰払偺婌傃乯偲柤晅偗傜傟偨拞悽偵偍偗傞嵟傕執戝側僀僗儔儉偺塅拡峔憿榑妛幰偱偁偭偨僀僪儕乕僔乕 (Idrisi,  c 1098 – 1156))偺挊嶌偱丄乽僀僪儕乕僔乕偺抧棟(Géographie d'Edrisi)乿偲偟偰A. 僕儑僽乕儖(A. Jaubert)偵傛偭偰東栿丒曇廤偝傟丄1836 - 1840擭僷儕偱弌斉偝偰偄傞(Tr. and ed. by A. Jaubert, Paris 1836 - 1840.)

 

僀僴儔儉 (Ihram) 弰楃梡偺堖偱對抧埲奜偺敀偄朌偄栚偺柍偄2枃偺晍偱峔惉偝傟傞丅僕僢僟(Jiddah)偼儊僢僇(Mecca)傊偺搑拞偱僀僴儔儉(Ihram)(Pilgrim's robe)偵拝懼偊傞儈僇僩(miqat)1偮偱偁傞丅

 

僀僽 (Eve) 恖椶偺巒慶Adam偺嵢丄恄偑憂憿偟偨嵟弶偺彈丅僄僶偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僽偺楈昣(Solid Mausoleum for Eve) 儁儖僔傾恖払偼僀僽偺曟傪楖姠偲愇峱偺幗嬺偱婃忎側楈昣偟丄偙偺楈昣偼僸僕儏儔楋621擭丄惣楋1224擭傑偱棫偭偰嫃偨偑丄偦偺帪偵曵夡偟丄暅尦偝傟傞帠偼柍偐偭偨丅

 

僀僽儔僸儉 僷僔儍(Ibrahim Pasha) 僀僽儔僸儉 僷僔儍(Ibrahim Pasha, 1789 - 1848)偼僆僗儅儞僩儖僐偺僄僕僾僩憤撀偱敿撈棫惌尃傪庽棫偟偨儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕(Muhammad Ali Pasha, 1769 - 1849)偺巕偱僄僕僾僩偺彨孯偱偁偭偨丅181899擔偵僨傿儔僀儎(Diraiyah)傪曪埻偟丄娮棊偝偣丄戞堦師僒僂僪岒崙(1745 – 1819)傪懪搢偟偨丅1848擭偵晝偐傜憤撀傪宲彸偟偨偑丄抁婜娫(March – November, 1848)偱昦巰偟偨丅

 

僀僼儚乕儞(Ikhwan) 摨朎乮怣幰拠娫乯(Brethren)偼揷幧偺嫟摨懱偱晍嫵拞怱偺峔惉堳偱偁傞丅嵟弶偺僀僼儚乕儞(Ikhwan)偼儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahhabi)偺嵞寶幰傾僽僪 僇儕儉(Abd al-Karim)偵傛偭偰19悽婭枛偵杒晹僫僕僪(Najd)偺傾儖僞僂傿乕儎(al-Artawiya)偵憂愝偝傟偨丅屻偵僀僼儚乕儞塣摦(Ikhwan movement)偼僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Ibn Saud)偵傛偭偰慻怐懼偊偝傟丄僀僽儞 僒僂僪偺傾儔價傾敿搰摑堦(1912 - 1930)偺嵺偵廳梫側摥偒傪偟偨丅晹懓偺榞傪偙偊偨廆嫵丒孯帠忋偺摨朎慻怐偲側傝丄傾儔價傾偺僆傾僔僗傪拞怱偵暘嶶偟偰掕廧偟丄燇燆傪恑傔傞偲嫟偵儀僪僂僀儞(Bedouin)偺掕廧壔傪偼偐傝丄廆嫵柺傑偱儚僢僴乕僽攈偺嫵媊傪怹摟偝偣偨丅偟偐偟丄1920擭戙屻婜偵僀僼儚乕儞(Ikhwan)偺懡偔偑傾僽僪僁儖傾僕僘墹(King Abdulaziz)乮僀僽儞 僒僂僪乯帺恎偲偺棙奞偺怘偄堘偄丄枖偦偺尃埿偵恘岦偐偆偩偗偺廫暘側椡偁傞偲姶偠丄摨墹偵懳偟岞慠偲憿斀偟偨丅1930擭戙弶傔偵偼僀僼儚乕儞払(Ikhwan)偼抏埑丒暈廬偝偣傜傟丄寢壥揑偵偙偺塣摦偼夝嶶偝偣傜傟丄屻偵僒僂僕傾儔價傾崙杊孯偵媧廂偝傟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 傾僀僪(Ibn Aid) 傾僔乕儖(Asir)1917擭傑偱僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman)偺導偱偁偭偨丅偦偺屻傾僽僴庱挿偺僴僒儞 傾儕 僀僽儞 傾僀僪(Hasan Ali Ibn Aid)偑巟攝偟偨偑丄1919擭偺僀僽儞 僒僂僪墹(Ibn Saud)偼傾僔乕儖偵孯戉傪憲偭偰惂埑偟偨丅偟偐偟僀僽儞 傾僀僪偑嵞傃斀棎偟偨偺偱僼傽僀僒儖墹巕(Prince Faisal)偑傾僽僴(Abha)傊偲孯傪棪偄偰丄娮棊偝偣丄偦偺帪埲崀丄傾僔乕儖偼僒僂僕椞偺堦晹偲惉偭偨丅

 

僀僽儞 傾僂儞(Ibn Awn) 傾僔乕儖(Asir)偼傾儖 儅僒儈(Al Mathami)弌恎偺庱挿偵1817擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1233擭乯傑偱巟攝偝傟偰嫃偨丅偦偺屻偱僄僕僾僩孯傪棪偄偨傾儖 僔儍儕僼 儉僴僢儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僂儞(Al Sharif Muhammad Ibn Awn)偑傾僔乕儖傪惂埑偟偰儉僴僢儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍(Muhammad Ali Pasha)偲傾儕傪巟帩偡傞儅僢僇乕庱挿(Sharif of Mecca)偺嫟摨摑帯壓偵擖傟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 傾儈乕儖(Ibn 'Amir) 傾僔乕儖庱挿偱偁偭偨傾僽僪 傾儖-儚僢僴僽 僀僽儞 傾儈乕儖('Abd al-Wahhab ibn 'Amir)偼僀僽儞 儉僴僢儅僪(Ibn Muhammad)傪暈廬偝偣傞堊丄僿僕儔楋1225擭乮惣楋1810/1811擭乯偵儚僨傿 價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偱愴偄丄彑棙偟偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄偙偺愴偄偱僀僽儞 傾儈乕儖(Ibn 'Amir)帺恎偑嶦偝傟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 僀僔儍僋(Ibn Ishaq) 儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 僀僔儍僋 僀僽儞 儎僒乕儖(Muammad ibn Isaq ibn Yasar,  704 – c. 767/770)偼傾儔價傾楌巎壠偱惞恖揱嶌幰(Hagiographer)偱偁傞丅僀僽儞 僀僔儍僋偼梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammad)偺嵟弶偺揱婰偺崻嫆偲側傞岥弎偺尵偄揱偊傪廤傔偨丅偦偺揱婰偼捠忢丄僔儔僩 儔僗儖 傾僢儔僼(Sirat Rasul Allah)偲屇偽傟丄乽恄偺巊偄偺堦惗(Life of God Messenger)乿偲東栿偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僽儞 僂儅儖(Ibn 'Umar) 僔儍儕乕僼 僴儉僪 僀僽儞 僂儅儖(Shareef Hamud ibn 'Umar)偼儚僨傿 價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偺愴偄偱僀僽儞 傾儈乕儖(Ibn Amir)帺恎偑嶦偝傟偨偺偵忔偠偰丄僿僕儔楋1230(1814 - 1815)埲崀丄撿偺僘僶僀僪(Zubayd)偐傜杒偺傾儖 僒儔僩嶳柆(Jibal al-Sarat)傑偱傪僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)偺墹偲偟偰摑帯偟偨丅

 

乽僀僽儞 僇僢儕僇儞揱婰乿乮Biography of Ibn Qalaqis乯丗 乽僀僽儞 僇僢儕僇儞(Ibn Khallikan)揱婰乿偺拞偺乽儚僼傽儎 傾儎儞偲傾儞僶 傾僽僫 僓儅儞(Wafayat al-ayan wa anba abna az-zaman) in the biography of Ibn Qalaqis乿偼償僃僗僥儞僼僃儖僪(F. Wüstenfeld )偵傛傝曇廤偝傟丄1835 - 1842擭偵僎僥傿儞僎儞(Göttingen)偱弌斉偝傟偨丅枖丄M. 僫儕僲(M. Nallino)偑曇廤偟1939擭偵儘乕儅(Rome)偱弌斉偟偨乽僒僂僕壠偺傾儔價傾(L'Arabia Saudina)乿偺拞偵傕堷梡偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僽儞 僐乕儖僟僪價(Ibn Khordadbih820 - 912) 堦斣弶婜偺傾儔僽抧棟妛幰偺堦恖偱偁傝丄僶僋僟乕僪偺傾僢僶乕僗挬僇儕僼 傾儖-儉僞儈僪(Al Mu乫tamod, 870 - 892)偺媨掛妛幰偱偁偭偨丅僐乕儖僟僪價偼儁儖僔傾偺弌恎偱偦偺崰丄僇儖僼偺廧嫃偺嵼偭偨僒儅僢儔(Samarra)偵棃傞慜偼埥傞帪婜儊僨傿僫偺梄曋嬊挿傪柋傔偰偄偨丅岞柋堳偱偁偭偨偺偱僐乕儖僟僪價偼懡偔偺婱廳側摑寁揑丄椃峴偺忣曬傪擖庤偡傞帠偑弌棃偨丅偦偟偰僐乕儖僟僪價偺挊嶌乽僉僞僽 傾儖亅儅僒儕僋 -儅儅儕僋乮摴楬偲墹崙偺杮乯(Kitab al-Masalik wa'l-Mamalik (Book of the Roads and Kingdoms))乿偼傾僢僶乕僗挬偺墹巕偺堊偵惣楋846擭偵曇嶽偝傟丄僀僗儔儉掗崙偺執戝側岎堈楬偺嫽枴偁傞奣梫傪娷傫偱偄偨丅

 

僀僽儞 僒僂僪墹(Ibn Saud) 傾僽僪儖-傾僕僘 僀僽儞 傾僽僪儖 儔乕儅儞 傾儖 僒僂僪(Abdul-Aziz Ibn Abdul Rahman Al Saud, 1876 - 1953)偼僒僂僨傿傾儔價傾(Saudi Arabia)傪寶崙偟偨弶戙崙墹偱偁傞丅僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Ibn Saud)18悽婭埲棃儚僢僴乕僽攈塣摦(Wahhabi Movement))傪巟帩偟僱僕僪嵐敊(Nejid)傪丄戞堦師僒僂僪岓崙(First Saudi State, 1744 - 1818)偍傛傃戞擇師僒僂僪岓崙(Second Saudi State, 1824 - 1891)傪庽棫偟丄巟攝偟偨僒僂僪壠偵惗傑傟偨丅1902115擔偵愭慶揱棃偺儕儎僪(Riyadh)傪儔僔乕僪懓(the Rashidi)偐傜扗夞偟丄1913擭偵偼偦偺巟攝傪傾儔價傾榩偺僴僒(Al Hasa)傑偱峀偘丄192111寧枠偵偼儔僔僢僪懓(the Rashids)偑巟攝偡傞僴僀乕儖(Hail)t偲僔儍儞儅儖嶳夠(the Jebel Shammar)傪梷偊丄乽僫僕僪偲懏椞偺僗儖僞儞(Sultan of Najd and its Dependencies)乿傪柤忔偭偨丅1922擭傑偱偵僕儍僂僼(Jawf)偲熆傟扟僔乕儖僴儞(Wadi Sirhan)偍傛傃執戝側僫僼僪嵐敊(the Great Nafud)偺惣偺僴僀僶乕儖(Khaibar)偍傛傃僥僀儅(Teima)傪妉摼偟丄僱僕僪嵐敊(Nejid)偺巟攝傪妋棫偟偨丅僀僗儔儉偺僇儕僼(Caliph al-Islam)傪帺徧偟偨僼僒僀儞(Husayn)19249寧忋弡偵嶳妜搒巗僞僀僼(Tayif)偱愴摤傪巒傔偨丅19241013擔偵儊僢僇(Mecca)偵擖忛丄19251223擔偵僕僃僟(Jeddah)偵擖忛偟偰僸僕儍乕僘(Hejaz))傪惇暈偟偨丅192618擔偵偼廧柉偺巟帩傪摼偰丄乽僸僕儍乕僘偺墹(the title of King of the Hejaz)乿偵懻姤偟偨丅19329寧偵僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Ibn Saud)偼帺暘偺摑堦偟偨椞搚傪乽僒僂僕傾儔價傾墹崙(Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)乿偲柤晅偗丄帺傜偑偦偺弶戙偺崙墹偵惉傞帠傪愰尵偟偨丅偦偺帯悽偺屻敿偺1938擭偵偼愇桘偑敪尒偝傟丄戞擇師戝愴廔椆屻偵偼戝婯柾側愇桘奐敪悇恑偺壎宐傪庴偗偨丅

 

僀僽儞 僕儍僼傽乕儖 僴僒僯(Ibn Jafar Hasani) 僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖偼偦偺挊彂乽僉僞僽 僗儔僩 傾儖-傾儖僪(Kitab Surat al-Ard)乮棨抧偺抧宍乯(Configuration of the Earth)乿偵乽僕儏僢僟偼斏塰偟丄宱嵪揑偵塰偊丄旕忢偵桾暉偱偁傝丄僸僕儍乕僘偵懏偝偢丄儊僢僇偐傜撈棫偟偰偍傝丄朙偐側晉傪帩偪丄懡偔偺彜庢堷傪峴偭偰嫃偨丅偦偺崰丄偙偺挰偺岎堈偼儁儖僔傾恖偵埇傜傟偰偄偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜僀僽儞 僕儍僼傽乕儖 僴僒僯(Ibn Jafar Hasani)偑偍傛偦惣楋965擭偵儊僢僇傪惇暈偟丄抧曽偺巟攝幰偲偟偰怴偨側墹挬傪寶崙偟丄攅尃傪僕儏僢僟偵傕媦傏偡偲僕儏僢僟偺桳椡側巗柉偼摝嶶偟丄偙偺挰偺忬嫷偼晄埨掕偵惉偭偰偟傑偭偨 (Conqueror of Mecca, circa 965)乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞 丅乮僔儍儕僼(Sharifs)嶲徠丅乯

 

僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖(Ibn Jubayr) 傾僽-僼僒僀儞 僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖(Abu 'l-Husayn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Jubayr)偼乽弰楃偺擭戙婰乿偺挊幰偱惣楋114591擔偵僶儗儞僔傾偺柤壠偵惗傑傟偨丅偙偺壠偼儊僢僇嬤峹偺尦乆僉僫僫乕晹懓(Kinnah tribe)弌恎偱4悽婭慜偵僗儁僀儞偵堏廧偟偰偄偨丅僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖偼弰楃偵峴偙偆偲寛怱偟偨帪偼僌儔僫僟(Granada)偺儉乕傾恖(Moors)憤撀偺旈彂偱偁偭偨丅擬怱偱惤幚側儌僗儗儉(Moslem)偱偁偭偨僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖(ibn Jubayr)偼偙偺挰偺撪壢堛(Physician)傪摨敽偟丄僌儔僫僟(Granada)118323擔偵弌敪偟丄搑拞偱傾儗僉僓儞僪儕傾(Alexandria)偲僇僀儘(Cairo)偵棫偪婑傝丄僫僀儖愳(The Nile)傪僋僗(Qus)傑偱壓偭偨丅偦偺屻丄僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖偼僄僕僾僩(Egypt)偺搶嵐敊傪傾僀僟僽(Aydhab)傑偱墶抐偟丄718擔偵峠奀(the Red Sea)搉峲偵慏弌偟偨丅慏偼梻擔偵傾僀僟僽(Aydhab)傪棧傟丄峳傟婥枴偺巐擔娫妡偗偰丄斀懳娸偺僕僢僟(Jiddah)偵摓拝偟偨丅偦偺曬崘幰偼R.J.C. 僽儘乕僪僴乕僗僩(R.J.T. Broadhurst)偵傛偭偰東栿偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖偺椃峴婰乿丗 僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖(Ibn Jubayr)挊偺乽僀僽儞 僕儏僶僀儖偺椃峴婰(Travels of Ibn Jubayr乿偼僽儘乕僪僴乕僗僩(R.JC. Broadhurst)偑東栿偟丄1952擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀僽儞 僞僀儈儎(Ibn Taymiyah) 僴儞僶儕乕攈(Hanbali)偺廆嫵夵妚幰(1263 - 1328)偱屄恖傕惌晎傕媀幃偍傛傃巌朄偺幚慔偵嵟傕尩偟偄嫮惂傪嫮梫偟丄儌僗儕儉(Muslim)偺嵟弶偺悽戙偁傞偄偼摉弶偺僀僗儔儉(Islam)偺嫵偊埲崀偵摫擖偝傟偨偳偺傛偆側怣忦(Belief)偁傞偄偼惞揱(Tradition)傕嫅斲偟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖(Ibn Hauqal) 僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖偼執戝側僀僗儔儉椃峴幰偺堦恖偱偁傞丅惣楋943515擔偵屘嫿偺僶僋僟乕僪傪棧傟偰丄杒傾僼儕僇丄僗儁僀儞丄偦傟偐傜僔僊儖儊僒(Sigilmessa in Morocco)偲僈乕僫(Ghana)傊峴偒丄偦傟偐傜僄僕僾僩(Egypt)丄撿儊僜億僞儈傾(Southern Mesopotamia)丄惣儁儖僔傾(Western Persia)丄僩儔儞僜僓僯傾(Transoxania)傪墇偊偰丄嵟屻偵僔僔儕乕(Sicily)傊拝偄偨乮惣楋972擭偐傜973擭乯丅僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖偺挊彂乽僉僞僽 僗儔僩 傾儖-傾儖僪(Kitab Surat al-Ard)乮棨抧偺抧宍(Configuration of the Earth)乯乿偼惣楋988擭偵姰寢偟偨丅僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖(Ibn Hauql)偼僀僗僞僴儕(Istakhri)偲嫟偵執戝側抧棟妛幰傾僽 僓僀僪 傾儖-僶儖僸(Abu Zayid al-Balkhi)偺栧壓偱偁傝丄僀僗僞僴儕(Auctore Abu Ishak al-Farisi al -Istakhri)950擭崰偵曇廤偟丄嵟怴忣曬壔偟丄憹曗偟偨斉傪嶌偭偨僀僗僞僴儕斉乽崙乆偺昤幨乿偼僀僽儞 僴僂僇儖(Ibn Hauqal)偵傛偭偰偦偺挊嶌乽棨抧偺抧宍乿偵庢傝崬傑傟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 僶僢僩僁乕僞(Ibn Battuta) 僀僽儞 僶僢僩僁乕僞偼1304擭偵僞儞僕乕儖(Tangier)偱惗傑傟丄21嵥偱崙傪棧傟丄偦偺屻偺28擭娫丄儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪僢儔 儔儚僥傿(Muhammad ibn Abdallah al-Lawati)(1304-68/69)偺暿柤偱25擭埲忋偵傢偨偭偰傾僼儕僇丄傾僕傾丄儓乕儘僢僷摍偺偦偺帪戙偵抦傜傟偰偄偨杦偳偺崙乆傪朘傟偨椃峴壠偱乽傾僼儕僇丒傾僕傾椃峴婰儕僴儔(Rihhlah)乿傪挊偟偨丅

 

乽僀僽儞 僶僢僩僁乕僞曻楺偺暔岅(Narrative of Ibn Battuta乫s Wanderings)乿丗 儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 僕儏僓僀(Muhammad ibn Juzay)偵傛偭偰婰榐偝傟丄僕儏僓僀偼僶僢僩僁乕僞偺婰擮旇揑側嬈愌傪乽偙偺僔儍僀僋(Shaykh)偼変乆偺帪戙偺椃峴幰偱偁傝丄僀僗儔儉堟慡偰偺椃峴幰偲屇傫偱傕恀幚傪堩扙偟偰偼偄側偄乿偲偺尵梩偱寢傫偱偄傞丅

 

乽僀僽儞 僶僢僩僁乕僞偺椃峴婰(Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325-1354)乿丗 僴僋儖乕僩嫤夛(Hakluyt Society) H.A.R. 僊僽(H.AR. Gibb)偑東栿丒曇廤偟丄1958擭偐傜働儞僽儕僢僕(Cambridge)偱弌斉偝傟偨偑丄1973擭傑偱偵4姫撪偺嵟弶偺3姫敪峴偝傟偨偺傒偱偁傞 (Tr. and ed. by U.A.R. Gibb (Hakluyt Society). Cambridge 1958-19.Four volume edition. Up to 1973 only the first three volumes have been issued)

 

僀僽儞 儉僕儍僂傿乕儖(Ibn al-Mujawir) 僀僽儞 儉僕儍僂傿乕儖偼惣楋1204擭偵僟儅僗僇僗偱惗傑傟偨丅僀僽儞 儉僕儍僂傿乕儖偼報搙偵懕偄偰傾僨儞 (Aden) 丄僓乕價僪(Zabid or Zebid) 丄儊僢僇偦偟偰僕僢僟傪椃峴偟偨丅僀僽儞 儉僕儍僂傿乕儖偼惣楋1291擭偵杤偟偨偑乽僞儕僴 儉僗僞乕僔乕儖(Tarikh al-Mustahsir)乿暃戣乽撿傾儔價傾偺婰弎(subtitle: Descripyio Arabiae Meridionalis)乿偲塢偆挊彂傪巆偟偨丅

 

僀僽儞 儉僴僢儅僪(Ibn Muhammad) 傾僽 儈僗儅儖(Abu Mismar)偺柤偱抦傜傟傞僴儉僪 僀僽儞 儉僴僢儅僪(Hamud ibn Muhammad)19悽婭弶傔偵僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)偵偍偗傞僨傿儔僀儎乕(Dir'iyah)偺尃埿偲傾儖 僒僂僪(Al-Sa'ud)傊偺恇廬偐傜撈棫偟偰懳峈偟偨丅寢壥揑偵偼傾僔乕儖庱挿偼斵傪嵞搙暈廬偝偣傞條偵柦偠傜傟偨丅

 

僀儅乕儉 僴僢僒儞(Imam al Hasan) 僴僢僒儞(al Hasan)偼梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad, ca. 570 – 632)偺懛偱戞4戙惓摑僇儕僼(4th Rashidum Caliph)偱弶戙僔乕傾攈僀儅乕儉(First Shi乫ah Imam)傾儕乕 僀僽儞 傾價乕 僞乕儕僽(乪Ali ibn Abi Talib, 656 - 661)偲梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪偺柡僼傽乕僥傿儅(Fatima Al Zahraa, 606 or 614 – 632)偺娫偵惗傑傟丄僗儞僫攈(Sunni Islam)5戙僇儕僼(Fifth Caliph)偱僔乕傾攈(Shi乫ah Islam)2戙僀儅乕儉(Second Imam)偲側偭偨僴僒儞 僀僽儞 傾儕乕 僀僽儞 傾價乕 僞乕儕僽(Hasan ibn 乪Ali ibn Abi Talib, 624 - 669)偱偁傞丅

 

僀儅乕儉 儔僢僔僪(Imam Rassids) 僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偱偺弶戙僓僀僪攈僀儅乕儉(First Zaidi Imam)偱僴僢僒儞(al Hasan)偺巕懛僴僨傿 儎僴儎 價儞 僼僢僒僀儞 價儞 僇僔儉 儔僢僔乕(al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi)丅乮僀儅乕儉 僴僢僒儞(Imam al Hasan)傪嶲徠丅乯

 

僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎(Imam Yahya) 僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎(Yahya Muhammad Hamidaddin, 1869 - 1948)1904擭偵僓僀僪 僀儅乕儉惌尃(Zaidi Imamate)偺僀儅乕儉(Imam)偲側傝丄1911擭偵嶳妜抧懷偺杒僀僄儊儞偱偺僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎偺巟攝偼僆僗儅儞僩儖僐(Ottoman Turks)偵擣傔傜傟丄偦偺廬懏崙偲側偭偨丅1918擭偵戞堦師悽奅戝愴偺廔愴偱僆僗儅儞僩儖僐偑杒僀僄儊儞偺巟攝傪憆幐偡傞偲僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎偼1926擭僀僞儕傾偲偺僒儞傾忦栺(Treaty of San乫a)偺傛偭偰撈棫崙偲側傝丄僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎偼杒僀僄儊儞偺僀僄儊儞丒儉僞儚僉僄墹崙(Mutawakkilite Kingdom of YemenQasimid Dynasty, 1918 - 1962)偺弶戙崙墹偲側偭偨丅1934擭偺僒僂僪壠(House of Saud)偲偺愴偄偱偼姰攕偟偨偑丄僀僽儞 僒僂僪墹(King Ibn Saud)偼椞搚栤戣偵怗傟傞偙偲側偔暯榓忦栺傪採埬偟偨丅1946擭偵僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎偵斀懳偡傞惃椡偑慻怐偝傟丄僀儅乕儉 儎僴儎偼1948擭偵幩嶦偝傟偨丅僀僄儊儞丒儉僞儚僉僄墹偼偦偺懅巕僀儅乕儉 傾僴儅僪(Imam Ahmad)偑宲彸偟偨偑丄3戙屻偺儉僴儞儅僪11(Muhammad XI)1962擭偺妚柦偱捛曻偝傟丄杒僀僄儊儞偺僀儅乕儉巟攝偼廔鄟偟偨丅

 

僀儉儖傾儖 僈僀僗(Imru' al-Qais) 5悽婭偺傾儔僽晹懓偺墹偱偁傝丄尦乆偼崱擔偺僀儔僋椞撪偺傾儖 僸儔(Al Hirah or Al Hira)偺帺椞偵廧傫偱偄偨偑僨儏儅僩 傾儖 僕儍儞僟儖(Dumat al-Jandal)偵堏廧偟偰棃偨丅崱擔偺僕儑儖僟儞(Jordan)傪椊夗偟丄價僓儞僠儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire)偐傜傾僈僶('Aqaba)榩偺擖傝岥偵偁傞僠儔儞(Tiran)搰傪愯嫆偡傞掱偵摨墹偺惃椡偼奼戝偟偨丅偙偙偱塢偆僀儉儖傾儖 僈僀僗(Imru' al-Qais)偼儔僼儉挬(Lakhmids)2戙崙墹(Imru' al-Qais I ibn 'Amr, 288 - 328)偱偼側偔丄戞6戙崙墹Nu'man I ibn Imru' al-Qais "the one-eyed"(403-431)枖偼戞7戙崙墹 al-Mundhir I ibn Nu'man ibn Imru' al-Qais(431-473)偺壗傟偱偼側偄偐偲巹偼巚偭偰偄傞偑丄斵傜偑僨儏儅僩 傾儖 僕儍儞僟儖偵堏廧偟偨帠傪棤晅偗傞暥專偼枹偩偵扵偟弌偣側偄偱偄傞丅

 

僀儉儖傾儖 僈僀僗(Imru' al-Qais)(挊柤側屆戙傾儔價傾偺帊恖) 僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼傾儊儖傾儖 僈僀僗(Ameru乫 al Qays)丄僀儉儖 傾儖 僌傾僀僗(Imru乫u al Quais)枖偼僀僽儞 僼僕儖 傾儖 僉儞僨傿(Ibn Hujir Al Kindi)偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅6悽婭偺傾儔價傾偺帊恖偱偁傝丄僀僗儔儉埲慜偺傾儔價傾塁暥慖廤儉傾儔僈僩(Muallaqat)偺挊幰偱傕偁傞丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼嵟屻偺僉儞僟崙墹(Last King of Kindah)偱偁偭偨僼僕儖(Hujr)偺懅巕偱偁傝丄501擭慜屻偵惗傑傟丄544擭慜屻偵巰朣偟偨丅曣恊偺僼傽僩儅 價儞僩 儔價(Fatmah bint Rabi'ah)2恖偼傛偔抦傜傟偰偄傞傾儔價傾晹懓巜摫幰僋儕僽(Kulib)偲儉僴儖僼儖(Al – Muhalhl)偺枀偱偁偭偨丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼崙墹偺懅巕偩偭偨偺偱偤偄偨偔偟偰偄偨偑丄晝恊偺埫嶦偺屻偼墹尃傪扗傢傟丄斵偼嬯廰偟偨丅偙偺堊偵僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼憆幐偟偨崙墹(al Malek al Delleel)偲屇偽傟偰偄傞丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼丄晝恊偺巰傪抦傜偝傟偨帪偵偼丄乽崱栭偼堸傒柧偐偟丄柧擔偼壗偑婲偒偨偐懳張偟傛偆(Alyooma Khamr, Ghadan Am)乿偲尵偭偨掱儚僀儞(堸庰)傪垽偟偰偄偨丅乽Alyooma Khamr, Ghadan Amr乿偲塢偆堄枴偼乽晝偺媤傪摙偮乿偲偺堄枴偲巚傢傟傞偑丄傑傢傝偺幰払偼摓掙丄擺摼偱偒側偐偭偨丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼丄擬楏側垽偺帊傪彂偒丄屆戙傾儔價傾偺帊偺宍幃(Qasida or Classical Arabic Ode)傪嶌傝弌偟偨偲峫偊傜傟偰偄傞丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偺帊偼懡偔偺僀僗儔儉慜偺帪戙偺帊偲摨偠條偵嫮楏偵庡娤揑偩偭偨丅僀儉儖 僈僀僗偼儐僗僥傿僯傾僰僗挬(Justinian Dynasty)搶儘乕儅掗崙偺峜彈偲晄椣娭學傪帩偭偨堊偵摨峜掗儐僗僥傿僯傾僰僗1(Justinian I, 485 - 565)偐傜撆傪巇妡偗偨奜搮傪憲傜傟丄埫嶦偝傟偨偲峫偊傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僀儔僒儖僗(Ilasarus) 尰嵼偺僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偺僒儞(San'a丄僒僫)偺搶偵偁偭偨屆戙偺崙僀儔僒儖僗(Ilasarus) 丅乮僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)傪嶲徠丅乯

 

僀乕儔儉(Hiram or Ihram) 僀僗儔儉嫵搆偺儊僢僇弰楃(pilgrimage)傪峴偆堊偵拝傞僀乕儔儉(the Hiram or Ihram)偼堦斒揑偵敀偄僀儞僪惢偺柸巺偱怐偭偨敄抧偺暯怐(cambric)2偮挿偄晍偱峔惉偝傟丄1偮偼崢偺傑傢傝偵傕偆1偮偼嵍偺宍偵妡偗傞丅

 

僀儔儚僨傿愳(Irrawaddy River) 僸儅儔儎嶳柆(Himalayan Range)偺撿抂傪尮愹偲偟偰儈儎儞儅乕傪撿棳偟丄儀儞僈儖(Bengal)榩偵拲偓丄壓棳偼僨儖僞抧懷傪惉偡丅尰嵼偼僄乕儎儚僨傿乕愳(Ayeyarwady River)偲屇徧偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

(Shehed) 摢晹偺報乮僔僃僿僪(shehed)(witness)乯偲偼摢偺埵抲傪報偟偨僩儖僐幃偺曟愇偱偁傞丅

 

僀儞僕僑(Indigo) 儅儊壢僐儅僣僫僊懏(Indigofera)偺懡擭憪偺憤徧偱偦偺梩偐傜僀儞僕僑傪嵦傞傕偺傪棔(Indigo)偲塢偆丅嵦庢偟偨愼椏偼埫惵怓偱崱擔偱偼傾僯儕儞傪尨椏偲偟偰崌惉偝傟傞丅

 

僀儞僟僗愳(The Indus River) 僠儀僢僩偐傜惣偵棳傟丄僷僉僗僞儞偺僷儞僕儍僽抧曽(Punjab Region)丒僞乕儖嵐敊(Thar Desert)惣曈傪宱偰丄傾儔價傾奀偵拲偖丅慡挿2,900km偱棳堟偵偼婭尦慜2300擭偐傜婭尦慜1800擭偺娫偵僀儞僟僗暥柧(Indus Valley Civilization ,Mature Period 2600 BC - 1900 BC),偑塰偊偨丅

 

僀儞僟僗扟(Valley of the Indus or Indus Valley) 僠儀僢僩偐傜惣偵棳傟丄僷僉僗僞儞傪捠偭偰傾儔價傾奀偵拲偖僀儞僟僗愳(The Indus River)偺宬扟丅

 

乽僀儞僪偱偺朻尟帠嬈(Enterprises of India)乿丗 僊儍僗僷乕 僐儕傾(Gaspar Correa)挊偺尨嶌偼億儖僩僈儖岅(Lendas da India)偱丄偦偺戣柤偺東栿偵偼乽僀儞僪偱偺朻尟帠嬈(Enterprises of India)乿偲乽僀儞僪偺愢榖廤(Legends of India)乿偲擇捠傝偵栿偣傞偑丄巹偼撪梕偐傜朻尟帠嬈偲夝庍偟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僀儞僪偺僐乕僠儞偵帄傞峠奀偍傛傃儁儖僔傾榩偺峲奀弍偵偮偄偰(Navigation in the Rea Sea and the Persian Gulf up to Cochin City of India)乿丗 僼儘儗儞僗(Florence)偺傾儞僪儗傾 僐儖僒儕(Andrea Corsali)偐傜嵟傕崅柤側峜懓偱僔僯儑乕儖(Signor)庱挿偱傕偁傞儘儗儞僝 儊僨傿僠岞(the Most Illustrious Prince and Lord the Signor Duke Lorrenzo de' Meddici)埗偵1517918擔偵彂偐傟偨庤巻偱儔儉僔僆(G.B. Ramusio)挊偺乽庡梫側峲奀偺廂榐(Delle navizazioni et Viaggi Venezia)乿偵廂榐偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僀儞僪偺億儖僩僈儖恖(Portuguese in Indea)乿丗 僟儞償傽乕僘(Danvers, F.C.)挊丄儘儞僪儞(Lodon)1894擭偵弌斉偝傟偨丅傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑 (Dr. Angelo Pesce)偼乽摨彂偵偼1510擭戙偵傾儖儃働儖働偑儅僯儏僄儖崙墹埗偰偵弌偟偨庤巻偺堦偮偑宖嵹偝傟偰偄傞偑丄僟儞償傽乕僘(Danvers)偑巆偟偨擔晅偼堦斒揑擭戙婰傗偦偺屻偺傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)偺峴摦偺懕偒偲堦抳偟側偄丅僟儞償傽乕僘偼偦偺弌揟傪寛偟偰堷梡偟側偄偟丄婔偮偐偺椺偱柧妋側娫堘偄偑尒傜傟傞偺偱丄僟儞償傽乕僘偺擔晅偼惓偟偔側偄偲憐憸偱偒傞乿偲弎傋偰偄傞丅

 

 

償傽僉傾(Vakia) 乮峵検扨埵乯1/15儔僢僩儖(Rattle)偱姺嶼偡傞偲1.18oz.34g偱偁傞丅乮搶梞岎堈(Oriental Commerce)僂傿儖傾儉 儈儖僶乕儞(William Milburn)1823擭弌斉乯

廳検扨埵偺姺嶼

峵検扨埵

峵検扨埵

pound/oz.

kg

1償傽僉傾(Vakia)

1/15儔僢僩儖(Rattle)

1.18oz.

34g

1儔僢僩儖(Rattle)

1/2儅僂儞僪(Maund)

1.11lbs

0.51

1儅僂儞僪(Maund)

1/10僼傽僕儖(Frazil)

2.22lbs

1.02kg

1僼傽僕儖(Frazil)

1/10僶僴乕儖(Bahar)

2.2.2lbs.

10.1kg

1僶僴乕儖(Bahar)

nearly

222lbs. 6oz.

101kg乮栺乯

1億儞僪(pound)

(ounces or oz.)

16僆儞僗

454g乮栺乯

 

償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama) 億儖僩僈儖偺峲奀幰丒扵専壠(1460 - 1524)偱偁傝丄婌朷曯夞傝偺僀儞僪峲楬傪奐戱偟偨丅億儖僩僈儖偺奀忋岎堈偺攅尃偼偙傟偵傛偭偰偦偺婎慴偑妋棫偝傟偨丅

 

乽償傽僗僐 僈儅偺傾儔價傾恖悈愭埬撪恖偲15悽婭傾儔價傾偺峲奀庤堷偒彂(Le pilote arabe de Vasco de Gama et les instructions nautique des Arabes au XV)乿丗 偙偺庤堷彂偼僼僃儔乕儞僪(G. Ferrand)偵傛偭偰挊嶌偝傟丄1922擭偵弌斉偝傟偨抧棟擭戙婰172(Annales de Géographie)偵宖嵹偝傟偨丅

 

償傽僗僐 僈儅偺峲奀弌敪擔丗 僐儕傾(G. Correa) 偑乽the Lendas da India of Gaspar Correa乿乮乽償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)偺嶰夞偺峲奀偲暃墹(The three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and his Viceroyalty)乿乯偱婰弎偟偰偄傞擔晅偲偙偺墦惇偵嶲壛偟偨柍柤偺巑姱偵傛偭偰婰榐偝傟丄嶨帍儘僥僀儘(the Roteiro)偵宖嵹偝傟偰偄傞擔晅乮1497325擔乯偵偼挊偟偄柕弬偑偁傞偑丄屻幰偺擔晅偼僴僋儕乕僩嫤夛(Hakluyt Society)偺儗乕償儞僗僥僀儞(E. G. Ravenstein)偑東栿丒曇廤偟丄1898擭偵London偱弌斉偟偨乽償傽僗僐 僈儅 偺戞堦峲奀偺擔帍(A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama)乿偵弌偰偔傞偺偱丄傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑 (Dr. Angelo Pesce)偼偦傟乮1497325擔乯偵廗偭偰偄傞丅

 

乽償傽僗僐 僈儅 偺戞堦峲奀偺擔帍乿(Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama)乿丗 償傽僗僐 僈儅 偺戞堦峲奀偵嶲壛偟偨柍柤偺巑姱偵傛偭偰婰榐偝傟丄嶨帍儘僥僀儘(the Roteiro)偵宖嵹偝傟婰帠傪僴僋儕乕僩嫤夛(Hakluyt Society)偺儗乕償儞僗僥僀儞(E. G. Ravenstein)偑東栿丒曇廤偟丄1898擭偵London偱弌斉 偟偨丅

 

乽償傽僗僐 僈儅偺嶰夞偺峲奀偲暃墹乿(Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and his Viceroyalty) 1858擭偐傜1864擭偺娫偵儕僗儃儞壢妛妛夛偵弌斉偝傟丄償傽僗僐 僈儅偺僀儞僪峲楬墶抐偵偮偄偰僊儍僗僷乕 僐儕傾(Gaspar Correa)偑婰弎偟偨乽僀儞僪偱偺朻尟帠嬈(Enterprises of India)埥偄偼僀儞僪偺愢榖廤(Legends of India)乿傪僴僋儕乕僩嫤夛(Hakluyt Society)偵懏偟偰偄偨僗僞儞儕乕(Henry.E.J. Stanley)偑億儖僩僈儖岅傪東栿偟丄拹庍偲弿尵傪晅偗偰乽償傽僗僐 僈儅偺嶰夞偺峲奀偲暃墹乿偲戣偟偰丄儘儞僪儞(London)1896擭偵弌斉偟偨丅乮暃墹偼憤撀偲傕揮幨偝傟傞丅乯

 

乽償傽儗儞僔傾嫧(Lord Valentia)偵傛傞1809擭偺弌斉乿丗 1802擭偐傜1806擭偺僀儞僪丄僙僀儘儞丄峠奀丄傾僽僔僯傾媦傃僄僕僾僩傊偺峲奀丒椃峴婰乿儅僂儞僩 僲儕僗攲庉僕儑乕僕 傾儞僗儗僀偺巏巕償傽儗儞僔傾(George Annesley, Earl of Mount Norris, Viscount Valentia)挊丄1809擭儘儞僪儞偱弌斉(Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abysinia and Egypt in the Years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806, by George, Viscount Valentia, London 1809.)

 

償傿僋僩儕傾屛(Lake Victoria) 傾僼儕僇搶晹丄僞儞僓僯傾(Tanzania)丄働僯傾(Kenya)丄僂僈儞僟(Uganda)偵傑偨偑傞扺悈屛偱僫僀儖愳偺悈尮丅昗崅1,134m丄柺愊偼悽奅戞嶰埵6.9km2丄嵟戝恔搙82m

 

償傿僔僄乕儖(Visier) 僕僢僟(Jidda)偵挀嵼偡傞儊僢僇(Mecca)偺僔僃儕僼(the Sheriffe)傪戙昞偡傞僔僃儕僼偺姱棛丅

 

償傿僠僃儞僣傽(Vicenza) 僀僞儕傾搶杒晹儀僱僩(Veneto)廈偺挰儀僱僠傾乮儀僯僗乯(Venice)偺惣偵偁傞巗偱恖岥11枩恖丅

 

僂傿僨傿傾儞懲愊杶抂晹(Widyan Basin Margin) 傾儔價傾嫄戝懲愊杶偺堦晹偱敀垷婭(Cretaceous)屻婜偺傾儖儅(Aruma)愇奃娾憌偱暍傢傟偰偄傞丅偙偺懲愊杶抂晹偵偼棳傟偺曽岦偑搶傊岦偄偨懡偔偺熆傟扟(Wadi)偑偁傞丅偦偺懲愊憌偼弶婜偍傛傃拞婜敀垷婭(Cretaceous)偺嵒娾丄愇奃娾摍偱峔惉偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僂傿乕儞墹棫恾彂娰強憼偺傾儔價傾丄儁儖僔儍偍傛傃僩儖僐偺屆暥彂乿丗 FLÜGEL, G. "Die Arabischen, Persischen und Turkischen Handschriften der K.K. Hofbibliothek zu Wien" Wien 1856G. 僼儕儏乕僎儖挊丄1856擭僂傿乕儞偱弌斉丅

 

償傿儞僙儞僩 僜僪儗(Vincent Sodré) 1503212擔偺乽僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)娡戉偲偺奀愴乿偱償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)巜婗偡傞億儖僩僈儖娡戉偺拞偐傜3鋤偺慏偲5鋤偺僇儔儀儖慏(caravel)偱曇惉偝傟丄娸増偄偵峲峴偟偨僌儖乕僾乮彫娡戉乯偺巜婗幰丅

 

乽償僃僥儕僗 僀乕償傿 傾僫儗僋僞(Veteris Aevi Analecta)乿丗 傾儞僩僯僂僗 儅僢僥僂僗(Antonius Mattaeus)挊丄僴乕僌(Hague)1738擭偵弌斉偝傟偨丅乽(Veteris Aevi Analecta)乿偺拞偱傾儞僩僯僂僗 儅僢僥僂僗(Antonius Mattaeus)偼乽峠奀偺椃峴婰(the Red Sea itineraries)乿偵尵媦偟偰偄傞丅

 

償僃僯僗(Venice) 償僃僱僣傿傾(Comune di Venezia)偼丄僀僞儕傾偺杒搶晹偵埵抲偡傞婎慴帺帯懱僐儉乕僱(commune)婎慴帺帯懱偱丄償僃僱僩廈乮Veneto乯偺廈搒偱偁傝丄拞悽偵偼償僃僱僣傿傾嫟榓崙偺庱搒偲偟偰惙偊偨搒巗偱丄乽傾僪儕傾奀偺彈墹乿乽悈偺搒乿乽傾僪儕傾奀偺恀庫乿側偳丄悢乆偺柤惡傪変偑暔偵偟偰偒偨丅乮僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

僂僃儖僗僥僪. J.R. (J.R. Wellsted) 塸崙恖椃峴壠偱儘儞僪儞偱 惣楋1838擭偵弌斉偝傟偨乽傾儔價傾偺椃峴(Travel in Arabia)乿偺挊幰丅

 

償僅儖償傿僗榩(Walvis Bay) 僫儈價傾拞惣晹丄戝惣梞娸偵偁傞撿傾僼儕僇嫟榓崙偺旘椞搚偱屆棃偐傜偺椙峘偱偁傞丅

 

僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偺墹崙 (Kingdom of Ukaidir): 僂僇僀僨傿乕儖(Ukaidir)偼尰嵼偺撿僀儔僋(Southern Iraq)偺僸儔(Al Hirah)抧曽偺僨儏儅乮Duma乯偲屇偽傟傞挰偵孼掜偲廧傫偱偄偨丅僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偲孼掜払偼嵐敊偵僇儖僽(Kalb)懓偺廸晝傪朘偹傞偺偑忢偩偭偨丅偦偺椃峴偵巊偭偨僐乕僗偺堦偮偱愇憿傝偺嬐偐側暻偩偗偑巆傞峳攑偟尒幪偰傜傟偨挰偵峴偒拝偄偨丅傾儔僽偼愇傪僕儍儞僟儖偲屇傇丅揱愢偵傛傟偽孼掜払偼偦偙偵挰傪抸偒丄僆儕乕僽傪怉偊丄帺暘払偺僸儔偱偺挰偺柤偱偁傞僨儏儅偲偨偔偝傫偺愇偵場傫偱僨儏儅僩 僕儍儞僟儖(Dumat al-Jandal)偲柤晅偗掕廧偟偨丅僀僗儔儉偺戜摢婜偵偼僨儏儅僩 僕儍儞僟儖偼僉儞僟(Kinda)晹懓弌恎偺僂僇僀僨傿乕儖 價儞傾僽僪 儅儕僋(al-Ukaidir bin 'Abd al-Malik)偺巟攝偺壓偵偁偭偨丅僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偼僇儖僽懓傪巟攝偡傞堊偵僸儉儎儖懓(Himyarites)偵傛偭偰抲偐傟偨僉儞僟懓弌恎偺墹偱偁偭偨丅僇儖僽懓偼僇僴僞僯(Qahtani)晹懓偺僌僟(Quda'a)巟懓偺暘壠偱偁傝丄摉帪偼僉儕僗僩嫵傪怣嬄偟偰偄偨丅僇儖僽懓偼僨儏儅僩 僕儍儞僟儖偲偦偺廃曈偺傒側傜偢墦偔杒惣傾儔價傾偺僞僽僋(Tabuk)偵傕偦偺攅尃傪峀偘偰偄偨丅僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偼摉帪偺戝惃椡偱偁偭偨價僓儞僠儞(Byzantine Empire)傗僒僒儞挬儁儖僔傾(Sasanian Iran)偲楢実傪曐偭偰偄偨丅夞嫵搆(Muslin)偺巜婗姱僇儕僪 價儞 儚儕僪(Khalid bin al-Walid)偑惣楋633擭偵僨儏儅僩 僕儍儞僟儖傪峌寕偟偰偄偨帪偵僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偼價僓儞僠儞掗崙偺堦惃椡偲偟偰價僓儞僠儞掗崙偲偺崙嫬抧懷偵偍偗傞晹懓偑柨庡偲偟偨僈僢僒儞挬(Ghassanids)偲摨柨偟丄偦偺墹僀僽儞 傾僀僴儉(Ibn al-Aiham)傗偦偺庱挿僕儏僨傿僀僀 價儞 儔價(Judiyy bin Rabi'a)偲枾愙側嫤椡娭學傪帩偭偰偄偨丅僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偼價僓儞僠儞掗僿儔僋儕僂僗(Heraclius)傪庡孨偲偟偰庴偗擖傟偰偄偨偺偱梊尵幰儉僴僢儅僪(Muhammad)偺僨儏儅僩 僕儍儞僟儖傊偺嵟弶偺墦惇偼儘乕儅掗崙傊偺峌寕傪堄枴偟偰偄偨丅僂僇僀僨傿乕儖偼僸僕儔楋(Hijra)12/惣楋633擭偺夞嫵搆巜婗幰僇乕儕僪 價儞 儚儕乕僪(Khalid bin Walid)偵惇暈偝傟偨丅

 

僂僈儞僟(Uganda) 傾僼儕僇搶晹愒摴忋偵偁傞撪棨崙偱償傿僋僩儕傾屛(Lake Victoria)偵愙偟丄塸楢朚偵懏偟丄1962擭偵撈棫丄柺愊24km2丄恖岥2,130枩恖偱庱搒偼僇儞僷儔(Kampala)

 

僂僋乕僼(Wuquf) 弰楃偱傾儔僼傽偺暯尨偵悁棷偡傞帠丅弰楃寧9擔偺擔偺弌偐傜弰楃抧儈僫乕偺扟偐傜堏摦偟偰傾儔僼傽偺暯尨偵岦偐偄丄擔杤傑偱傾儔僼傽偺暯尨偵悁棷偟丄夁嫀偺嵾傪夨偄夵傔丄傾僢儔乕偵幫偟傪媮傔丄偦偺柤傪彞擮偟丄婩婅偡傞偺偑媊柋偲側傞丅

 

僂僐儞(Turmeric) 烼嬥偼僔儑僂僈壢偺懡擭憪偱丄傾僕傾擬懷尨嶻偱偁傝丄壂撽偱傕嵧攟偝傟偰偄傞丅崻宻偼旍戝壔偟偰墿怓偱丄梩偼梩暱偲嫟偵挿偝1m偵媦傇丅壞丒廐偵壴曚傪惗偠丄棏宍敀怓偺錃傪懡偔晅偗丄奺錃偵34屄偢偮偺扺墿怓怬宍壴傪奐偔丄崻宻傪巭寣栻丄寬堓栻丄崄椏傗僇儗乕暡丄戲埩捫偗偺墿怓愼椏偲偡傞丅

 

幐傢傟偨傾儔僽(Lost Arabs)丗乽 徚偊偨晹懓乿偲傕偄傢傟傞乽幐傢傟偨傾儔僽乮傾儖乕傾儔僽 傾儖乕僶僀僟(al-'Arab al-ba'ida)乯乿偵娭偡傞忣曬偼揱愢偺宍偱偟偐暘偐偭偰嫃側偄偑偦偺拞偱婔偮偐偼僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾偺僀僗儔儉埲慜偺峫屆妛揑堚愓偵巆偭偰偄傞丅偙偺條側晹懓偵偼僒儉乕僪(Thamud)傾僪('Ad)傾儅儕僌('Amaliq)丄僀儔儉(Iram)丄僴僪儔(Hadura)丄僕儏乕儖僼儉(Jurhum)偲僞僗儉(Tasm)偲僕儍僨傿僗(Jadis)偑娷傑傟偰偄傞丅僞僗儉(Tasm)偲僕儍僨傿僗(Jadis)偼摉帪偼儚僨傿 傾儖乕僀儖僪(Wadi al-'Ird)偲屇偽傟偰偄偨儚僨傿 僴僯僼傽乕(Wadi Hanifah)傪娷傓傾儖乕儎儅儅乕(al-Yamamah)偵廧傫偱嫃偨偑僀僗儔儉摓棃偺擇悽婭慜偵偙偺抧偵僶僰 僴僯僼傽乕(Banu Hanifah) 堦栧偑傗偭偰棃傞慜偵巰偵愨偊偨偲尵傢傟偰偄傞丅

 

僂僗僥儞僼僃儖僪F.(F. Wüstenfeld ) 乽儎僋僩偺抧棟妛帿彂乿傪曇廤偟丄1866 - 1870擭偵儔僀僾僠僸(Leipzig)偱弌斉 (Jacut's Geographisches Wörtebuch ed. by F. Wüstenfeld. Leipzig 1866 - 1870)

 

僂僗儅儞 僀僽儞 傾僽 傾儖 傾傾僗(Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas) 僞僀僼(Taif)偑僀僗儔儉(Islam)偵揋懳偟巒傔偨帪偺僒僉僼懓(Banu Thaqif Tribe)偺懓挿(Thaqif乫I Chieftain)偺堦恖偱偁傞偑丄631/632擭偵僀僗儔儉傊偺夵廆傪庴偗偨僞僀僼巗戙昞抍偺抍挿偱傕偁偭偨丅乮弌揟丗 Wikipedia)

 

僂僗儅儞 價儞 傾僢僼傽儞(Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan) 僂僗儅乕儞丒僀僽儞 傾僢僼傽乕儞(Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan)(574-656)偼戞3戙惓摑僇儕僼乮嵼埵644-656乯偱僀僗儔乕儉嫵(Islam)偺惞揟偱偁傞僋儖傾乕儞(Qur乫an)乮僐乕儔儞(Koran)乯傪姰惉偝偣偨傝丄651擭偵偼僒乕僒乕儞挬儁儖僔傾(Sassanid Dynasty of Persia, 226 - 651)傪柵傏偟偰僀僗儔乕儉掗崙(Islamic Empire)偺椞搚傪奼戝偝偣傞側偳丄戝偒側岟愌傪巆偟偨丅傾儔價傾敿搰惣晹偺搒巗儅僢僇(Makkah)乮儊僢僇乮Mecca乯乯偵廧傓僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh Tribe)偺巟懓偱偁傞僂儅僀傾壠(Umayyad or Banu Umayya)偺弌恎丅傕偲傕偲桾暉側彜恖偱偁偭偨偑丄憗偔偐傜僀僗儔乕儉偵夵廆偟丄偺偪偵儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)傜偲塻偔懳棫偡傞偙偲偲側偭偨僂儅僀儎壠偱偼嵟弶偵儉僗儕儉(Muslim)偲側偭偨恖暔偲偝傟傞丅梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammad)偺柡儖僇僀傾(Ruqayya)偲寢崶偟丄儅僨傿乕僫乮Medina乯偵堏廧乮僸僕儏儔乯偟偰屻偵嵢傪朣偔偟丄夵傔偰儉僴儞儅僪偺傕偆堦恖偺柡偱偁傞僂儞儉丒僋儖僗乕儉(Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad)偲寢崶偟偨丅

 

乽僂僗儖僕乕傾僟僗(Os LusÍadas, Lusiadus or the Lusiads乿丗 億儖僩僈儖偺帊恖儖僀僘 償傽僘 僇儌儞僀僗(Luis Vaz De Camōes) (Camoënes)1524-1580乯偑1572擭偵僀儞僪峲楬偺敪尒傗償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)偺戞堦夞墦惇傪拞怱偵億儖僩僈儖恖峲奀幰偺朻尟傪暔岅偭偨垽崙揑側戝彇帠帊丅

 

塅拡峔憿榑妛幰(Cosmographer) 帺慠尰徾偵懳偡傞塅拡峔憿榑偵傛傞夝庍乮朄乯丅

 

旤偟偄敡偺搝楆(Fair-skinned Slaves) 搶儓乕儘僢僷偐傜楢傟偰棃傜傟偨搝楆丅

 

僂僶僀僪僢儔乕 儅僼僨傿(Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah) 儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammad)偺柡偱4戙栚僇儕僼 傾儕乕(4th Rightly Guided Caliph Ali)偺嵢僼傽乕僥傿儅(Fātima)偺巕懛偱偁傝丄杒傾僼儕僇偵嫽傝丄909擭偵僠儏僯僗(Tunis)偱僔乕傾攈(Shia or Shi乫ite))偺僀僗儔儉墹挬傪愝棫偟偨丅969擭偵僄僕僾僩(Egypt)傪惇暈偟丄僇僀儘(Cairo)傪寶愝偟丄搒偲偟丄僼傽乕僥傿儅挬(Fatimid)(909-1171)偲徧偟偨丅僼傽乕僥傿儅挬偼傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid Caliphate)偵懳峈偟丄搶晹抧拞奀杅堈傪撈愯偟偨丅

 

僂僶乕儖(Ubar)丗乽僂僶乕偲傕揮幨偝傟傞僂僶乕儖(Ubar)偼亀愮杮拰偺搒巗(City of a Thousand PillarsIram of the Pillars or Wabar)亁偱偁傞丅偙偺搒巗偼傾儔價傾敿搰撿晹偺嬻敀抧懷嵐敊(Rub al Khali Desert or Empty Quarter)偵偁偭偰婭尦慜3000擭偐傜1悽婭崰傑偱岎堈偺拞怱偲偟偰斏塰偟偨偑丄楌巎偺拞偵崥慠偲偟偰徚偊偨亀揱愢偺幐傢傟偨搒巗亁偱偁傞乿偲塢傢傟偰偄傞丅僋儖傾乕儞(Qur乫an)偱偼乽僂僶乕儖偼僲傾(Noah)偺傂懛偺傾僪 (Ad)乮傾乕僪(A乫ad)乯偺堦懓偑嶌偭偨挰偱愇偺嬼憸恄傪悞攓偡傞幾埆側恖乆偑廧傫偱偄偨丅梐尵幰僼僪(Hud)偑亀偙偺挰偼桷攑偟丄斏塰傪堐帩偱偒側偔側偭偨亁偲寈崘偡傞偲傾僪 (Ad)偺懅巕偱墹偱偁偭偨僔儍僢僟僪(Shaddad)偼偙傟傪柍帇偟丄斀峈偟偨丅偙偺堊丄恄偼偙偺挰傪柵傏偟丄嵒偺拞偵杽傔偰偟傑傢傟偨乿偲彂偐傟偰偄傞偲塢偆丅僔儍僢僟僪(Shaddad)偵偮偄偰偺弌棃帠偼傾儔價傾儞僫僀僩(Book of One Thousand and One Nights)偺拞偱傕岅傜傟偰偄傞丅偙偺乽揱愢偺幐傢傟偨搒巗乿傪扵偡堊偵1980擭戙偐傜僫僒偺塹惎幨恀(NASA Remote Sensing Images)摍傪巊偭偰擕崄偺摴(Frankincense Route)傪夝愅偟丄僆儅儞(Oman)偺僪僼傽乕儖抧曽(Dhofar)偵偙偺乽揱愢偺幐傢傟偨搒巗乿偺強嵼偺壜擻惈傪尒弌偟偨丅1992擭偵儔僰儖僼 僼傽僀儞僘(Ranulph Fiennes)丄僕儏儕僗 僓乕儕儞僗(Juris Zarins)摍偐傜側傞傾儊儕僇挷嵏抍偑僔僗儖(Ash Shisar or Ash Shisr)偲塢偆愹偺朤偺16悽婭偵僔僗儖嵲(Shis乫r)偺偁偭偨応強偱偦偺悈尮偲惉偭偨忂擕摯傪敪孈偟丄300擭偐傜500擭偺娫偵戝偒側忂擕摯娮杤偱抧壓偵杽杤偟偨寶憿暔傪敪尒偟偨丅偙偺忂擕摯偼峏偵敪孈拞偱偁傞偑丄傎傏丄僂僶乕儖(Ubar)偲摿掕偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad Dynasty) 4戙惓摑僇儕僼(The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs)偱偁傞傾儕乕(Ali ibn Abi Talib, 656 - 661)偲偺峈憟偵偍偄偰嵟廔揑偵惌尃傪妉摼偟偨僔儕傾憤撀(Governor of Syria)儉傾乕僂傿儎(Muawiyah I ibn Abi Sufyan, 602-680)偑丄惣楋661擭偵帺傜僇儕僼(Caliph)偲側傞偙偲偵傛傝惉棫偟丄偦偺巰屻丄僇儕僼埵偑僂儅僀儎壠偺堦懓偵傛偭偰悽廝偝傟偨丅偙偺嵟弶偺僀僗儔儉墹挬乮惣楋661擭偐傜750擭乯偼僟儅僗僇僗(Damascus)傪庱搒偲偟丄儓乕儘僢僷偐傜僀儞僪傊偲峀偑傞峀戝側掗崙傪巟攝偟偨丅偙偺墹挬偼儉傾乕僂傿儎乮1悽乯偐傜儅儖儚乕儞2 (Marwan II ibn Muhammad, ruled from Harran in the Jazira, 744 - 750 AD)傑偱偺14戙懚懕偟丄惣楋750擭偵傾僢僶乕僗挬偵柵傏偝傟偨丅偙偺帪戙傪僂儅僀儎挬帪戙(Umayyad Period, 661 - 750乯偲屇傇丅

 

僂儅僀儎 價儞 傾價 僒儖僩(Umayyah bin Abi al-Salt) 僒僉僼懓偺傕偭偲傕執戝側帊恖偱丄僞乕僀僼弌恎幰偱僂儅僀儎傪挻偊傞帊恖偼嫃側偐偭偨丅僂儅僀儎偺惗傑傟偨擔傕杤偟偨擔傕惓妋偵偼敾偭偰嫃側偄偑丄僂儅僀儎偑偦偺晹懓偑僀僗儔儉偵夵廆偟偨擔丄懄偪儅僨傿乕僫偐傜巊搆(Apostle)偑堏廧偟偰偐傜9擭栚丄惣楋631擭傑偱偼惗偒偰偄側偐偭偨條偱偁傝丄僂儅僀儎偼儉僗儕儉偵惉傜側偄傑傑杤偟偨偺偼柧傜偐偱偁傞丅僂儅僀儎偼梐尵幰偵棪偄傜傟偨儉僗儕儉払偵懳峈偟偨僶僪儖偺愴偄(Battle of Badr)偱偺愴巰偵懳偟偰巀帿傪彂偄偰偄傞揰偱偼儉僴儞儅僪傊弶傔揋懳偟偨僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quarish)偺巟墖幰偱偁偭偨丅偦傟偱傕僂儅僀儎偺帊偵偼堦恄嫵楈姶偺揘妛揑偱廆嫵揑側娤擮帩偪崬傑傟偰偄傞丅帪偲偟偰偦傟偼僋儖傾乕儞偺奣擮偵旕忢偵嬤偔丄偦偟偰僂儅僀儎偼帺暘偺巗偺嬼憸恄悞攓傪嫅斲偟偰偄偨丅僂儅僀儎偺攷妛偼墦偔傑偱媦傃丄偦偟偰僂儅僀儎偼帺暘偺榑巪偺婔偮偐傪柧傜偐偵堷偒弌偟偰偄偨乽恄偺傕偭偲傕屆偄杮懄偪惞彂(Bible)乿傪撉傫偩梍傟傪妝偟傫偱偄偨丅恄偼幚偵偨傃偨傃僂儅僀儎偺帊偵婰弎偝傟丄偦偟偰僂儅僀儎偺暔帠偵懳偡傞嬃偒偺昞尰偲偟偰偁傢傟傒傗擣幆偑嶌傝弌偝傟偨丅懡暘丄僂儅僀儎偺執戝偝偺嵟忋偺妋擣偼丄乽壧偺杮(Kitab al-Aghani or Book of Songs)乿戞III190暸傪怣偠傞偲偡傟偽丄梐尵幰帺恎偑帪乆僂儅僀儎偺帊偑帺暘偵尵媦偟偰偄傞偐傪恞偹偨帠偱偁傞丅

 

僂儅儖丒僀僽儞 僇僢僞乕僽(Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab) 僂儅儖丒僀僽儞 僇僢僞乕僽(乪Umar ibn al-Khattab) (June 592 - November 644)偼戞2戙惓摑僇儕僼(634 - 644)偱丄梐尵幰偺恊愂偱戞堦戙僇儕僼(Caliph)偺傾僽 僶僋儖(Abu Bakr)偺杤屻偵戞擇戙僇儕僼乮惣楋634擭偐傜644擭乯偵廇擟偟丄惓摑巐僇儕僼(Khulafa ar Rashidim or Rightfully guided caliphs)偺戞2戙栚偲僗儞僯乕攈怣搆(Sunni Islam)偐傜尒側偝傟偰偄傞丅僗儞僯乕攈嫵搆偵偼乽恀幚偲嫊婾傪敾抐偡傞恖乿傪堄枴偡傞僆儅儖 僼傽儖乕僋(Omar al Faruq)偲屇偽傟丄塸岅偵偼Omar 埥偄偼Umar偲揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh or Quraish)偺僶僰 傾僨傿(Banu Adi)巟懓偵懏偡傞傾僨傿乕壠(Banu Adi)偺弌恎偱丄庒偄崰偼晲桬偵桪傟偨桬巑偲偟偰抦傜傟偰偄偨丅610擭崰丄僂儅儖偼僋儔僀僔儏懓偺揱摑揑怣嬄傪庣傞棫応偐傜儌僴儞儅僪(Muhammad, 570 - June 8, 632)偺晍嫵妶摦傪敆奞偡傞懁偵夞傝丄儌僴儞儅僪傪嶦偦偆偲偟偨偑丄僋儖傾乕儞乮僐乕儔儞乯(Qur乫an, Quran, Koran or Alcoran)偺復嬪偵怱傪摦偐偝傟偰夵湢偟丄僀僗儔乕儉偵婣埶偟偨丅632擭偵儉僴儞儅僪偑巰嫀偡傞偲丄傾僽乕 僶僋儖傪屻宲巜摫幰偵悇懻偟丄僴儕乕僼傽乮僇儕僼乯(Caliph)偺抧埵傪懷傃偰僀僗儔乕儉嫟摨懱傪巜摫偡傞姷峴偺偒偭偐偗傪偮偔偭偨丅傾僽乕 僶僋儖偑2擭屻偵巰嫀偡傞偲偦偺屻宲幰偵巜柤偝傟丄戞2戙栚偺僇儕僼偲側傝丄僸僕儏儔婭尦傪掕傔丄僋儖傾乕儞偲儉僴儞儅僪偺尵峴偵婎偯偄偨朄夝庍傪惍旛偟偰丄屻偺帪戙偵僀僗儔乕儉朄乮僔儍儕乕傾乯(Sharia)偵傑偲傔傜傟傞朄惂搙傪弨旛偟偨 丅枖丄傾儔價傾敿搰偺傾儔僽偺摑堦傪攚宨偵丄僔儕傾丄僀儔僋丄僄僕僾僩側偳懡曽柺偵墦惇孯傪憲傝弌偟偰乽儉僗儕儉偺惇暈(Muslim Conquests)乿傪巜摫偟丄傾儔僽恖庡懱偺乽傾儔僽掗崙丄僒儔僙儞掗崙枖偼僀僗儔儉掗崙乯(Caliphate)乿弶婜偺崙壠懱惂傪妋棫偟偨丅

 

僂儉 僋儚僀儞(Umm Al Quwain) 傾儔僽庱挿崙楢朚偺7庱挿崙偺堦偮丄僆儅乕儞枽偺惣懁偱儁儖僔傾榩偵椪傒丄杦偳嵐敊偱恖岥1.2枩恖丅

 

僂儉儔(Umrah) 夞嫵搆偑 堦擭拞偄偮偱傕儊僢僇(Mecca)偵寃偱傜傟傞弰楃丅僴僢僕偑戝弰楃偲屇偽傟傞偺偵懳偟偰彫弰楃偲屇偽傟傞丅

 

僂儎僀僫乕(Al-Uyaynah) 僂儎僀僫(Al 乪Uyayna)偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾(Saudi Arabia)拞墰偺懞偱丄儕儎僪(Riyadh)偺杒惣30km偵偁傞丅僂儎僀僫偼偦偺怣曭幰偑儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahhabis or Wahhabism)乮僀僗儔儉尨棟庡媊幰乯偲屇偽傟傞儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 儚僢僴僽(Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab)偺惗傑傟屘嫿偱偁傞丅崱偱偼椬懞偺僕儏僶僀儔(al-Jubayla)偲崌傢偣偰傕恖岥4,000恖偺彫偝側懞偱偁傞丅偙偺懞偼僨傿儔僀乕儎 (Dir'iyyah)傗儕儎僪(Riyadh)曽柺偵岦偐偭偰撿傊偲棳傟傞熆傟扟僴僯僼傽(Wadi Hanifa)偺嫹偄姳忋偑偭偨壨彴偵偁傞丅僂儎僀僫偼632擭偺儉僴儞儅僪偺巰屻丄偦偺屻宲幰傪柤忔偭偨儉僒僀儕儅(Musaylimah)偺屘嫿偱偁傝丄儉僒僀儕儅偼僴僯僼傽懓乮Banu Hanifa乯傪棪偄偰乽儉僗儕儉偺惇暈(Muslim conquests, 632 - 732)乿偵懳峈偟偨丅63212寧偺儉僗儕儉孯偺晲彨(Muslim General)僴乕儖僪 僀僽儞 儚乕儕僪(Khalid iban al Walid, 592 - 642)偲偺儎儅儅偺愴偄(Battle of Yamama)偼僂儎僀僫偺偙偺懞偺嬤偔偱婲偒丄偙偺愴偄偱愴巰偟偨儉僗儕儉愴巰(Muslin Warriors)偺曟偑偙偺懞偺嬤朤偵偁傞丅愹偺垽徧偱偁傞僂儎僀僫(Al 乪Uyayna)偲塢偆柤偼偙偺帪戙偺偙偺抧堟偺廧恖偵偼巊傢傟偰偍傜偢丄儎僋乕僩(Yaqut al Hamawi, 1179 - 1229)偺條側僀僗儔儉憗婜偺傾儔價傾偺抧棟妛幰偼偙偺懞傪傾僋儔僶(乪Aqraba乯丄僽僟(Budha)偍傛傃僴僢僟儖(al Haddar)偺懞乆偲婰弎偟丄屻偵偼乽儉僒僀儕儅(Musaylimah)偺屘嫿偺懞乿偲婰弎偟偰偄偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄抧棟妛幰摍偼偙偺抧堟偺愹傪僂儎僀儞(al Uyayn)偲婰弎偟丄偦偙偐傜僂儎僀僫(Al 乪Uyayna)偲柤偯偗傜傟偨偲巚傢傟傞丅15悽婭偵偼僶僰 僞儈儞懓(Banu Tamin)偺儉傾儞儅儖堦栧(Al Mu乫ammar)偑僶僰 僴僯僼傽懓(Banu Hanifa)偺巆搣偺儎僕僪堦栧(Al Yazid)偐傜僂儎僀僫(Al 乪Uyayna)傪攦偄庢偭偨丅屻偵偙偺懞偼斏塰偟丄嬤朤偐傜懡偔偺掕廧幰傪堷偒晅偗丄18悽婭傑偱偵偼僱僕僪抧曽(Region of Nejd)偺拞怱抧偲側偭偨丅僀僗儔儉妛幰偱廆嫵夵妚幰偺儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 儚僢僴僽(Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab)偑偙偺帪戙偵偙偺懞偱惗傑傟偨丅峀斖埻側椃峴傪偟偨屻偵儉僴儞儅僪偼1740擭偵僂儎僀僫偵栠傝丄偙偺抧曽偺嬼憸悞攓偺塭嬁偱偺懧棊偟偨僀僗儔儉楃攓曽幃偺弮悎壔傪屇傃偐偗巒傔偨丅摿偵儉僴儞儅僪偼僂儎僀僫偵曟偑偁傝丄偙偺抧曽偵恖乆偐傜懜宧偝傟偰偄偨戞2戙惓摑僇儕僼 僂儅儖(2nd Caliph Umar or Omar)偺孼掜偺僓僀僪 僀僽儞 僇僢僞僽(Zayd ibn Khattab)偺條側儉僗儕儉惞恖(Muslim Saints)偺悞攓傪巭傔傞條偵愢嫵傪偟偨丅僴儞儅僪偼僂儎僀僫偺椞庡(Amir of Uyayna)偱偁傞僂僗儅儞 僀僽儞 儉傾傾儞儅儖(Uthman ibn Mu乫ammar)偵帺暘偺怣嬄偺幚巤傪愢摼偟丄僓僀僪(Zayd)偺曟傪捵偟偰偟傑偭偨丅僓僀僪(Zayd)偺堚崪偑巆偭偰偄傞曟偼報傕柍偔丄崱擔偱偼柍帇偝傟偰偟傑偭偰偄傞丅僴僒(Al Hasa)傪巟攝偡傞僶僰 僴儕僪懓(Banu Khalid Tribe)偼僂儎僀僫偵愨戝側塭嬁椡傪傕帩偭偰嫃傝丄1744擭偵僀僽儞 儉傾傾儞儅儖偑僴儞儅僪傪曻拃偣偞傞偊側偔偝偣偨丅僴儞儅僪偼僂儎僀僫偺撿偺僨傿儔僀儎乕(Dir乫iyyah)偵嬤偄僒僂僪堦栧(Al Saud Clan)偵恎傪婑偣偨丅僒僂僪壠(Saudis)偼僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 儚僢僴僽(Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab)偺夵妚偺柤偺壓偵廃埻偺挰傗懞傪惇暈偟巒傔偨丅偙傟傜偺愴棎偺拞偱丄摿偵塽昦偑廝偭偨屻偱偼僂儎僀僫偼杦偳攋夡偝傟偨偟傑偭偨丅偦偺屻偼尒幪偰傜傟偰偟傑偭偰偄偨偑丄20悽婭偵側偭偰彫偝側懞偲偟偰暅妶偟偨丅(Wikipedia)

 

僂儎僀僫乕(Al-Uyaynah) 乽偙偺僆傾僔僗偼僨儏僶(Dhuba)偺挰偺杒偍傛偦20 km偵埵抲偟丄偦偺奀娸偵偼僫僶僥傾(Nabataean)帪戙偺桳柤側峘偱敀偄挰傪堄枴偡傞儖僉 僐儅(Luki Koma)偑偁偭偨丅儖僉 僐儅(Luki Koma)偺堚暔偼崱偱傕儅僈傾乕儖 傾儖 僐僢僼傽乕儖(Maghaar Al Koffar)偲屇偽傟傞愹偺堜屗嬤偔偺傾僀僰僫乕(Aynuah)僆傾僔僗偱尒偮偐傞乿偲嫵堢徣峫屆挕弌斉偺乽僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾偺堚愓偺徯夘(An Introduction to Saudi Arabian Antiquities)乿偵婰弎偝傟偰偄傞丅尰抧偵傕僼傽乕儖僔(Farsi)偺抧恾偵傕偙偺応強偵偦偺條側抧柤偼婰偝傟偰柍偔丄尪偺僂儎僀僫乕(Al-Uyaynah)偲巹偼屇傫偱偄偨偑丄乽屆戙儘乕儅孯偺屆戙撿傾儔價傾墦惇楬(http://saudinomad.karuizawa.ne.jp/jeddah-2/Gallus%20Itinerary.JPG)乿偵傕帵偟偨儗僂働 僐儊(Leuke Kome)偺埵抲偲偼傎傏堦抳偟偰偄傞丅

 

僂儐僯僪墹挬('Uyunids) 惣楋1073擭偵僴僒丒僆僒僔僗(Hasa Oasis)杒晹偺僂儐儞(乪Uyun)弌恎偺傾僽僪丒傾儖-僇僀僗懓(the 'Abd al-Qays)偺儕乕僟乕偺堦恖偑僙儖僕儏乕僋丒僩儖僐(Seljuq Turks)偺巟墖傪摼偰丄僇乕儖儅僥傿傾(Qarmatians)傪懪偪攋傝丄墹挬傪庽棫偟偨丅偦偺僂儐僯僪墹挬('Uyunids, 1073 – 1253 AD)偼惣楋1253擭傑偱傾儖-僴僒(al-Hasa)偺巟攝傪懕偗偨丅

 

僂儔乕宬扟(Al Ula) 崅偔戕偊傞奟偺扟偺堄枴傪帩偮儊僨傿僫乕廈(Al Madinah Province)杒晹偺宬扟偱儅僟僀儞僒儗乕(Madain Salih)偑嵼傞帠偱傕抦傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僂儖僋(Uruq) 僂儖僋偲偼嵶挿偄嵒媢偺廳側傝偱偁傞丅儖僽 傾儖 僴儕嵐敊(Rub乫 Al Khali)偺撿惣晹偱偼100傪墇偊傞僂儖僋偑1.5km偐傜2.0km娫妘偱200km偵傕搉偭偰杒搶偐傜撿惣傊暯峴偵婔偮傕憱偭偰偄傞丅偙傟傜偺僂儖僋偺拞偵偼崅偝偑300m偵傕媦傇傕偺傕偁傞丅僂儖僋偼杒偺僫僼僪嵐敊(Nefud)傗懷忬偵僫僼僪嵐敊偲儖僽 傾儖 僴儕嵐敊傪寢傇僟乕僫嵒敊(Dahna)傗儕儎僪(Riyadh)杒曽偺僀儖僌 僶儞僶儞(Irq Banban)摍偱傕尒傜傟傞丅巹偼乽廲宆嵒媢(Longitudinal Dune)偺惉場偱偁傞擇曽岦偺戩墇晽偺惉偡妏搙偑戝偒偔側傞偲曄宍偟偨墶宆嵒媢偼峏偵嵶偔挿偔側偭偰廳側傞丅偦偺挿乆偲墑傃偨宍傪偟偨嵒媢偑廲宆嵒媢(Linear Dune)偁傞偄偼傾儔價傾岅偐傜寱嵒媢(Sword)偲屇偽傟傞僂儖僋偱偁傞丅僂儖僋偱偼彫婯柾側傕偺傪彍偗偽僼傽儖僕(Falj)偼杦偳尒傜傟側偄掱丄偦偺暆偑嫹偔嵶挿偄偺偱僙僀僼嵒媢(Seif Dunes)偲屇偽傟傞廲宆嵒媢(Longitudinal Dune)偲嬫暿偝傟偰偄傞偺偩乿偲巚偆丅

 

僂儖僋 僔儍僀僶乕(Uruq al Shaybah) 僂儖僋 僔儍僀僶乕(Uruq al Shaybah)偼尰嵼偺傾儔僽庱挿崙楢朚丄僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾偲僆儅儞偲偺崙嫬偺傎傏墑挿忋傪撿偐傜撿撿惣傊偲昐悢廫僉儘偵傢偨偭偰墑傃傞嵒媢偺嶳柆偱偁傞丅20悽婭枛嵟戝偺桘揷奐敪偩偭偨惗嶻検50 BPD偺僔儍僀僶乕桘揷乮Shaybah Field乯偼偙偺柤偵桼棃偟偰偄傞偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

僂儖僋嵐敊(Uruq Desert) 僂儖僋嵐敊偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺屲戝嵒媢抧懷(Sand Dune)偺堦偮偱偁傞丅偦偺嵶挿偄墑挿偼杒偺僇僔乕儉(Qaseem)抧曽偐傜撿偺熆傟扟僼傽僂(Wadi al Faw)傑偱偺1,000 km偵媦傃丄僩儚僀僋嶳柆(Jebel Tuwaiq)偺惣墢傪偙偺嶳柆傪嫴傫偱偦偺搶墢偵墑傃傞僟乕僫嵐敊(Dahna)偲傎傏暯峴偵暲傫偱偄傞丅僂儖僋嵐敊偼嵶挿偄嵒媢抧懷偺廤傑傝偱丄堦斣挿偄嬝偑杒晹偼僫僼僪 僔乕儖嵒媢抧懷(Nafud al -Sirr)偱撿晹偼僫僼僪 僟僸嵒媢抧懷(Nafud al Sirr)偱偁傞丅僫僼僪 僔乕儖嵒媢抧懷(Nafud al Sirr)偲僩儚僀僋嶳柆偺娫偵偼儚僔儏儉(Al-Washm)偲屇偽傟傞愵宍偺抧宍傪嫴傫偱杒偵僫僼僪 僣儚僀儔僩嵒媢抧懷(Nafud al Thuwayrat)偑墶偨傢傝丄撿偵僫僼僪 僌僫僀僼傿僟傾嵒媢抧懷(Nafud Qunayfidhah)偑墶偨傢傞丅

 

僂儖儕僸 儎僗僷乕 僛乕僢僣僃儞(Ulrich Jasper Seetzen) 僪僀僣恖偺撪壢堛(Physician)偱怉暔妛(Botany)丄摦暔妛(Zoology)偍傛傃抧幙妛(Geology)偵慺惏傜偟偄抦幆傪帩偭偰偍傝丄1802擭偵堦楢偺搶曽椃峴傪寁夋偟偨丅巜摫揑側壢妛幰傗婱懓偺屻墖傪摼偰丄僛乕僢僣僃儞(Seetzen)偼堦楢偺彫傾僕傾(Asia Mínor)偺椃偵弌敪偟丄1809擭偵僇僀儘(Cairo)偵嫃偨丅僛乕僢僣僃儞偺偙偙傑偱偺椃偼乽僛乕僢僣僃儞偺僔儕傾丄僷儗僗僠僫丄僼僃僯僉傾丄僩儔儞僗儓儖僟儞丄傾儔價傾敿搰媦傃僄僕僾僩偺椃乿偲偟偰僋儖乕僛(F. Kruse)偵傛偭偰曇廤偝傟丄1854 - 1859擭偵儀儖儕儞偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞(Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan Länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten ed. by F. Kruse. Berlin 1854 - 1859.)

 

(Lacquer) 僂儖僔壢偺棊梩崅栘偱拞墰傾僕傾崅尨尨嶻偱崅偝3m埲忋偱庽旂偼奃敀怓丄梩偼3 - 9懳偺彫梩傪傕偮婏悢塇忬暋梩丄偐傇傟傗偡偔丄6寧崰丄梩泓偵墿椢怓偺彫壴傪懡悢憤忬偵奐偔丅帗梇堎姅丄壥幚偼備偑傫偩滸暯偺妀壥偱丄10寧崰惉弉偟丄墿妼怓偲側傞丅壥傪姡偐偟偨屻偟傏偭偰榅傪嵦傝丄庽旂偵彎傪晅偗偰惗幗傪嵦傞丅偙偺惗幗傑偨偼偙傟偵拝怓嵻丒桘丒姡憞嵻傪壛偊偰惢偟偨揾椏乮惢幗乯偲偡傞丅

 

僂儖儚 僀僽儞 儅僗(Urwah ibn Mas'ud) 僞僀僼(Taif)偺儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammmad)偺拠娫偵側偭偨僒僉僼懓挿(Thaqif乫I Chieftain)偱偁傞丅628擭儉僴儞儅僪(Muhammad)3,000恖偺儉僗儕儉(Muslim)傪堷偒楢傟偰儊僢僇(Makkah)弰楃偵岦偐偭偨丅偙傟傪慾巭偟傛偆偲偟偨僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraishi Tribe)偼儊僢僇峹奜偺僼僟僀價乕儎乮Hudaibiyya)偱岎徛傪峴偄丄10擭娫偺媥愴偑妋擣偝傟偨丅僂儖儚偼偙偺僼僟僀價乕儎偺榓媍(Peace of Hudaybiyah)偵娭偟偰僋儔僀僔儏懓(Quraysh)偵戙偭偰岎徛偵擖偭偨掱偺傾儔僽偺柤巑偱偁偭偨丅僂儖儚偺懅巕偺堦恖(Dawud ibn Unwah)偼儉僴儞儅僪偺嵢偺柮(Habibah bibte Ulbayd-Allah)偲寢崶偟偰偄偨丅乮弌揟丗 Wikipedia)

 

僂儞儉 傾僔儍乕儖(Umm Ashar) 僂儉 僔儍乕儖(Um Shar)偲傕屇偽傟傞丅巹偺摨椈偩偭偨儌僴儅僢僪僇儔僼 傾儖 儉僛僀僯乮Mohamd Kharaf al Muzeini乯偼乽傾儔價傾岅柤偼傾僔僃儖 儃僀僃儖(Asher Voyer)偲塢偆偑搶晹廈偱偼僂儞儉 傾僔儍乕儖 傾僔儏 僔儍乕儖僉儎(Umm Ashar Ash Sharqiyah)偲屇傃丄偙偺懞偵偦偺柤偑晅偄偰偄傞乿偲嫵偊偰偔傟偨丅偝偡偑偵挿偄柤傪晅偗傞偺偑岲偒側僒僂僕偱傕偙偺柤偼僂儞儉 傾僔儍乕儖(Umm Ashar)偲抁弅偟偰巊偭偰偄傞條偩丅偙偺掅栘偼斾妑揑懢偄懡偔偺巬傪抧昞晹暘偐傜45m忋傊偲捈愙怢偽偟丄栘敡偼儚僯偺條側椮偑偁傝丄梩偼岤偔偐偝偽傝丄幚偼栰媴偺儃乕儖掱偱敀偭傐偄椢怓傪偟偰偄偰丄偦偺偳偙偐偵愗傝岥傪嶌傞偲敀偄儀僞儀僞偟偨擕塼傪怹傒偩偝偣傞丅偙偺掅栘偼慳傜側僞儖(Talh, Acacia Gerratdii)偺椦偺拞傗偦偺嬤朤偵孮惗偟偰偄傞偺傪傛偔尒妡偗傞丅戝愳尨攷巑偵傛傞偲偙偺掅栘偼Calotropis procera偲塢偆妛柤傪帩偪塸岅偱偼乽僜僪儉偺椦岀乿偲屇偽傟丄擔杮偵偼慡偔摨偠偱偼柍偄偑僈僈僀儌壢偺奀娸墝憪偑摨偠庬椶側偺偩偦偆偩丅m偺崙傾僔乕儖(Undiscovered Asir)虙槑覂T乕儕傿 儌僕儍乕(Thierry Mauger)偼乽巰奀椦岀乿偲屇傫偱偄傞丅

 

僂儞儉 傾僔儍乕儖懞丗 僂儞儉 傾僔儍乕儖懞(Umm Ashar Village)傊峴偔偵偼儅僕儅傾(Al-Majma乫ah) - 僋僂僃僀僩(Kuwait)摴楬偺僉儞僌僇儕僪墹孯帠搒巗(King Khalid Military City)傊偺廫帤楬偐傜彮偟撿偵壓偭偨僾僥僀僴僯傾(Puthihaniyah)偺挌帤楬乮僴僼傽儖 傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞(Hafar al Batin)85km撿乯偐傜惣偵恑傓偲嵐敊偺椢偼彮側偔惉傝戙傢傝偵抧柺偵嶶傜偽傞敀偭傐偄妏挘偭偨彫愇偑憹偊偰棃傞丅僾僥僀僴僯傾偺挌帤楬偐傜60 km埵峴偭偨強偱悢尙偺廧嫃偲23偺墌宍擾応傪帩偮廤棊偺偁傞扟偵崀傝傞丅偙偺扟偼傾儔價傾弬忬抧偺嶰戝攔悈楬偺堦偮偱偁傞儚僨傿 傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞(Wadi al Batin)偺拞棳晹偱偙偺曈傝偱偼楢懕偟偨嵒媢偺搶娸偲掅偄抐憌奟偺惣娸偵嫴傑傟偰偄傞丅偙偺楢懕偟偨嵒媢偺懷偼僟僴僫(Dahna)嵐敊乮杒偺僫僼僪戝嵒敊(Nefud Desert)偐傜撿偺嬻敀抧懷嵒敊傑偱1,000 km偵傕搉偭偰懕偔嵒偺夞楲乯偐傜愩忬偵墑傃偰棃偰偄傞丅偙偺懞偺惓幃柤偼僂僢儉 傾僔儍儖 傾僔儏 僔儍儖僊儎乕(Umm Ashar Ash Sharqiyah)偱乽僜僪儉偺椦岀乿埥偄偼乽巰奀椦岀乿偲傕傛偽傟傞掅栘偺挿偄挿偄柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僂儞儉 僒儈儞(Umm al Samin) 僂儞儉 僒儈儞(Umm al Samin)1930擭偐傜1931擭偵偐偗偰巒傔偰嬻敀抧懷傪墶抐偟偨扵専壠僶乕僩儔儉 僩乕儅僗(Bertram Thomas, 1892 - 1950)偑儀僪僂僀儞偐傜揱愢偺棳嵒抧懷偲暦偄偰偄偨丅偙偺嫄戝側棳嵒抧懷偼僆儅儞(Oman)崙嫬偵峀偑傝丄偐偮偰儚僨傿 僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi Dawasir)偑棳傟崬傫偱嫃偨戝偒側屛偱偁偭偨丅尰嵼偱偼偦偺昞柺傪僒僽僇(Sabkha丄娷墫暯抧乯偺敄偄墫偺昞旂偑暍偭偰嫃偰捠峴偡傞偺偵偼旕忢偵偼傑傝埨偔傾儔價傾偱乽撆偺曣乿傪堄枴偡傞僂儞儉 僒儈儞(Umm al Samin) 偲屇偽傟偰偄傞丅

 

 

塸崙億儞僪丗 Pound Stering丄塸壿1億儞僪丅

 

乽塸崙椞帠(Jago)1883擭偺僕僃僟偺岎堈偲彜嬈偵娭偡傞曬崘彂乿丗 偙偺曬崘彂偼彜岺嬈摍偵懳偡傞彈墹暶壓偺椞帠偐傜偺曬崘偺戞312斣偵宖嵹偝傟偰偄傞(Reported by consul Jago on the trade and commerce of Jeddah for the year of 1883in Reports from Her Majesty's consuls on the manufactures, commerce, etc. Part III. No.12)

 

僄僀儔僩榩(Gulf of Eilat) 傾僇僶榩乮Gulf of Aqaba乯偼峠奀偺杒墱丄僔僫僀敿搰(Sinai peninsula)偺搶懁偵偁傞丄撿杒偵嵶挿偔怢傃傞榩丅僠儔儞奀嫭(Straits of Tiran)傛傝杒晹偵偁傞丅椉娸偼僄僕僾僩偲僒僂僕傾儔價傾偱偁傞偑丄嵟墱晹偵偼僀僗儔僄儖偺僄僀儔僩(Eilat)丄儓儖僟儞偺傾僇僶(Aqaba)偺奺峘偑偁傝丄巐偐崙偺崙嫬偑廤拞偟偰偄傞丅僀僗儔僄儖偱偼僄僀儔僩榩(Eilat)偲傛偽傟偰偄傞丅抧妛揑偵偼丄峠奀偐傜懕偔戝抧峚懷偺堦晹偱偁傝丄偝傜偵巰奀傊偲楢側偭偰偄傞丅枖丄僄乕儔僩(Elat)偼僀僗儔僄儖撿晹傾僇僶榩('Aqaba)偺嵟墱晹偵偁傞奀峘丄恖岥3枩恖丄僀僗儔僄儖桞堦偺峠奀傊偺弌岥丅

 

僄僂僎僯僂僗巐悽(Pope Eugenius IV) 朄墹僄僂僎僯僂僗巐悽偺杮柤偼僈僽儕僄儖 僐儞僪儖儅乕儖(Gabriele Condulmer)(c. 1383-1447)偱偁傝丄1431擭偵僼僗(Huss)(1369? - 1415)乮僠僃僐偺廆嫵夵妚幰偱堎抂偲偟偰壩孻偵張偣傜傟偨乯偺堎抂巚憐偲嫵峜帄忋尃傪傔偖偭偰僗僀僗偺僶乕僛儖偱奐偐傟偨僶乕僛儖岞夛媍(the Cóuncil of Básel, 1431-37)傪夝嶶偝偣傛偆偲偟偰幐攕丄儘乕儅傪捛傢傟偨丅偦偺屻丄摨夛媍偼1449擭枠懕偄偨偑丄寢嬊攕杒偟偰夝嶶偟偨丅

 

僄僉僝僥傿僢僋側暔帒丗 堎崙忣弿堦攖偺彜昳(Exotic Goods)

 

僄僋僙僞乕(Exceter) 僀儞僌儔儞僪撿惣晹僨償僅儞(Devon)廈偺廈搒丅

 

僄僌儔(Egra) 峠奀娸増偄偵偁傞尰嵼偺儎儞僽乕(Yanbu)偱偁傞

 

僄僕僾僩(Egypt or Aegypt乯丗 傾僼儕僇杒搶晹偵偁傞崙偱5,000擭慜偵摑堦崙壠傪宍惉偟丄屆戙暥柧敪徦偺抧偱僺儔儈僢僪摍偺堚愓偑懡偄丅13悽婭埲崀偼僀僗儔儉悽奅偺暥壔揑拞怱偱偁偭偨丅1882擭偵塸崙偵愯椞偝傟偨偑丄1922擭偵棫寷墹崙丄1952擭偺妚柦偱嫟榓崙偲側偭偨丅1958-61擭偼僔儕傾偲傾儔僽楢崌嫟榓崙傪宍惉丄1971擭偵僄僕僾僩丒傾儔僽嫟榓崙偵夵徧丅

 

僄僕僾僩偺僗儖僞儞(Sultan of Egypt) 僄僕僾僩偺僀僗儔儉嫵崙孨庡偱丄僒儔僨傿儞(Saladin)1174擭偵傾僀儐乕僽挬(Ayyubid Dynasty, 1174 – 1250)傪寶崙偟丄儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamuluk Dynasty,1250-1517)乮僶僼儕 儅儉儖乕僋挬(Bahri dynasty, 1250 -1382)偍傛傃僽儖僕乕 儅儉儖乕僋挬(Burji Dynasty, 1382 - 1517)乯偑巟攝傪彾埇偟偰偐傜1517擭偵僆僗儅儞僩儖僐(Ottoman Turky, 1299 - 1923)偑僄僕僾僩傪惇暈偡傞傑偱偺娫偺楌戙孨庡丅

 

僄僕僾僩丒儚僢僴乕僽愴憟(Egyptian – Wahhabi War) 僆僗儅儞丒僒僂僕愴憟(Ottoman – Saudi War)偲傕傛偽傟傞丅僒僂僪壠(House of Saud)偼戞嶰戙庱挿(Third Imam, 1803 - 1814)僒僂僪(Sa乫ud ibn 乪Abd al-乪Aziz)*偺帪戙偵惃椡傪奼戝偟偨丅偦偟偰偦傟傪慾巭偟傛偆偲偟偨僆僗儅儞掗崙僄僕僾僩憤撀偲偺娫偵1811擭偐傜1818擭傑偱懕偄偨僄僕僾僩丒儚僢僴乕僽愴憟(Egyptian – Wahhabi War)偑杣敪偟偨丅廫嬨悽婭弶摢丄僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman State)偼奜岎偵朲嶦偝傟丄偝傜偵搉傝愇岺(Freemasons)偑慀摦偡傞斀棎偺壩偺庤偺捔壩偝偣傛偆偲懡擄偱偁偭偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜戞堦師僒僂乕僪岒崙(First Saudi State, 1744 - 1818)*偺旕儚僢僴乕僽攈偵懳偡傞敆奞偍傛傃柍楃摍偺峌寕偑梕擣偱偒側偄掱偵寖偟偔偵側偭偰棃偨堊偵丄僇儕僼(Caliph of Muslim) 僗儖僞儞 儅僴儉僪 僇乕儞 傾僪儕2(Sulatn Mahmud Khan 乪Adli II or rahmat-Allahi 'alaih)*1811(僸僕儏儔楋1226)偵僄僕僾僩憤撀(Governor of Egypt, 1805 - 1848) 儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍(Muhammad 'Ali Pasha or rahimah-Allahu ta'ala, 1769 - 1849)*偵彂娙偱摉帪偼儉儚僸僨傿乕儞(Wahhabis or Muwahhideen)偲屇偽傟偰偄偨戞堦師僒僂乕僪岒崙偺旕儚僢僴乕僽攈偵懳偡傞峌寕傪挦傜偟傔傞條偵柦偠偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼儔儅僟儞寧(Month of Ramadan)偵帺暘偺懅巕僩乕僜儞 僷僔儍(Tosun Pasha, 1794 – 1816)*巜婗偺壓偵僄僕僾僩偐傜孯戉傪攈尛偟偨丅僩乕僜儞 僷僔儍偼儅僨傿乕僫(Medina)偺奀峘儎儞僽乕(Yanbu乫)傪峌棯偟偨偑丄儅僨傿乕僫(Medina)傊偺怤峌偺搑拞丄1811擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1226擭弰楃寧弶擔乯偵僒僼儔扟(Safra Valley)偲僕儏僟僀僟摶(Judaida Pass)偺娫偱偺寖偟偄愴摤偵攋傟偨丅僩乕僜儞 僷僔儍偼彎堦偮晧傢側偐偭偨偗傟偳傕僆僗儅儞掗崙懁偺儉僗儕儉(Ottoman Muslims)偺懡偔偑弣嫵偟偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼偙偺晄塣傪斶扱偡傞拞丄18栧偺僇僲儞朇(Cannons)3栧偺戝朇傪憰旛偟偨傕偭偲戝妡偐傝側晹戉傪曇惉偟偨丅偙偺晹戉偼僒僼儔扟(Safra Valley)偲僕儏僟僀僟摶(Judaida Pass)1812擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1227擭梊尵幰偺寧乯偵捠夁偟丄抐怘偺寧偵偼懡偔偺懞乆傪掞峈柍偟偵峌棯偟偨丅僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿(Sharif Ghalib Effendi, 1788 – 1803 & 1813 – 1827)*偺彆尵傪庴偗偨儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼崀暁偟偨懞乆偵118,000儕傾儖傪攝偭偰愴壥傪彑偪庢傞偲塢偆旕忢偵憦柧側峴摦傪偟偨丅傕偟丄僩乕僜儞 僷僔儍偑晝恊偺條偵僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿偵憡択偟偰偄偨傜戝孯傪幐傢偢偵嵪傫偩偩傠偆丅僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿偼儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahhabis or Muwahhideen)偵傛偭偰儊僢僇偺庱挿(Amir of Mecca)偵擟柦偝傟偰偄偨偑丄僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿偼怱偐傜儊僢僇(Mecca)傪朶椡揑側儚僢僴乕僽攈偐傜夝曻偟偨偄偲婅偭偰偄偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼埨廧偺寧(Dhu 'l-Qada)偺枛傑偱偵偼儅僨傿乕僫(Medina)傕柍寣峌棯偟偨丅偙傟傜偺彑棙偼僇儕僼(Caliph)偵曬崘偡傞堊偵僄僕僾僩偵憲傜傟偨丅僄僕僾僩偺崙柉偼偙偺彑棙傪嶰擔嶰斢廽偄丄偙偺彑棙偺楴曬偼慡偰偺儉僗儕儉偺崙乆偵揱偊傜傟偨丅偝傜偵儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼堦巘抍(a division)傪僕僢僟(Jidda)宱桼偱儊僢僇(Mecca)偵憲偭偨丅偙偺巘抍偼僕僢僟偵18131寧弶弡乮僸僕儏儔楋1228擭愴偄傪嬛偢傞寧乯偵拝偒丄儊僢僇偵岦偗偰峴恑偟偨丅偙偺巘抍偼僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿(Sharif Ghalib Effendi)偑撪枾偵棫偰偨寁夋偵廬偭偰梕堈偵儊僢僇偵擖忛偟偨丅儚僢僴乕僽攈偲偦偺巜摫幰偼僆僗儅儞掗崙偺巘抍偑儊僢僇偵嬤偯偒偮偮偁傞偲偺僯儏乕僗傪暦偄偰丄偙偺巗偐傜摝偘弌偟丄嶳拞偵愽傫偩丅堦曽丄僒僂僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 傾儖 傾僕僘(Sa乫ud ibn 乪Abd al-乪Aziz)*1812擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1227擭乯偵弰楃(Pilgrimage)傪廔偊丄懡偔偺儉僗儕儉偺寣偑棳傟偨僞乕僀僼(Ta乫if)傪朘栤偟偨屻丄崻忛偺僨傿儔僀儎(Dar乫iyah, Diriyah or Dir乫aiyah)偵栠偭偰峴偭偨丅僨傿儔僀儎偵拝偔偲僒僂僪偼儅僨傿乕僫 儉僫僂儚儔(al-Madinat al-Munawwara)偦偟偰懕偄偰儅僢僇 儉僇僢儔儅(al-Makkat al-Mukarrama)偑僆僗儅儞掗崙孯偵峌棯偝傟偨帠傪抦偭偨丅挌搙丄偙偺崰偵僆僗儅儞暫巑払偼僞乕僀僼傪峌寕偟偨偑丄僞乕僀僼偺橤庡偱偁偭偨僂僗儅儞 儉僟僀僉(乪Uthman al-Mudayiqi)偲偦偺孯戉偑嫲晐偺堊偵摝偘弌偟偰偄偨偺偱丄慡偔掞峈偵夛傢側偐偭偨丅楴曬偼僀僗僞儞僽乕儖(Istanbul)偵嫃偨僇儕僼(Caliph of Muslim) 僗儖僞儞 儅僴儉僪 僇乕儞 傾僪儕2(Sulatn Mahmud Khan 乪Adli II or rahmat-Allahi 'alaih)*偵揱偊傜傟傞偲儅僴儉僪 2悽偼戝曄偵婌傃丄恄偵暯埨偁傟乮傾儖儔僼 傾儔(Allahu ta乫ala or Peace be upon him)乯偲廽暉偟側偑傜偙偺帠偵怺偔幱堄傪帵偟偨丅儅僴儉僪 2悽偼儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偵幱堄偲憽傝暔傪憲傝丄儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偵僸僕儍乕僘偵嵞傃晪偒丄儚僢僴乕僽攈傪娔帇偟丄惂埑偡傞條偵柦偠偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼僗儖僞儞 儅僴儉僪 2悽偺柦椷偵廬偭偰嵞傃僄僕僾僩傪弌棫偟偨丅偙偺帪偵偼僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿(Sharif Ghalib Effendi)偼僆僗儅儞掗崙偺孯戉偲僞乕僀僼偵嫃偰寣偵愼傑偭偨橤庡僂僗儅儞 儉僟僀僉(乪Uthman al-Mudayiqi)偺扵嶕偵朲偟偐偭偨丅慻怐偩偭偨扵嶕偺寢壥丄僂僗儅儞偼曔敍偝傟丄僄僕僾僩偵憲傜傟丄偦傟偐傜僀僗僞儞僽乕儖(Istanbul)傊岇憲偝傟偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼儊僢僇偵摓拝偡傞偲僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿傪僀僗僞儞僽乕儖傊憲傝丄偦偺孼掜偺儎僼儎 價儞 儅僗僪 僄僼僃儞僨傿(Yahya bin Surour, 1803-1813 or Yahya ibn Masud Effendi (rahimah-Allahu ta乫ala))傪儊僢僇偺傾儈乕儖(Amir)偵擟柦偟偨丅傕偆堦恖偺楾錝幰儉僶儔僋 僀僽儞 儅僌儎儞(Mubarak ibn Maghyan)傕曔傜偊傜傟丄1814擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1229擭愴偄傪嬛偢傞寧乯偵僀僗僞儞僽乕儖傊偲岇憲偝傟偨丅壗愮偲塢偆儉僗儕儉払偺寣傪棳偟偨擇恖偺楾錝幰偼偝傜偟幰偲偟偰僀僗僞儞僽乕儖偺捠傝傪堷偒夞偝傟偨屻偵嵾偵憡摉偡傞孻敱傪庴偗偨丅1788擭偐傜1803擭傑偱26擭娫儊僢僇偺傾儈乕儖傪嬑傔偨僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨偼僀僗僞儞僽乕儖偱懜宧偲垽傪傕偭偰壏偐偔寎偊傜傟丄偦偟偰僊儕僔儍戞擇偺搒巗僥僒儘僯僇(Thessalonica)枖偼僒儘僯僇(Salonica)偵堏憲偝傟1816擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1231擭乯偵杤偡傞傑偱偦偙偵棷傑偭偰偄偨丅僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨偺楈昣偼堦斒偵奐曻偝傟偰偄傞丅乮暿偺帒椏偱偼僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨(Ghalib Efendi bin Musa'ed)偼嵞搙1813擭偐傜1827擭傑偱僔儍儕僼偵暅婣偟偨偲偝傟偰嫃傞丅屻宲僔僃儕僼偺柤(Abdulmutalib bin Ghalib, 1827-1827)偐傜傕巹偵偼偦偺曽偑惓偟偄條偵巚偊傞丅乯僸僕儍乕僘(Hijaz)偺惞搒偐傜楾錝幰払傪攔彍偟偨屻丄墦偔僀僄儊儞(Yaman)傑偱偺抧堟傪堦憒偡傞堊偵堦屄巘抍偑攈尛偝傟偨丅僄僕僾僩憤撀(Governor of Egypt, 1805 - 1848) 儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍(Muhammad 'Ali Pasha or rahimah-Allahu ta'ala, 1769 - 1849)偼偙偺巘抍傪帺傜偺孯戉傪巊偭偰彆偗丄偙偺抧堟慡懱偐傜楾錝幰払傪捛偄暐偭偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼儊僢僇偵栠傝丄偦偙偵1815擭乮僸僕儏儔楋1230擭恄惞側寧乯傑偱偵懾嵼偟丄偦傟偐傜帺暘偺懅巕僴僒儞 僷僔儍(Hasan Pasha)*傪儊僢僇抦帠偵擟柦偟丄僄僕僾僩偵栠偭偨丅僒僂僪 僀僽儞 傾僽僪 傾儖 傾僕僘(Sa乫ud ibn 乪Abd al-乪Aziz)*1814擭偵杤偟丄乮扐偟丄尨暥偼1816擭乯偦偺懅巕傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僒僂僪(乪Abdullah ibn Sa乫ud)*偑宲彸偟偨丅儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼懅巕僀僽儔僸儉 僷僔儍(Ibrahim Pasha)*傪傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僒僂僪傊偺摙敯柦椷偺壓偵堦屄巘抍偲嫟偵攈尛偟偨丅傾僽僪僁僢儔乕 僀僽儞 僒僂僪偼僩乕僗儞僷僔儍(Tusun Pasha, 1794 – 1816)*偲乽傾僽僪僁僢儔乕傪僨傿儔僀儎(Diriyah, Dir乫iyah or Dir乫aiyah)偺抦帠偲偟偰擣傔傞戙傢傝偵僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottomans)偵拤惤傪惥偆乿偲偺崌堄偵払偟偰偄偨偑丄儉僴儞儅僪 傾儕 僷僔儍偼偙偺崌堄傪庴偗擖傟側偐偭偨丅僀僽儔僸儉 僷僔儍偼181611(僸僕儏儔楋1231擭枛乯偵岦偗丄僄僕僾僩傪弌敪偟丄1817擭弶傔乮僸僕儏儔楋1232擭偺弶傔乯偵僨傿儔僀儎(Dar乫iyya)偵摓拝偟偨丅傾僽僪僁僢儔乕偼僀僽儔僸儉偵懳偟偰慡暫椡傪巊偭偰掞峈偟偨偑丄18189寧乮僸僕儏儔楋1233擭偺埨廧偺寧乯偱偺旕忢偵寣側傑偖偝偄愴偄偺屻偵曔椄偵偝傟偨丅偙偺楴曬偼僄僕僾僩偱偼忛偐傜7擔娫偵搉偭偰擔栭丄寕偨傟偨100夞偺廽朇偱娊寎偝傟偨丅慡偰偺捠傝偼婙偱杽傔恠偔偝傟偨丅扱婅(Takbirs and Munajat)偼岝搩(Minarets)偐傜暅彞偝傟偨丅乮弌揟丗 Hizmet Books Online http://www.hizmetbooks.org/Advice_for_the_Muslim/wah-41.htm

 

僄僔儊僼傽僄僂僗(Esimephaeus)丗傾價僔僯傾峜掗僄僢儔 傾僩僗儀僴嶰悽 (the Abyssinian Emperor, Ella Asbeha III)525擭偵攈尛偟偨僸儉儎儖(Hymyar)摙敯孯偺巜婗姱偱偁偭偨傾儕傾僗(Ariath)偲摨堦恖暔偲峫偊傞偺偑帺慠偱偁傞偑丄乽傾儕傾僗(Ariath)偑憤撀偲側偭偨乿偲偺婰弎偼偁偭偰傕乽墹嵗偵拝偄偨乿偲偺婰弎偼側偄偺偱巹偼偦傟傪扵偟弌偟偰偄側偄丅

 

僄僗僥償傽儞 僈儅(Estevão da Gama) 償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)偺懅巕偱丄1541擭偵僑傾(Goa)偐傜僗僄僘(Suez)傑偱峲奀偟丄偙傟偑16悽婭偵億儖僩僈儖恖払偑峠奀偵尰傟偨嵟屻偲側偭偨丅

 

僄僟僂僠儎僔(Dawn Palm) 僥儀僗僪乕儉儎僔偲傕屇偽傟丄塸柤偼Doom Palm, Doum Palm or Dawn Palm偱妛柤偼Hyphaene thebaica偱偁傝丄傾僼儕僇嶻偺戝偒側愵宆偺梩傪晅偗傞灲巕偱嵐敊偺搚忞傪埨掕偝偣傞偺偵廳梫側摥偒傪偟丄偦偺壥幚偼椦岀埵偺戝偒偝偱怘梡偵側傞丅巹偺宱尡偱偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺僄僟僂僠儎僔(Dawn Palm)偼梠娾抧懷偵惗偊偰偄傞丅巹偼偙偺栘偺柤偑暘偐傜側偐偭偨崰偼攎徳灲巕偲偁偩柤偟偰屇傫偱偄偨丅

 

僄僠僆僺傾(Ethiopia or Aethiopia) 傾僼儕僇杒搶晹偺峠奀偵柺偟偨僄僕僾僩撿晹偐傜崱擔偺僄僠僆僺傾杒晹偵帄傞抧堟偵偁偭偨屆戙崙壠偱偁傝丄丄乽僔僶偺彈墹偺崙乿偲徧偟偰悽奅嵟屆偺墹崙偲偝傟傞丅僊儕僔傾岅Aethiops偑岅尮偱Ethiop-乮擔從偗偟偨婄乯+-la乮崙柤乯偱擔從偗偟偨恖偺廧傓崙偲偺堄枴偲側傞丅4悽婭崰偐傜僉儕僗僩嫮崙偲側傞丅1936擭偵僀僞儕傾偵惇暈偝傟偨偑丄1941擭偵撈棫傪夞暅丄1975擭偵掗惌傪攑巭丄柺愊110.4枩丄恖岥5,668枩恖(1995)丄庱搒偼傾僕僘 傾儀僶(Addis Ababa)偱媽徧偼傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)

 

乽僄僠僆僺傾傊偺億儖僩僈儖偺1520擭奜岎巊愡抍偺暔岅(Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Ethiopia in 1520)乿丗 僾儗僗僞乕 僕儑儞偺椞搚偺恀偺娭學(A True Relation of the Lands of the Prester John)偵偮偄偰偺傾儖償傽儗僗恄晝(Alvarez)挊彂丅乽摨彂偼1881擭僆乕儖僟乕儕乕(Alderley)偺僗僞儞儕乕嫧(Lord Stanley)偑東栿偟丄働儞僽儕僢僕(Cambridge)偺僴僋儖乕僩嫤夛(Hakluyt Society)偺儀僢僉儞僌僴儉(C.F. Beckingham)偍傛傃僼儞僥傿儞僌僼僅乕僪(G.W.B. Huntingford)偵傛傞捛壛帒椏傪壛偊偨夵掶丒曇廤斉偑1961擭偵弌斉偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿丗 僄僨儞偺墍 (the Garden of Eden) 偵僲傾 (Noah) 偺峖悈埲慜偵棳傟崬傫偱偄偨僺僜儞愳 (the Pishon) 丄僊儂儞愳 (the Gihon) 丄僸僢僨働儖愳 (the Hiddekel) 偍傛傃儐乕僼儔僥僗愳 (the Euphrates) 偺巐偮偺愳偑幚嵼偟偨帠傪徹柧偡傞嶌嬈偺堦晹偲偟偰乽僺僜儞愳 (the Pishon)丄僊儂儞 (the Gihon) 偍傛傃僸僢僨働儖 (the Hiddekel) 偼偦傟偧傟丄熆傟扟傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞 (Al-Batin)丄僇儖儞愳 (the Karun River)偍傛傃僠僌儕僗愳 (the Tigris) 偱偁傝丄僠僌儕僗愳 (the Tigris) 偲儐乕僼儔僥僗愳 (the Euphrates) 偼尰嵼偲杦偳摨偠壨愳晘傪棳傟偰偄偨丅偦偺摉帪偼巐偮偺愳偺崌棳揰偼傾儔價傾榩偺墱偵偁偭偨偑丄偦偺埵抲偼崱擔偱偼撪棨偵惉偭偰偟傑偭偰偄傞乿偦偟偰乽熆傟扟儖儅/僶乕僞儞(Rumah/Batin)偑媽栺惞彂偵婰嵹偝傟偰偄傞僄僨儞偺墍(the Garden of Eden)偵拲偖4偮偺愳偺堦偮偺僺僜儞 (the Pishon)偩乿偲偺壖愢傪僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 52 (March 2000)偺巻柺偵乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(the Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿偲塢偆専徹曬崘傪宖嵹偟偰偄傞丅

 

僄僼僃僜僗(Ephesus) 彫傾僕傾惣晹偺僀僆僯傾偺屆戙搒巗丅

 

僄儈儕傾 儘儅乕僯儍廈(Emilia-Romagna) 僀僞儕傾杒晹偺億乕愳(Po)偲傾儁僯僲嶳柆偲傾僪儕傾奀偱巇愗傜傟偨廈丅

 

僄儈乕儖 僶僴儖丗 僄儈乕儖 僶僴儖(Chief of the Sea)埥偄偼僄儈乕儖 僄儖 僶僴儖(Emir el Bahhr)偲屇偽傟乽奀偺庱挿乿傪堄枴偡傞19悽婭巒傔偵僕僢僟峘挿(a habour master)傪柋傔偨姱椈偺徧崋偱偁傝丄慡偰偺慏偐傜埥傞妟偺搳昫戙傪挜廂偟偰偄偨丅

 

僄儊儔儖僪(Emerald) 儀儕儕僂儉偲傾儖儈僯僂儉傪庡惉暘偲偟偨宂巁墫峼暔偱榋曽徎宯丄榋妏拰忬偺寢徎偱夠忬丒棻忬偱傕嶻弌偡傞椢拰愇偺懡偔偼椢怓傑偨偼扺惵怓偱丄傗傗摟柧丄偱僈儔僗岝戲偑偁傞丅偦偺拞偺怺椢怓摟柧偺岝戲偁傞摿偵旤偟偄傕偺傪僄儊儔儖僪偲塢偄丄椢拰嬍丄椢嬍愇丄悏嬍丄椢嬍丄悏椢嬍摍偲傕屇偽傟傞丅

 

僄僢儔 傾僗儀僴嶰悽(Ella Asbeha III) 52310寧偺乽僫僕儔儞偺愴偄乿偱僸儉儎儖 (Himyar)崙墹僘 僰儚僗(Yousuf Dhu Nuwas)偑椻崜偵恊傾價僔僯傾搣傪奆嶦偟偵偟偨丅婔恖偐偼僘 僫儚僗偺峌寕偺慜偵摝朣偟丄僐儞僗僞儞僥傿僲乕僾儖(Constantinople)偺儘乕儅峜掗(Roman Emperor)偵彆偗傪媮傔偨丅儘乕儅峜掗偼乽帺暘偼偦偺搚抧偐傜梋傝偵墦偔偵偄傞乿偲偟偰傾價僔僯傾峜掗(the Ethiopian Emperor)僄僢儔 傾僩僗儀僴嶰悽(Ella Atsbeha III)偵夘擖偡傞條偵懀偡彂娙傪弌偟偨丅僄僢儔 傾僗儀僴嶰悽偼帺暘偺庣旛戉偑媠嶦偝傟丄拠娫偺僉儕僗僩嫵搆偑嶦偝傟偨偺偱偨偩偱傕偦偆偟偨偄偲巚偭偰偄偨丅枖丄僄僢儔 傾僩僗儀僴嶰悽偼僫僕儔儞偺愴偄傪乽張孻偝傟偨摨柨幰偺巰偵懳偡傞惓媊偺愴偄苽祩臈槜p偡傞帠偱丄傾儔價傾敿搰慡堟傪愯椞偡傞堊偺岲婡偲曔傜偊丄傾儕傾僗(Ariath) 巜婗壓偱7,000恖曇惉偺孯傪怤峌偝偣丄僸儉儎儖(Hymyar)偺惃椡傪夡柵偝偣偨丅僄僢儔 傾僗儀僴嶰悽偵偮偄偰偼傾價僔僯傾峜掗(Elesboas,Hellesthaeus,Kaleb or Caleb)偁傞偄偼傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)墹僫僈僔(Nagashi) 傗傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)墹僱僌僗(the Negus)偲偺婰弎傕偁傞丅

 

僄儕儏僩僁儔乕偺奀(Erythraean Sea or Erythraean Máin) 儘乕儅恖偵愒偄偲屇偽傟偨峠奀偼僊儕僔儍恖偵偼揱愢揑側儁儖僔傾偺墹崙偺僄儕儏僩僁儔墹(the king Erythras)偵場傫偱僄儕儏僩僁儔乕(Erytheraean)偲屇偽傟偰偄偨丅屆戙抧棟妛偱偼僄儕儏僩僁儔乕偺奀乮僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀乯偼傕偲傕偲偼峠奀偍傛傃儁儖僔傾榩傪娷傔偨僀儞僪梞杒惣晹偺徧偱偁偭偨丅僄儕僩僁儘(Erythros)偼僊儕僔儍岅偱愒傪堄枴偟丄尰嵼偺柤慜偼椺偊偦傟偑尰嵼偱偼屆戙偵廤崌揑偵僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀偲屇偽傟偰嫃偨撪偺嬐偐側晹暘偵尷傜傟偰偄偨偲偟偰傕屆戙偐傜塱懕偟偰偄傞丅偟偐偟側偑傜偙偺柤偺岅尮偲尵偆柦戣偵偮偄偰傾僈僒儖僠僨僗(Agatharchides)偼偦偺挊彂乽僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀偵娭偡傞榑暥(A Treatise on the Erythraean Sea)乿偺戞I5復乮I, 5乯偵乽偙傟偼峠奀傪堄枴偟偰嫃傜偢丄揱愢揑側儁儖僔傾偺墹崙偺僄儕儏僩僁儔墹(King Erythras)傪堄枴偟偰偄傞乿偲尵偭偰偄傞丅傾僈僒儖僠僨僗偑堷梡偟偰偄傞暔岅偵傛傟偽乽僄儕儏僩僁儔乕偺柤慜偼僄儕儏僩僁儔墹偺柉偵傛偭偰墹偑摑帯偟偰偄偨娸曈偺奀偵柤晅偗傜傟偨乿丅

 

乽僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀偵娭偡傞榑暥(Treatise on the Erythraean Sea)乿丗 傾僈僒儖僠僨僗(Agatharchides) 乮婭尦慜170 -100擭乯挊偺摨彂偼戞1姫偲戞5姫偐傜偺峀斖埻側敳悎傪彍偄偰崱偱偼晄岾偵傕慡偰幐傢傟偰偟傑偭偰偄傞丅抁偄抐曅偼彫傾僕傾偺屆搒偱悽奅幍晄巚媍偺堦偮傾儖僥儈僗 (Artemis) 偺強嵼抧偱偁偭偨僄僼僃僜僗(Ephesus)偵偮偄偰傾儖僙儈僪儖僗(Arthemidorus)偑婭尦慜104擭崰(circa 104 B.C.)婰弎偟偨暥復偺拞偵尒偮偗傜傟傞丅傕偭偲峀斖埻偵傢偨偭偰偼僨傿僆僪儘僗 僔僋儘僗(Diodorus Siculus)偺暥復偺拞偱偺堷梡傗僼僅僥傿僆僗(Photius)偺暥復偺拞偵尒偮偗傜傟傞丅

 

乽僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀峲奀婰(Periplus of the Erytheraean Sea)乿丗 乽儁儕僾儖僗 儅儕僗 僄儕儏僩儔僄僀(Periplus Maris Erythraei)乿偲屇偽傟傞惣楋1悽婭偺屻敿偵彂偐傟偨僄僕僾僩偐傜僓儞僕僶儖偵帄傞傾僼儕僇奀娸丄傾儔價傾偍傛傃僀儞僪偐傜僙僀儘儞偺嶌幰晄柧偺峲奀榐偱偁傞丅僗僐僼(W.H. Schoff)偑僊儕僔儍岅偐傜東栿偟丄拲庍傪晅偗丄1921擭僯儏乕儓乕僋偱弌斉偟偰偄傞丅

 

僄儖償傿儔 僈乕儖僶僲 儁僙攷巑(Dr. Elvira Garbano Pesce) 乽嵐敊偺嬃堎(Marvel of the Desert, 1983.12)乿偲乽僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺閜閗(The Camel in Saudi Arabia)乿傪傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑 (Dr. Angelo Pesce)嫟挊偟偰偄傞丅

 

僄儖僒儗儉(Jerusalem) 傾儔價傾岅偱偼傾儖 儅僋僨傿僗偺壠傪堄枴偡傞(Bait al-Makdis in Arabic) 僷儗僗僥傿僫(Palestine)偺拞怱揑挰偱儐僟儎嫵丄僉儕僗僩嫵丄僀僗儔儉嫵偺惞抧丅

 

僄儖僨僽(Erdeb) 僄僕僾僩偺僄儖僨僽(Erdeb)偼栺15塸崙僽僔僃儖(English Bushels)偵憡摉偟丄儊僢僇偱偼50僉僀儗(Keyles)偱儅僨傿僫偱偼96僉僀儗(Keyles)偱寁嶼偝傟偰偄偨 (John Lewis Burchhardt)丅乮1 塸僽僢僔僃儖 = 36.36872 儕僢僩儖 = 8 塸僈儘儞 1 暷僽僢僔僃儖 = 35.23907017儕僢僩儖= 8 暷崚暔僈儘儞 ≈ 9.309177489 暷塼検僈儘儞

 

僄儖僪儞 儖僢僞乕(English Muslim, Eldon Rutter)丗儖僢僞乕偼傾儔價傾岅傪嵟弶偵儅儔儎(Malaya)偱偦偙偵廧傫偱偄偨傾儔價傾恖堏廧幰払偐傜妛傫偩屻偵僄僕僾僩偱妛傫偩丅1925擭僔儕傾弌恎偺僄僕僾僩恖弰楃傪憰偄丄儖僢僞乕偼儅僢僒儚(Massawah)偐傜傾僽僴(Abha)偺挌搙惣偵偁傞傾僔乕儖 僥傿僴儅(Tihamah of Asir)偺彫偝側峘偱偁傞僇僼儅(al-Qahmah)傊偲峠奀傪搉偭偨丅僥傿僴儅傪杒傊偲扝傝丄儖僢僞乕偼儊僢僇偵拝偄偨丅偦偙偱傾僽僪儖傾僕僘墹偵寎擖傟傜傟傞偲尵偆摿暿懸嬾傪庴偗偰丄儖僢僞乕偼弰楃偺媀幃傪峴偭偨丅偦偺屻丄儖僢僞乕僴弰楃幃揟偺椃傪懕偗偨丅偦傟偵偼儅僨傿乕僫傊偺椃偲傕偆堦偮僞乕僀僼傊偺椃偑娷傑傟偰偄偨丅偦偺條巕傪儖僢僞乕偼1928擭偵儘儞僪儞偱敪峴偟偨壙抣偁傞挊彂乽傾儔價傾偺惞側傞搒巗(The Holy Cities of Arabia)乿偺拞偵惗偒惗偒偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

L. 儅儘儖偺椃峴婰(Cryptical Note of L. de.Marol)乿丗 L. 儅儘儖(L. de Marol)偺椃峴婰偵偼僕僢僟(Jidda)偵娭偡傞婰弎傪娷傫偱偄傞丅

 

 

僆僂僌僗僩僁僗(Augustus) 乮傾僂僌僗僩僁僗(Augustus)傪嶲徠丅乯

 

墶抐宆嵒媢(Transverse Dune) 墶抐宆嵒媢偼僶乕僠儍儞(Barchan)偲傕屇偽傟丄戩墇晽岦偲捈妏偵嶰擔寧宆(Crescent Shape)傪嶌傝弌偡丅僶乕僠儍儞偼堏摦偟傗偡偔減渏偡傞嵒媢(Wandering Dune)偲傕屇偽傟傞丅僕儍僼儔乕嵐敊(Jafurah Desert)偼僟儞儅儞乮Damman乯偺撿偺傾僽僇僀僋(Abqaiq)偐傜儖僽 傾儖 僇儕(Rub' Al Khali)傑偱峀偑偭偰嫃傝丄僶乕僠儍儞偱暍傢傟偰偄傞丅偙偺嵒敊偺嵒偼愇塸暘偑90%埲壓偲彮側偔丄僒僂僕傾儔價傾崙撪偵偁傞懠偺嵒敊偺條偵嵒偑巁壔揝乮Iron Oxide乯偱旐暍偝傟偰嫃傜偢丄偦偺寢壥偲偟偰嵒偺怓偑柧傞偄愒偱偼柍偔丄惵傒偑偐偭偨敀偱偁傞丅

 

僆僂僪僇乕儉(Oudkham) 價乕僘(beads)惢嶌梡偺朏崄偺偁傞栘嵽(odoriferous wood)

 

乽墹偺恖惗偲執嬈(Da Vida e Feitos de el-Rey)乿丗 僕僃儘僯儌 僆僜儕僆 (D. Manuel de Gerónimo Osório)偑挊嶌偟偨弶斉杮偼1571擭偵弌斉偝傟偨丅摨彂偼屻偵僼僃儗僀儔 億儖僩(J. Ferreira. Pôrto)偵傛偭偰曇廤偝傟丄1944擭偵嵞弌斉偝傟偨乮ed. by J. Ferreira. Pôrto 1944.乯丅

 

僆僇儗(Okales) 僔儕傾(Syria)偱偼僇乕儞(Khans)偲屇偽傟傞寶暔偱偁傝丄僸僕儍乕僘(Hedjaz)偱偼儂僔儏(Hosh)偲屇偽傟丄僄僕僾僩曽尵偱偼拞掚(Courtyard)偱偁傞丅

 

僆僋僨儏乕僪帠審偺暔岅(Al-Okdood Event Story) 嬈壩偑僩儞僱儖偱擱傗偝傟丄偦偟偰恖乆偑壩偺拞傊憲傜傟丄偦偟偰嵟屻偵傕偆堦搙偦偙偱儐僟儎嫵傊偺夵廆傪恥偹傜傟偨丅偟偐偟丄偦傟偱傕斵摍偼嵞傃嫅斲偟丄嵟屻偵壩偺拞偵憲傝崬傑傟偨丅愒傫朧偵庼擕(suckle)偟偰偄傞晈恖偑偙偺壩偺慜偵楢傟偰棃傜傟傞偲撍慠乽恏書偟側偝偄丅偍偐偁偝傫丄婱彈偼惓偟偄偺偩偐傜乿偲愒傫朧偑尵偭偨條偵巚偊偨丅偦偟偰525擭偺偦偺擔偵栺2枩恖偺恖乆偑媇惖偵側傝丄偦偟偰僫僕儔儞(Najran)偼僇儕僪 僀僽儞 儚儕乕僪(Khalid Ibn Al-Waleed)偵傛偭偰僀僗儔儉偵夵廆偟偨僸僕儏儔楋10擭乮惣楋632擭乯傑偱僉儕僗僩嫵傪怣嬄偟懕偗偨丅

 

僆僋僨儏乕僪偺敪孈(Excavation of Al-Okdood) 暥壔扴摉暥晹徣師姱丄傾僽僪僢儔 僴僒儞 儅僗儕攷巑(Dr. Abdullah Hasan Masry)偺巜帵偱峫屆攷暔晹偼僆僋僨儏乕僪(Al Okhdood)偱擇夞偵搉傞敪孈傪峴偄丄偦偺寢壥偺婔偮偐偼峫屆攷暔晹偺巐婫曬傾僩儔儖(Atlal)偺戞5姫偍傛傃戞7姫偵宖嵹偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僆乕僗僩儕傾嬧壿(Autrian Thalers) 15悽婭偐傜19悽婭偺僪僀僣偺嬧壿偱3 marks偵憡摉偡傞丅儅儕乕僥儗乕僘(Marie-Thérèse)偑崗傑傟偰偄傞僆乕僗僩儕傾嬧壿(Autrian Thalers)1840擭偺僄僕僾僩偱偼51/4僼儔儞僗 僼儔儞(French Francs)丄僸僕儍乕僘(Hejaz)奀娸偱偼61/2僼儔儞僗 僼儔儞(French Francs)偦偟偰僸僕儍乕僘(Hejaz)撪棨偱偼7僼儔儞僗 僼儔儞(French Francs)偺壙抣偑偁偭偨丅

 

僆僗儅儞堦悽(Osman I) 丗價僓儞僠儞掗崙偺悐旝偵忔偠偰傾僫僩儕傾惣晹偵僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Empire, 1299-1922)傪憂愝偟丄1453擭僐儞僗僞儞僠僲乕僾儖傪峌棯偟丄價僓儞僠儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire, 395 - 1453)傪柵傏偟丄僒儔僙儞掗崙偺椞抧偼僆僗儅儞掗崙偵慻傒崬傑傟偰峴偭偨丅僆僗儅儞掗崙偼16悽婭偵嵟惙婜傪傓偐偊丅椞搚偼傾僕傾丒傾僼儕僇丒儓乕儘僢僷偵傑偨偑偭偨偑丄17悽婭偐傜悐戅偟丄戞堦師戝愴偱攕傟偨屻丄僩儖僐妚柦偵傛偭偰柵朣偟偨丅

 

僆僗儅儞懁偺埑搢揑側壩椡(Superior Firepower on Ottoman) 儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamluks, 1250 - 1517)偼婻巑偵憡墳偟偄壩婍偼帩偭偰偄偨丅帪戙嶖岆偺晭怞傪帩偪丄壩婍暫偵孯偺壓媺偺抧埵偵偟偐梌偊偰嫃側偐偭偨丅帺暘払帺恎偲偟偰偼寱丄憚丄媩偺條側塸梇揑側柤梍偁傞晲婍傪岲傫偩丅

 

僆僗儅儞丒僒僂僕愴憟(Ottoman – Saudi War) 僄僕僾僩丒儚僢僴乕僽愴憟(Egyptian – Wahhabi War)傪嶲徠丅

 

僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Empire) 僆僗儅儞僩儖僐(Ottoman Turks, 1299-1922)偲傕屇徧偝傟傞僩儖僐宯僀僗儔儉崙壠偱丄惣楋1299擭偵僆僗儅儞堦悽(Osman I or Othman I El-Gazi)偑價僓儞僠儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire, 395 - 1453)偺悐旝偵忔偠偰傾僫僩儕傾(Anatolia)(彫傾僕傾)惣晹偵寶崙偟偨丅偙偺崙壠偼抧拞奀廃曈偺傾儔僽彅抧堟丄僶儖僇儞敿搰乮Balkan乯傪傕巟攝壓偵偍偒丄傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasids, 750 - 1258)柵朣屻偺僀僗儔儉悽奅偺攅幰偲偟偰孨椪偟偨丅惣楋1453擭偵儊僼儊僩擇悽(Mehmed II Fath El-Istanbul)偑僐儞僗僞儞僠僲乕僾儖(Constantinople)傪惇暈偟偰偦偙偵慗搒偟偨丅16悽婭偺僗儗僀儅儞戝掗(Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, 1520 - 1566)偺崰偑嵟惙婜偱椞搚偼惣傾僕傾丒杒傾僼儕僇丒僶儖僇儞敿搰偵傑偨偑偭偨偑丄17悽婭枛偐傜悐戅偵岦偐偭偨丅戞堦師悽奅戝愴偵摨柨崙懁偵壛傢偭偰攕杒偟丄1922擭働儅儖 傾僞僠儏儖僋(Mustafa Kemal Atatürk)偺僩儖僐妚柦(The Turkish War of Independence)偵傛偭偰柵朣偟偨丅僆僗儅儞掗崙偼僆僢僩儅儞掗崙偲傕揮幨乮偰傫偟傖丄transcription乯偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿(Othman al-Madhayfi) 僆僗儅儞 儊僓僀僼僃(Othman el Medhayfe)偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahaby)偺挊柤側庱挿偱丄戞堦師僒僂僪岒崙(First Saudi State, 1745 - 1819)偺僀儅儉(Imam, 1803 - 1814)僒僂僪(Saud ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud)偑僸僕儍乕僘(Hejaz)傪惇暈偡傞堊偺庡梫側愭摫栶偱傕偁偭偨丅僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽(Sherif Ghaleb)偲偼帺暘偺巓枀偲寢崶偟偨媊棟偺孼掜偱偁傝丄僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿帺恎傕傾僪僂傾儞懓僔僃僀僋(Sheikh of Adouan)偱偁偭偨丅1802擭偵僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽(Ghalib Efendii bin Musa'ed, 1788 – 1803 & 1813 - 1827)*偲偺媥愴岎徛偟偰偄傞拞偱僱僕僪(Nejd)偐傜恑寕偟偰偒偨僒僂僪壠(House of Saud)偲摨柨偟偨儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahhabi)偺孯戉傪巟墖偟丄僞乕僀僼(Taif)傪娮棊偝偣偨丅儚僴乕僽攈(Wahhabi)偺孯戉偼懕偄偰丄儊僢僇(Mecca)偲儊僨傿乕僫(Medina)偵恑寕偟偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偑抸偒丄儚僢僴乕僽攈偵攋夡偝傟偨僞乕僀僼偺忛嵲偵戙傢傝嶰偮偺栧傪帩偮晄婯懃側巐妏宍偺忛暻傗峚偱僞乕僀僼傪怴偨偵埻偭偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼1805/1806擭偵僔儍儕僼偐傜僑儞僼僃僨(Gonfede)傪彑偪庢傝丄僕僃僢僟(Djidda)偐傜僴儕(Haly)傑偱偺奀娸慡偰偑儚僢僴乕僽攈偺巟攝抧偲偟偨丅1811擭偵儌僴儞儊僪 傾儕 僷僔儍(Mohammed Aly Pasha)*偼僄僕僾僩偐傜僩儖僐孯偲嫟偵傗偭偰棃偰丄僕僃僢僟乮Djidda乯偲儊僢僇(Mekka)傪扗夞偟偨丅儉僗僞僼傽 儀僀(Mustafa Bey)*偼偙偺忋庱旜偲僞僀僼(Tayf)偺姳偟晵摳偺儚僀儞偵悓偄丄帺暘傂偲傝偱儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahabi)傪惂埑偱偒傞偲巚偭偨丅儉僗僞僼傽 儀僀(Mustafa Bey)偼儚僢僴乕僽攈(Wahabys)偺崻嫆抧偺堦偮偱偁傝丄僞乕僀僼偐傜70偐傜80儅僀儖乮110km偐傜130km)搶曽偵偁傞僞儔僶(Taraba)偵岦偗偰恑孯偟偨偑丄嶳妜抧懷偱偺掞峈偵夛偄丄400柤偐傜500柤偺媇惖傪弌偟偰戅媝偣偞傞傪摼側偐偭偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼帺暘偺寉婻暫偑庤尦偵嫃偨偑偙偺娫丄峴摦傪偟側偐偭偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼崙拞偺慡偰偺曽岦偵拲堄傪岦偗丄棊屴幰偺戅楬傪愨偪丄帪偲偟偰儊僢僇偲偺岎怣傪朤庴偟丄1812擭偺壞偺娫拞丄僞乕僀僼庣旛戉傪尅惂偟偨丅僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偼僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偺曔敍偵5,000僪儖偺寽徿嬥傪妡偗偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偑偁傞弌寕偱僞僀僼偺搶45帪娫偺嶳拞偵帺暘偑抸偄偨彫偝側忛價僢僙儖(Byssel)偱媥懅偟偰偄偨丅偦傟傪暦偄偨僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偼僞-僀僼偐傜嫮椡側晹戉傪攈尛偟偨丅偦偺晹戉偼偙偺忛傪曪埻偡傞偲壩傪曻偭偨丅堦斣昻偟偄儀僪僂僀儞(Bedouins)偺堖憰傪傑偲偭偨僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偲栺30柤偺晹壓払偼僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偺晹戉偵廝偄偐偐傝丄摝偘摴傪愗傝奐偄偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偺忔偭偨帗攏偑彎偮偒丄忔攏弌棃側偔側偭偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼捛愓幰払偐傜搆曕偱摝偘丄梻擔丄傾僥僀價 儀僪僂僀儞(Ateybe Bedouin)偺揤枊偵彆偗傪媮傔偨偑丄偦偙偱曔傑傝丄僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偺慜偵堷偒楢傟偰偄偐傟偨丅僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽偼寽徿嬥傪傾僥僀價 儀僪僂僀儞偵巟暐偄丄僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偵嵔傪晅偗偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼僕僢僟(Djidda)丄僇僀儘(Cairo)偦偟偰嵟廔揑偵偼僐儞僗僞儞僠僲乕僾儖(Constantinople)偵憲傜傟丄偦偙偱儌僴儞儅僪 傾儕偺枛懅巕偑偙偺崅婱側曔椄傪帺暘偺巟攝幰偵惞側傞搒巗偺尞偲懡偔偺崅婱側憽傝暔偲嫟偵嵎偟弌偟偨丅嫲傜偔丄僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偼偦偙偵拝偔偲捈偖偵懪偪庱偵側偭偨偲巚傢傟傞丅偙偆偟偰儚僢僴乕僽攈偼僸僕儍乕僘(Hejaz)偱嵟傕妶桇偟丄戝抇側庱挿傪幐偭偨丅僆僗儅儞 儅僓僀僼傿偑曔椄偵側偭偨偺偼18129寧偱偁傝丄1813擭偵偼僔儍儕僼 僈儕乕僽(Sharif Ghalib)*偲僩儖僐彨峑儉僗僞僼傽 儀僀(Mustafa Bey)*偑巜婗偡傞暘尛戉偑僞乕僀僼傪扗夞偟偨丅乮拲乯 巹偼乽僑儞僼僅僨(Gonfede)偼僋儞僼僓(Qunfudhah)偱僴儕(Haly)偼熆傟扟僴儕(Hali)偺壨岥偱偁傞乿偲棟夝偟偰偄傞丅乮弌揟丗 僽儖僋僴儖僩(Johana Ludwig Burckhardt)挊丄乽傾儔價傾偺僸僕儍乕僘抧曽偺椃(Travels in The Hedjaz of Arabia)乿乯

 

僆僜儕僆(Osorio) 億儖僩僈儖偺楌巎壠偱丄150923擔偵僨傿僂(Diu)壂奀愴偱偺嫢朶偱柍帨斶側僼儔儞僔僗僐 僟儖儊僀僟(Francisco d'Almeida)偺峴堊傪旕擄偟偨丅

 

僆僢僩儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Turks) 乮僆僗儅儞掗崙傪嶲徠乯丅

 

Opus 嶌昳丄挊嶌丄Opera偲摨岅尮丅

 

僆儃僟僗墹(Obodas) 僔僢儔僄僂僗(Syllaeus)偑巇偊偨僫僶僥傾(Nabataeans)偺墹丅乮僔僢儔僄僂僗(Sillaeus) (Nabataean Guide SillaeusNabataean Administrator)嶲徠丅乯

 

僆儅儖 僀僽儞 僇僢僞僽(Omar Ibn Al Khattab) 乮僂儅儖(the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab)嶲徠乯丅

 

僆儕僢僒(Orissa) 僀儞僪搶晹儀儞僈儖(Bengal)榩傪椪傓廈偱廈搒偼僽僶僱僗儚儖(Bhubaneswar)

 

僆儕儏儞僺傾(Olympiad) 屆戙僊儕僔儍偱僆儕儏儞僺傾嫞媄嵳偱尰戙偺僆儕儞僺僢僋(Olympic)偺敪徦偲側偭偨丅

 

僆乕儖僗僷僀僗(Allspices) 僼僩儌儌壢偺棊梩崅栘丄傑偨偼偦偺枹弉壥傪姡憞偟偨崄恏椏偱丄惣僀儞僪彅搰尨嶻偱庡梫側崄恏椏僋儘乕僽乮挌帤乯丄僔僫儌儞乮擏宩乯丄僫僣儊僢僌偺崄婥傪暪偣帩偮丅嶰崄巕偲傕塢偆丅

 

僆儗儅(Olemas)丗妛幆宱尡幰(Learned Men)

 

 

僇傾僶恄揳(Kaaba Building) 僀僗儔儉嫵搆偵偲偭偰嵟傕惞側傞恄揳偱儊僢僇偺惞儌僗僋偺拞偵偁傝丄偙偙偵寃偱傞偺偑弰楃偺嵟廔栚揑偱偁傞丅尦乆偼硳m傗嬸偐偝饒訓穫閮W儍乕僸儕乕儎(Jahiliyah)偲屇偽傟傞僀僗儔儉埲慜偺懡恄嫵偺嬼憸悞攓偺帪戙偵儅僢僇(Makkah)偺拞怱偱偁偭偨棫曽懱傪堄枴偡傞柤偺晅偄偨恄揳偱偁偭偨丅

 

乽夞嫵搆偺晽廗偲廗姷(Moeurs et coutumes des Musulmans)乿丗 傾僼儕僇扵専壠僑乕僥傿僄(E.F. Gauthier)偑挊弎偟丄1931擭僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偨丅

 

夡寣昦(Scurvy) 價僞儈儞C寚朢徢丅

 

奀嶻僒僜儕(Sea-Scorpion) 僇僕僇(Sculpin)丄乮屆惗乯奀嶻僒僜儕丅

 

僇僀僶乕儖 僕儍僲僂僽(Khaybar Al-Janoub) 挿榁傪堄枴偡傞偙偺挰偼僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩(Khamis Mushait)偺杒偵偁傝丄熆傟扟僕儍僕儔乕(Wadi Jazirah)偵増偭偰暲傇丅

 

僇僀儅僇儅僩(Qaimaqamat)丄僇僀儅僇儉(Qaimaqam) 僕僢僟(Jiddah)偺儊僨傿僫栧(the Medina Gate)偺嵍偵尒偊傞寙弌偟偨寶暔丅

 

僇僀儉 僕儍僂僕儎(Qayim al-Jawziyah) 1350擭杤丄僀僽儞 僞僀儈儎(Ibn Taymiyah)偺掜巕丅

 

僇僀儞(Khayn) 攚怣峴堊(Treachery)

 

壴浖娾抧懷(Granite Area) 壴浖娾抧懷偼傾儔價傾弬忬抧(Arabia Shield)偺庡梫晹偱偁傞丅偙偺抧堟偼娚傗偐偵婲暁偟偰偄傞偑丄僴僀儖(Hayi)l偺傾僕儍嶳夠(Jibal Aja)摍丄応強偵傛偭偰戝抧偑嬝擏偺條偵惙傝忋偑偭偰偄傞丅偙偺條側嶳夠偼偦偺愒崟偄嶳敡偲丄偦偺榌偵惗偊傞椢偺栘乆偑惵偄嬻傪攚宨偵偟偰慺惏傜偟偄挷榓傪嶌傝弌偟偰偄傞丅榌偺嵒抧偵惗偊偰嫃傞栘乆偼僞儖乕(Gerrardi or Talh)丄僒儉僌乕(Tortillis or Samgh)摍偺傾僇僔傾(Acacia)偱偁傞丅壴浖娾偺嶳(Granite Mountains)3暘偺1偼偦偺傕偲傕偲偺妸傜偐側嶳敡傪巆偟偰偄傞丅偦偺懠偺3暘偺1偼偦偺嶳敡偼斾妑揑戝偒側4妏偵嬤偄戝愇偵妱傟偰偄傞丅僞儖乕偼偦偺戝愇偺妱傟栚偱傕惗挿偟丄傑傞偱敔掚偺奊偺條側宨怓偲側傞丅巆傝偺3暘偺1偱偼晽壔偝傟峏偵彫偝側巐妏挘偭偨彫偝側彫愇偵妱傟丄嶳敡傪旕忢偵崟偢傫偩墿搚怓偵尒偣偰偄傞丅

 

壩嶳娾抧懷(Harrats) 壩嶳娾抧懷乮僴儔僢僩乯偼僸僕儍乕僘-傾僔乕儖嶳柆(Hijaz - Asir Mountains)偺搶懁偵敪払偟偰偄傞丅偙偺抧堟偼壩嶳娾(Volcanic Rocks)丄梠娾(Lava)丄壩嶳奃(Ash)偱暍傢傟偰偍傝丄壩嶳偑偙偺抧堟偺帄傞強偵嶶傜偽偭偰偄傞丅偙傟傜偺壩嶳偼巰壩嶳偐媥壩嶳偱偁傝丄妶壩嶳偼尒庴偗傜傟側偄丅僴僀儖(Hayil)撿偵偁傞僞僶乕壩岥(Tabah)偺妱傟栚偺敪払(Developing Crevasse)摍丄堦斒偵抦傜傟偰偄傞傛偆側壩嶳妶摦偼嬌傔偰尷傜傟偰偄傞丅偙傟傜偺壩嶳偼崅偔傕戝偒偔傕側偄偑丄僞僀僼(Taif)偺杒搶偵偁傞儚僴僶壩岥(Wahaba Crater)摍偼偦偺廃埻偑11km傕偁傞丅儚僴僶壩岥偼偦偺戝偒偝偽偐傝偱偼柍偔丄偦偺壩岥偺掙偵屛偺條偵懲愊偟偨敀偄捑揳暔傗壩岥廃埻偺椢偺朙偐偝偱傕桳柤偱偁傞丅擲惈偑掅偄堊偵梠娾偼旕忢偵挿偄嫍棧傪梕堈偔棳傟丄峀偄斖埻傪敄偄梠娾枌偱暍偭偰偄傞丅偙偺敄偄梠娾枌偼搚忞偺悈暘偺忲敪梷偊傞堊偵丄壩嶳娾抧懷偱偼懡偔偺怉惗偑堢偭偰偄傞偺偑尒傜傟丄偦偺怉惗偵埶懚偡傞晹棊傕嶶傜偽偭偰偄傞丅

 

僇僔傾(Cassia) 宩偁傞偄偼僩儞僉儞僯僢働僀偲屇偽傟傞僋僗僲僉壢偺忢椢崅栘偱丄尨嶻抧偼僀儞僪僔僫丄壺撿偱懡偔嵧攟偝傟丄崅偝偼10m偱丄慡懱偵曬崘偑偁傝丄梩偼妚幙丄壴偼彫偝偔敀怓丄庽旂丒巬偼宩旂丒宩巬偲徧偟丄朏崄惈寬堓栻丒捔捝嵻偲偟偰巊傢傟丄宩旂桘傪庢傝朏崄嵻偲偡傞摍丄宩旂偼擏宩(cinnamon)偺戙梡昳偵巊傢傟傞丅

 

僇乕僗僩(Caste) 償傽儖僫乮恎暘惂搙乯偲傕塢偆丅僸儞僪僁乕嫵偺揥奐偺側偐偱丄償傽儖僫(Varuna)乮巐惄(varna)偍傛傃巐惄惂搙乯偑嫮偔巜揈偝傟傞丅僇乕僗僩偼婎杮揑側暘椶偑4偮偁傞偑丄偦偺拞偵偼旕忢偵嵶偐偄掕媊偑偁傝旕忢偵懡偔偺僇乕僗僩偑偁傞丅僇乕僗僩偼恎暘傗怑嬈傪婯掕偡傞丅僇乕僗僩偼恊偐傜庴偗宲偑傟傞偩偗偱丄惗傑傟偨屻偵僇乕僗僩傪曄偊傞偙偲偼偱偒側偄丅偨偩偟丄尰嵼偺恖惗偺寢壥偵傛偭偰師偺惗側偳枹棃偺惗偱崅偄僇乕僗僩偵忋偑傞偙偲偑偱偒傞丅婎杮揑側4偮偺僇乕僗僩偲僇乕僗僩奜偺恎暘偵偼丄埲壓偺傕偺偑偁傞丅側偍丄僇乕僗僩偵傛傞嵎暿偼1950擭偵寷朄偱嬛巭偝傟偰偄傞丅嘆 僶儔儌儞(Brahman) 僽儔僼儈儞(Brahmin)乮攌梾栧乯偲傕塢偆丅恄惞側怑偵偮偄偨傝丄媀幃傪峴偆偙偲偑偱偒傞丅乽巌嵳乿偲東栿偝傟傞丅嘇 僋僔儍僩儕儎(Kshatriya) 檵掗棙偼墹傗婱懓側偳晲椡傗惌帯椡傪帩偮丅乽墹懓乿丄乽晲巑乿偲東栿偝傟傞丅嘊 價傾僀僔儍(vaishya) 償傽僀僔儍偲傕塢偄丄 彜嬈傗惢憿嬈側偳偵偮偔偙偲偑偱偒傞丅乽暯柉乿偲東栿偝傟傞丅嘋 僗乕僪儔(Shudra) 僔儏乕僪儔(庱懮梾)偲傕塢偄丄 堦斒揑偵恖乆偺寵偑傞怑嬈偵偺傒偮偔偙偲偑弌棃傞丅僗乕僪儔偼僽儔僼儈儞偺塭偵偡傜怗傟傞偙偲偼偱偒側偄丅乽搝楆乿偁傞偄偼乽慓柉乿偲東栿偝傟傞偙偲偑偁傞丅愭廧柉懓偱偁傞偑丄巟攝偝傟傞偙偲偵側偭偨恖乆偱偁傞丅

 

僇僗儖 價儔儖(Kasr Bilal) 巹偑1975擭偵僴僼傽儖 僶乕僥傿儞傪朘傟偨帪偵偼挰帺懱偑戝偒偔偼柍偔丄偙偺忛乮僇僗儖 價儔儖乯偑挰偺恀傫拞偵戕偊偰偄偨丅壆崻偲暻偺堦晹偼柍偐偭偨偑偦偺撪晹偱偼摉帪偺搶傾儔價傾偺柤嶻偱僴僼傽儖 僶乕僥傿儞偑廤愊抧偱偁傞僫僕僪庬傪娷傓梤偺巗偑奐偐傟偰偄偨丅1998擭偵朘傟偨帪偵偼忛偼婛偵捵偝傟丄扤偵恞偹偰傕偦偺埵抲偡傜暘偐傜側偐偭偨丅僒僂僕偺峫屆妛攷暔娰挕偼夝愢摍偺娕斅傪棫偰傞帠摍偼傑偭偨偔偟側偄偵偣傛暥壔揑堚愓偵偼嶒傪傔偖傜偣偰棫偪擖傝嬛巭偵偟偰曐岇偟偰偄傞丅廃埻偺僯僢僞傾(Nitaa)丄僇儕儎 傾儖 僂儖儎(Qaryah Al Ulyah)丄儕僫(Linah)摍偑偦偺條偵曐岇偝傟偰偄傞偺偵偙偺價儔儖忛(Kasr Bilal)偼憡摉偵屆偐偭偨偺偵慡偔曐岇偝傟側偐偭偨偺傪晄巚媍偵巚偭偰偄偨丅僽儗乕儞晇嵢(Mr.& Mrs. Brain)偵傛傟偽乽僈僀儔儞壠(the House of Ghailan)敪徦偱偁傞僶僯 僸儔儖(Bani Hilal)懓偺庱挿偑壜垽偑偭偰偄偨價儔儖(Bilal)偲塢偆柤偺搝楆偑偄偨丅價儔儖偼閜閗岎堈偱戝偒側晉傪摼偰丄僇僗儖 價儔儖(Kasr Bilal)傪抸偄偨乿偲僔僃乕僋僗僺傾戝堁(Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear)偼弎傋偰偄傞偲尵偆丅偦偺條偵搝楆偑抸偄偨偺偱偁傟偽曐岇偝傟側偄帠偵偁傞掱搙偼擺摼弌棃傞條側婥偑偡傞丅

 

僇僗儖 價儞 儔儅儞(Qasr bin Raman) 僇僗儖 價儞 儔儅儞忛偼1338擭偵戙乆僞僀儅(Tayma)偺椞庡偱偁偭偨儔儅儞堦懓(Al Raman)偑僞僀儅偵抸忛偟丄20悽婭偵擖偭偰僀僽儞 僒僂僪(Ibn Saud)偵暈廬偟偨丅忛偺擖傝岥偺戝偒側栘惢斷晅嬤偺抝梡偺廧嫃偼偐側傝峳傟偰偄傞偑拞掚傪嫴傫偩壠懓梡偺廧嫃偵偼愇偑傆傫偩傫偵巊傢傟偰偍傝丄曐懚忬懺傕椙偄丅壠懓梡廧嫃偺戜強偵偼彫偝側栘惢偺奪屗偑偁偭偰偦偙偐傜捈愙忛暻偺奜懁偵愝偗傜傟偨堜屗偐傜悈傪媯傒忋偘傜傟傞巇慻傒偵側偭偰嫃偨丅堜屗偑奜揋偵嫼偐偝傟堈偄忛奜偵壗屘嶌傜傟偰偄傞偺偐媈栤傪姶偠偨丅僇僗儖偺廃傝偼僫僣儊儎僔偺椦偲偦偺栘堿傪棙梡偟偨揱摑擾墍偵惉偭偰嫃偨偑崱偼僫僣儊儎僔傕從偐傟偰峳傟傞偵擟偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僇僞僶 傾僽僪 傾儖-僇儕儉庱挿(Amir Qataba ibn Idris Ibn Mutaim ibn Abd al-Karim) 僸僕儏儔楋586擭乮惣楋1190擭乯偵攑巭偝傟偨杒傾僼儕僇恖偵懳偟偰峷偓暔偺尩偟偔庢傝棫偰傪嵞傃晩壽偟傛偆偲偟偨偑偦偺巰偱嵙愜偟偨丅

 

僇僞僶乕儞墹崙(Qataban) 僇僞僶乕儞墹崙(Qataban)偼僶僀僴儞宬扟(Baihan Valley)偵塰偊偨僀僄儊儞偺屆戙墹崙偺堦偮偱偁傝丄婭尦慜1000擭婜屻敿偵偍偗傞嵟傕戙昞揑撿傾儔價傾屆戙墹崙偱偁偭偨丅懠偺撿傾儔價傾偺墹崙偲摨偠條偵嵳抎(Atlar)偱悊偐傟傞擕崄(Frankincense)偲杤栻(Myrrh or Myrrha)偺岎堈偱戝偒側晉傪摼偰偄偨丅僇僞僶乕儞墹崙(Qataban)偺庱搒偼僥傿儉僫(Timna)偱偁傝丄僴僪儔儅僂僩墹崙(Hadhramawt)丄僔僶墹崙(Sheba)偍傛傃儅乕僀儞(Ma'in)墹崙摍懠偺撿傾儔價傾屆戙墹崙傪捠傞岎堈楬偵埵抲偟偰偄偨丅僇僞僶乕儞墹崙偺庣岇恄偼廸晝傪堄枴偡傞傾儞儉(Amm)偱偁偭偨堊丄偦偺柉偼帺傜傾儞儉偺巕嫙払(Children of Amm)偲柤忔偭偰偄偨丅僇僞僶乕儞岅偼僇僞僶乕儞恖(Qatabanian)偑梡偄偨僔僶岅(Sabaean)偱偁傞丅

偙偺墹崙偼2悽婭偺屻敿偵偼僴僪儔儅僂僩墹崙偵傛偭偰懏椞壔偝傟偰偟傑偭偨丅

 

僇僞儞(Qatan) 僫僕儔儞巗(Najran)偺杒嶳抧偺熆傟扟僴儃僂僫乕(Wadi Habounah)偺塃屢棳堟偵嵼傞晹棊偱偁傝丄偦偺柤偵偼乽柸嶌傝乿偲塢偆堄枴傕偁傞偑丄偙偺抧堟偵惃椡傪挘傞僇僢僞儞懓(Qattan)偵場傫偩抧柤偩偲巚傢傟傞丅偦偺捈偖忋棳偵偼杒傊偼儎僟儅乕(Yadamah)丄撿傊偼僒乕儖(Thar)傊偺暘婒偑嵼傝丄偝傜偵忋棳偵偼嶳娫偺擾懞偑嵼傞丅

 

僈乕僣嶳柆(Ghats) 僀儞僪偺僨僇儞崅尨(Decan)偺椉懁傪憱傞擇偮偺嶳柆偱搶僈乕僣嶳柆(Eastern Ghats)偍傛傃惣僈乕僣嶳柆(Western Ghats)偲塢偆丅

 

僈僢僒僯僪挬(Ghassanids) 乮僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids)嶲徠乯丅

 

僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids) 僈僢僒乕儞懓(Ghassanids)偼撿傾儔價傾偺僇僴僞儞晹懓(Qahatan Tribes)偺僇僴儔儞巟懓(Kahlan Branch)偺堦栧偱丄嶰悽婭巒傔偵僀僄儊儞乮Yemen乯偺儅儕僽(Ma乫rib)偐傜僔儕傾(Syria)撿晹偺壩嶳惈暯尨僴僂儔儞(Hauran)丄儓儖僟儞(Jordan)偍傛傃惞抧(Holy Land)乮僷儗僗僠僫偺抧乯偵堏廧偟丄偦偙偱僿儗僯僘儉壔偟偨儘乕儅恖堏廧幰(Hellenized Roman Settles)偍傛傃僊儕僔儍岅傪榖偡尨巒僉儕僗僩嫵搆廤抍偲崶堶娭學傪寢傫偩丅僴僂儔儞(Hauran)偵掕廧偟偨僕儍僼僫 僀僽儞傾儉儖(Jafna ibn 乪Amr)偺堦懓偼僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanid)傪憂寶偟丄搚拝偺傾儔儉恖(Aramaeans)偐傜僉儕僗僩嫵傪庴偗擖傟偨丅儘乕儅恖(Romans)偼僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids)傪儘乕儅椞傪怤偡懠偺儀僪僂僀儞(Bedouin)偵懳偡傞娚徴抧懷偲偟偰摨柨傪寢傫偩丅抧棟揑偵偙偺墹崙偼僔儕傾(Syria)丄儗僶僲儞(Lenanon)偺僿儖儌儞嶳乮Mount Hermon乯丄儓儖僟儞(Jordan)偍傛傃僀僗儔僄儖(Israel) 偺戝晹暘傪愯傔偰偍傝丄偦偺埿岝偼晹懓摨柨傪夘偟偰杒僸僕儍乕僘(Northen Hijaz)偐傜偼傞偐撿偺尰嵼偺儊僨傿僫(Medina)偱偁傞儎僗儕僽(Yathrib)傑偱偵廧傓懠偺傾僘僪堦栧(Azds)偵媦傫偩丅乽儘乕儅峜掗僺儕僢僾僗 傾儔僽僗(Phillip the Arab, 244 to 249)偼僈僢僒乕儞懓(Ghassanids)偺弌偱偼側偄偐乿偲塢傢傟偰偄傞丅價僓儞僥傿儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire)偼傕偭偲搶偵嫽枴傪帩偪丄儁儖僔傾(Persians)偲偺挿婜愴憟偑忢偵庡梫側娭怱帠偱偁偭偨丅僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids)偼岎堈楬偺梚岇幰偲偟偰巟攝傪堐帩偟丄儀僪僂僀儞懓傪庢傝掲傑傝丄價僓儞僥傿儞掗崙棨孯偵暫戉傪嫙媼偟偰偄偨丅僈僢僒乕儞墹僴儕僗 僀僽儞 僕儍僶儔(al Harith ibn Jabalah, 529 - 569)偼僒僒儞挬儁儖僔傾(Sassanid Persia)偵懳峈偡傞價僓儞僥傿儞掗崙傪巟墖偟丄峜掗儐僗僥傿僯傾僰僗1(Justinian I or Justinian the Great, 527 - 565)偐傜惣楋529擭偵崙嫬晹懓崙壠偺巟攝幰(Phylarchs)偺徧崋傪梌偊傜傟偨丅僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids)偼宱嵪揑偵斏塰偟偰偍傝丄儁儖僔傾(Persian)偲摨柨偟丄撿僀儔僋偲杒晹傾儔價傾偵攅尃傪帩偮僸乕儔(Hirah)偺儔僼儉挬(Lakhmids)偵廫暘偵懳峈偟偰偄偨丅僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanids)偼價僓儞僥傿儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire)偺楆懏崙(Vassal State)偲偟偰幍悽婭偵惣楋636擭偺儎儖儌僂僋偺愴偄(Battle of Yarmouk)偺愴偄偺屻丄偦偺巟攝幰偑儉僗儕儉(Muslims)偵傛偭偰曵夡偝偣傜傟傞傑偱懕偄偨丅偙偺愴偄偱12,000恖偺僈僢僒乕儞懓傾儔僽(Ghassanid Arabs)偑儉僗儕儉(Muslims)懁偵怮曉偭偨丅僴儕僗 僀僽儞 傾價 僔儉儖(al Harith ibn ani Shimr)偺屻宲幰偱偁傞僕儍僶儔 僀僽儞 傾僀僴儉(Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham)偼巹摤偱僂儅儖 僀僽儞 僴僢僞乕僽(乪Umar ibn al Khattab, 592 - 644)偵敱偡傞條偵柦偠傜傟丄僀僗儔儉傪婞嫵(apostatize)偟偰價僓儞僥傿儞椞(Byzantine's Land)偵岦偐偭偨丅僈僢僒乕儞懓(Ghassanids)偺杦偳偑僉儕僗僩嫵傊偺怣嬄傪懕偗丄儗僶儞僩(Levant)偵棷傑偭偨丅僕儍僶儔(Jabalah)偲偍傛偦3枩恖偺僈僢僒乕儞懓(Ghassanids)偑僔儕傾杒晹傪棧傟丄怴偨側價僓儞僥傿儞崙嫬椞偵掕廧偟偨丅寶崙傪嫋偝傟側偐偭偨偑丄崅偄抧埵傪堐帩偟丄惣楋802擭偐傜813擭傑偱價僓儞僥傿儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire)傪巟攝偟丄搶儘乕儅掗崙偺執戝偝傪暅尦偟偨僯働億儘僗 價僓儞僥傿儞挬(Nikephoros Byzantine Dynasty)偝偊傕惗傒弌偟偨丅

 

僇僢僞僽 儌僗僋(Al-Khattab Mosque) 僨儏乕儅僩 傾儖亅僕儍儞僟儖(Dumat al-Jandal)偺儅儕僪忛(Qasr Marid)偐傜挰傊偺擖傝岥偵愇嶌傝偺夞嫵帥堾忛偑偁傞丅偙偺夞嫵帥堾偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾崙撪偱嵟傕屆偔丄尵偄姺偊傞偲悽奅拞偱堦斣屆偄夞嫵帥堾偱偁傞偑丄壗搙傕壗搙傕廋暅偝傟尰嵼傕巊傢傟偰偄傞丅偙偺帥堾偵晅懏偡傞岝搩(Minaret)偼摿挜偺偁傞嵶偄僺儔儈僢僪宆傪偟偰偄傞丅

 

僇僢僠(Cutch) 僀儞僪惣晹偺媽廈僽僕(Bhuj)偱尰嵼偼僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujarat)廈偺堦晹丅僇僢僠榩(the Gulf of Kutch)傪椪傓丅

 

僇僢僼傽峘(Caffa) 尰嵼偺僂僋儔僀僫嫟榓崙(Republic of Ukraine)僋儕儈傾敿搰(Crimea Peninsula)偵偁傞僼僃僆僪僔儎(Feodosia)偱偁傝丄婭尦慜6悽婭崰僊儕僔儍(Greeks)偺怉柉巗偲偟僥僪僔傾(Theodosia)偲偟偰寶愝偝傟丄崚暔傪桝弌偡傞廳梫側栶妱傪壥偨偟偨丅僎儖儅儞柉懓(Germans)偺峌寕偱峳攑偟丄13悽婭廫帤孯偵傛偭偰價僓儞僠儞掗崙(Byzantine Empire)偑堦帪柵朣偟偨帪婜偵僕僃僲償傽(Republic of Genoa)偺巟攝傪庴偗丄僇僢僼傽峘(Caffa)偲夵徧偟偨丅18悽婭懸偮儘僔傾掗崙(Russian Empire)偵暪崌偝傟丄僼僃僆僪僔儎(Feodosiya)偲側偭偨丅

 

僇僢儔僋慏(Carrack) 14 - 15悽婭偺僗儁僀儞恖丒億儖僩僈儖恖偺晲憰僈儗僆儞(Galleon)彜慏丅

 

僈僢儖僗(Aelius Gallus) 乮僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)嶲徠丅乯

 

僇僥傿乕僼 僾儘僕僃僋僩(Qatif Project) 偙偺僾儘僕僃僋僩偼悽奅嵟戝偺尨桘惗嶻巤愝偺寶愝偱偁傝丄偙偺姰惉偱傾儔儉僐偼僇僥傿乕僼偵尨桘張棟検80枩僶儗儖/擔乮12.7枩棫曽暷/擔乯丄悘敽僈僗張棟検370mmcfd1,000枩棫曽暷/擔乯丄僐儞僨儞僙乕僩4枩僶儗儖/擔乮6愮棫曽暷/擔乯丄棸墿惗嶻検1,800僩儞/擔偺惗嶻擻椡傪曐桳偡傞丅

 

僇僨傿乕僽(Khediveh) 僆僗儅儞僩儖僐惌晎攈尛偺僄僕僾僩憤撀(1867擭偐傜1914擭偺娫)偺徧崋丅

 

僈僪僈僟乕(Al Qadqadah) 傾僔乕儖(Asir)偐傜嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter)傊偲棳傟偰弌偨熆傟扟僴僽僫乕(Wadi Habunah)偺屆偄壨彴偼彫偝側嬍愇傗嵒棙偺尨傪堄枴偡傞僈僪僈僟乕(Al Qadqadah)偲屇偽傟偰偄傞偑丄偙偺熆傟扟偺忋棳堟偺傾僔乕儖嶳拞偵偼崱擔偱傕戝偒側僞儅儕僗僋(Tamarisk丄僊儑儕儏僂)偺孮惗偑偁傞丅

 

僈乕僫(Ghana) 尰嵼偺僈乕僫偼媽徧偼墿嬥奀娸(Gold Coast)偲塢偄丄僊僯傾榩娸偺塸楢朚偺崙偱19悽婭枛塸崙曐岇椞偵側傝丄20悽婭巒傔偵柉懓撈棫塣摦偑嫽傝丄1957擭撈棫丄60擭偵嫟榓崙偲側偭偨丅庡梫嶻昳偼僇僇僆偱懠偵嬥丄僟僀儎儌儞僪丄儅儞僈儞傪嶻偟丄柺愊23.8km2丄恖岥1,745枩恖(1995)偱庱搒偼傾僋儔(Accra)丅枖丄僙僱僈儖(Senegal)搶晹丄儅儕(Mali)撿惣晹丄儌乕儕僞僯傾(Mauritania)撿晹摍僊僯傾(Guinea)榩偵椪傓傾僼儕僇惣娸偺堦抧曽偱尰嵼偺儅儕惣晹偵偵傑偨偑傞抧堟偵4 - 13悽婭偵塰偊偨暿柤僈乕僫(Gana)偲塢偆屆戙墹挬偑偁偭偨丅

 

僇僫僲傾(Cananore) 儅儔僶儖奀娸(Malabar Coast)偱僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)傛傝斂慏偱3擔娫偺峲奀暘杒偵埵抲偟偨峘挰偱丄16悽婭偵儅儔僶儖奀娸偺僐乕僠儞(Cochin)偍傛傃僑傾(Goa) 偲嫟偵偺僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)偵弨偠傞崄恏椏杅堈峘偺1偮偱偁傝丄尰嵼偺働儔儔廈乮State of Kerala)僇儞僰乕儖乮Kannur)

 

僇僫僲乕儖墹崙(Kingdom of Cananor) 傾僼儕僇偐傜僀儞僪傊搉傞慏偼嵟弶偺棨抧偲偟偰僇僫僲傾(Cananore)偺杒偵摪乆偲偟偨僨傿儕嶳(Mount Dilli)偡側偼偪僨儕嶳(Mount Dely)偑尒偨丅偙傟偼僀儞僪奀娸偺僇僫僲乕儖墹崙(the kingdom of Cananor)偵偁傞戝偒側嶳偱丄偙偺崙偺恖乆偼帺暘払偺尵梩偱僨儕僄儕乕嶳(Mount Delielly)丄偡側傢偪僱僘儈丄埥偄偼僨儕乕嶳(Mount Dely)偲屇傫偩丅偙傟偼偙偺嶳偵偼偙偺崙偺恖乆偑懞傪嶌傟側偄掱丄懡偔偺僱僘儈偑嫃偨堊偱偁傞丅

 

僇僫儕傾彅搰(Canaries) 傾僼儕僇杒惣娸壂偵偁傞彅搰偱丄僗儁僀儞偺帺帯廈傪側偟丄儔僗 僷儖儅僗(Las Palmas)偲僒儞僞僋儖僗丂僨 僥僱儕僼僃(Santa Cruz de Tenerife)2導偱峔惉偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽嬥帩偪墹儅僯儏僄儖偺擭戙婰乿丗 億儖僩僈儖偺楌巎壠僟儈傾儞 僑僀僗(Damião de Gofs)1566擭偵弶斉杮弌斉丄暅崗斉偼僐僀儞僽儔(Coimbra)1949 - 1955擭偵弌斉偝傟偨(Crónica do Felicíssimo Rei D. Manuel composta por Damião de Gois Nova edição conforme a primeira de 1566. Coimbra 1949 - 1955.)乿丅

 

僇僶悈堜屗(Khaba) 尰嵼偺僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾椞偺傾儔僽庱挿崙楢朚撿惣晹偵嬤偄崙嫬抧懷僟僼傽儔(Dhafara)偺傎傏搶撿偺奜傟偵偁傞悈堜屗偱丄彮偟墫恏偄偑堸椏梡偵巊偊傞丅

 

僇僴僞儞懓(Qahtan) 僲傾(Noah)偺懅巕偺堦恖偱偁傞僇僴僞儞偺巕懛偲怣偠傜傟偰偄傞僇僴僞儞晹懓偼敿搰撿晹偱偼堦斒揑偱偲傝傢偗僀僄儊儞偍傛傃僆儅乕儞偺堦晹偵懡偄丅曻杚晹懓偲偼堎側傝丄僇僴僞儞(Qahtan) 懓偼堦掕偺抧堟偵掕廧偟惗妶婎斦傪帩偭偨擾柉偱偁傝丄偐偮偰偼撿傾儔價傾偺屆戙擾嬈暥柧傪嶌傝弌偟偨丅僇僴僞儞(Qahtan)懓偼撿傾儔價傾偺傾儔僽懓慡偰偺巒慶偱偁傝丄屻偵傾儔僽壔偟偨傾僪僫儞('Adnan)傑偱壠宯傪慿傞杒晹偺傾儔僽懓偲柧妋偵嬫暿偝傟傞丅傾儔僽懓偺偙偺嬫暘偼嫲傜偔撿惣傾儔價傾偺掕廧峩嶌幰偲拞墰偍傛傃杒晹傾儔價傾偺梀杚柉偲偺娫偺擇暘壔偵斀塮偝傟丄撿惣晹偺屆戙撿僙儈岅傪榖偡晹懓偲杒晹傾儔價傾偺傾儔儉岅(Aramaic)偺塭嬁傪庴偗偨曽尵傪榖偡晹懓偺娫偱偺尵岅揑嬫暘傪巚偄弌偝偣傞丅僇僴僞儞(Qahtan) 懓偼僸儉儎乕儖(Himyar)懓偲僇僴儔儞(Kahlan)懓偵戝暿偝傟傞丅庡側僇僴僞儞(Qahtan)懓偵懏偡傞晹懓偲偟偰偼僋僟傾傾懓(Qudaa乫a(t))丄傾僘僪懓(Al-乪Azd乯丄僈僢僒乕儞懓(Gassaan)丄儔僋儉懓(Lakhm)丄僉儞僟(Kinda(t))丄傾儚僗懓(Al 乪Awas)丄僇僘儔僕懓(Al Khazraj)丄僞僀僀懓(Tay乫)乮僔儍儞儅儖懓(Shammar)乯丄僴儉僟傾儞懓(Hamdaan)摍偑嫇偘傜傟傞丅

 

僈僴儖嶳 (Jibal Alqahr) 傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)撪棨晹偵偁傞乽惂埑乿偲偺堄枴傪帩偮柤傪晅偗傜傟偨偺嶳偱丄杒偵偁傞摨柤偺嶳偲偱熆傟扟僞僗儕僗(Wadi Tathlith)偲偺娫傪幷傞嶳椗傪惉偟偰偄傞丅偙偺嶳傪尮棳偲偟偰熆傟扟僫傾儉(Wadi Na乫am)偑杒傊偲摨柤偺嶳曽柺偵壓偭偰偍傝丄偙偺嶳偺撿偱偼100枩擭慜埲忋傾僠儏儕傾儞(Acheulean)暥柧偺堚愓偑尒晅偐偭偰偄傞丅

 

僇價乕儖 僶僋 傾儞儅乕儖 僓乕儖僇僔(Khabir Bak al-Ammar al-Djarkasi) 僸僕儏儔楌917(1511 -1512)偺崰偺儊僢僇(Mecca)偺庱挿乮僶僔儏(Bash)乯丅

 

僇僼(Kaf) 僣儔僀僼(Turaif)偐傜栺130km偱僋儔僀儎僩(Al Qurayyat)20km曈傝偺壩嶳偺榌偵戝偒側嵲(Qasr)偑尒偊偰偔傞丅愢柧彂偒偵1338擭寶憿偲婰偝傟偰偄傞丅嵲(Qasr)偺墱偵憡摉戝偒側廤棊偱偁偭偨偲巚傢傟傞攑嫊偑僫僣儊儎僔偺栘堿偵暲傫偱偄傞丅偙偺攑懞偲嵲(Qasr)偐傜挿墌宆偵壓偭偰偄傞壩嶳偺愗傝棫偭偨悶偺娫傪敳偗僒僽僴(Sabkha)偵弌偰峴偔丅偦偺僒僽僴(Sabkha)偐傜偼挿墌宆偺戜抧偺條側壩嶳偑婔偮傕棫偪忋偑偭偰偄傞丅偙偺僒僽僴偑熆傟扟僔乕儖僴儞(Wad`il Sirhan)偑僴僢儔僩 傾儖 儔僕儖梠娾抧懷(Harrat Al-Rajil)偲傕屇偽傟傞僴僢儔梠娾抧懷(Harrat Al Harrah)偲椬愙偟偰偄傞応強偺條偩丅

 

僇僼僕(Al Khafji) 傾儔價傾愇桘乮姅乯偑1960擭偵寶愝偟偨峼嬈強偑偁偭偨傾儔價傾榩娸杒晹偺僋僂僃僀僩(Kuwait)崙嫬偺挰偱丄搶晹廈偺揱摑揑側廤棊偱偼側偄丅

 

僇僼僞儞(CaftanKaftan) 僩儖僐恖丒傾儔價傾恖側偳偺拝傞懷偺晅偄偨挿懗偺挿堖丅

 

僈僽儕僄儖(Angel Gabriel) 僀僗儔儉嫵偱偼揤巊僈僽儕僄儖偼僕僽儕乕儖(Jibril)偲屇偽傟偰偄傞丅僀僗儔儉嫵偱偼僕僽儕乕儖偑傾僢儔乕僼(Allah)偺柦傪庴偗丄梐尵幰儉僴儞儅僪(Prophet Muhammad)偵亀僋儖傾乕儞(Qur乫an)亁傪傕偨傜偟偨偲偝傟傞偨傔丄僕僽儕乕儖偼揤巊偺拞偱嵟崅埵偲偝傟傞丅610擭崰丄僸儔乕嶳偺摯孉(Cave of Hira)偱儉僴儞儅僪偑嵋憐偟偰偄傞帪丄揤偐傜戝揤巊僕僽儕乕儖偑尰傟丄僀僗儔儉嫵偺惞揟僋儖傾乕儞偺孾帵偑巒傑偭偨偲揱偊傜傟偰偄傞丅偦傟偐傜擇廫嶰擭娫丄僕僽儕乕儖偼儉僴儞儅僪偺尦傪搙乆朘傟丄僋儖傾乕儞偺孾帵傪慡偰庼偗偰偄偭偨丅僀僗儔儉嫵偺揱彸偵傛傞偲丄儉僴儞儅僪偼偁傞栭僕僽儕乕儖偵婲偙偝傟丄梼傪帩偮僽儔乕僋偲屇偽傟傞摦暔偵傑偨偑傝丄僕僽儕乕儖偵摫偐傟偰僄儖僒儗儉偺栭偺嬻偺椃偵弌傞丅偦偙偱儉僴儞儅僪偼揤崙偲塅拡傪朘傟丄慡偰偺梐尵幰偵弌夛偄丄斵傜偲嫟偵楃攓傪峴偄丄偦偺屻嵞傃僽儔乕僋偵忔傝丄儊僢僇傊偲栠偭偰偒偨丅僀僗儔儉偺揱彸偱偼丄僕僽儕乕儖偼僴僈儖(Hagar)偲僀僔儏儅僄儖(Ishmael)偑峳栰偱巰偵偐偗偰偄偨帪偵丄斵傜偺偨傔偵寛偟偰尭傞偙偲偺側偄堜屗傪儊僢僇偵孈偭偨丅傑偨丄僕僽儕乕儖偼624擭僶僪儖偺愴偄(Battle of Badr)偵偍偄偰丄儉僴儞儅僪偲斵偺棪偄傞僀僗儔儉嫵搆偺孯惃偲嫟偵丄斀僀僗儔儉嫵偺愴巑偨偪傪憡庤偵愴偄彑棙傪摫偄偨偲偄傢傟偰偄傞丅乮弌揟丗僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

僇儃償僃儖僨彅搰(Cape Verde Islands) 惣傾僼儕僇偺僙僱僈儖惣曽奀忋偺彅搰乮39枩乯丄1975擭偵僇儃償僃儖僨嫟榓崙偲偟偰億儖僩僈儖偐傜撈棫丄庱搒偼僾儔僀傾(Praia)

 

僇儃僠儍丗 栰嵷偲偟偰峀偔嵧攟偝傟偰偄傞僂儕壢怉暔偺憤徧(Squash)偱偁傞丅

 

僈儃儞(Gabon) 傾僼儕僇拞晹偺僊僯傾榩偵椪傒丄1910擭暓椞愒摴傾僼儕僇偺堦晹偱偁偭偨偑丄1960擭偵僼儔儞僗偐傜撈棫偟偨丅尨桘嶻弌崙偱柺愊26.7km2丄恖岥150枩恖(1996)丄庱搒偼儖乕僽儖償傿儖(Liberville)偱丄僈儃儞愳(Gabon River or Gabon Estuary)偺杒惣晹偵埵抲偡傞丅

 

僈儃儞愳(Gabon River or Gabon Estuary) 僊僯傾榩(Gulf of Guinea))偵棳擖偡傞僈儃儞杒惣晹偵偁傞挿偔峀偄壨岥晹偱僐儌愳(River Komo)偍傛傃僄儀愳(Riber Ebe)偑棳傟崬傫偱偄傞丅丅

 

僇儅僔乕儞(Khamasin) 乽擬偄撿偐傜偺婫愡晽乿偺堄枴偱丄偙偺婫愡晽偼嵒棐傪敽偆偙偲偑懡偄丅寖偟偄僇儅僔乕儞偱偺嵒棐偺拞偱傕燇燆梡偺悈嶵偒傪峴偭偰偄傞條側熆傟扟僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi ad Dawasir)偺忬嫷偱偼偦偺拞怱偺挰偵偙偺柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞棟桼偑暘偐傞傛偆側婥偑偡傞丅

 

僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩(Khamis Mushayt) 乽儉僔儍僀僩懓偺栘梛偺巗乿傪堄枴偡傞柤偑晅偗傜傟偨傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)2偺巗偱偁傞丅埲慜偵乽壩梛巗乿偲婰弎傪岆偭偨偺偱偍榣傃偟偰掶惓偡傞丅孯帠婎抧傕偁傞偑崱偱傕傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)傪娷傓撿惣僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺彜嬈偺拞怱偱偁傝丄峴惌偺廈搒傾僽僴(Abha)偲懳傪惉偟偰嫃傞丅

 

僇儅儔儞搰(Kamaran) 傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquelque)15133寧偵傾僨儞(Aden)傪廝偭偨偑丄偙偺巗偼傾儖儃働儖働偑梊憐偟偰偄偨埲忋偵寴屌偱丄杊屼偝傟偰偍傝丄傾儖儃働儖働偺峌寕偼寕戅偝傟偨丅偙偺幐攕偱暜奡偟偨傾儖儃働儖働偼搑拞偱弌夛偆傾儔價傾慏傪擱傗偟丄柍杊旛偺曔椄傪敧偮楐偒偵偡傞摍偺巆媠峴堊傪峴偄側偑傜峠奀偵擖偭偨偑丄偙偺婋尟側悈堟偺抦幆偵寚偗丄僕僢僟(Jiddah)偵偼摓払弌棃偢丄僇儅儔儞搰(Kamaran Island)傊擖峘偟偨丅偦偙偱偼昦婥丄愴摤丄斶嶴側婥岓偍傛傃塰梴晄椙摍偱懡偔偺忔慻堳傪幐偭偨丅偦偺帪丄傾儖儃働儖働偼儁儕儉搰(the island of Perim)傪扵嶕偟偨偑丄偦偺棟憐揑側埵抲偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄悈偼慡偔柍偔丄梫嵡偲偟偰偼晄廫暘偱偁傞帠偑暘偐偭偨丅傾僨儞偺栠偭偨傾儖儃働儖働偼偙偺挰偑埲慜偵傕憹偟偰嫮屌偵杊岇偝傟偰偄傞偺傪尒偰丄擇夞栚偺峌寕偼峴傢偢丄嵟廔揑偵僀儞僪傊偲墶抐偟偨丅1515擭偵儔僀僗 僗儔僀儅儞(Rais Sulayman)偺娡戉偼僼僒僀儞 僋儖僨傿(Husayn al-Kurdi)偺娡戉傪暪崌偟帺暘払傊偺柦椷傪姰椆偡傞堊偵僕僢僟傪弌敪偟偨丅斵摍偺嵟弶偺栚昗偼億儖僩僈儖恖払(Lusitanians)傊偺愴憟偺慜彛婎抧偲偟偰偺僀僄儊儞偺惇暈偱偁傝丄偦偟偰愴棯揑偵廳梫側傾僨儞(Aden)偑屻偵婏廝(coup-de-main)偟偰斀峈偟側偄條偵惇暈偡傞帠偱偁偭偨丅戞堦抜奒偲偟偰丄僗儔僀儅儞娡戉偼僇儅儔儞(Kamaran)偵忋棨偟丄偙偺搰偵梫嵡傪抸偄偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄僗儔僀儅儞娡戉偺峴偭偨僀僄儊儞偱偺慡偰偺愴摤偼彑棙偟偨拞偱丄傾僨儞偼忛暻偑朇寕偱栚偵尒偊傞掱偵傕懝彎偟偰偄傞偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄斵摍偺峌寕傪戅偗偨丅儘億 僜傾儗僗 傾儖儀傾僈儕傾(Lopo Soares de Albergaria)1517416擔偵僕僢僟奀堟傪弌峲偟偰僇儔儅儞(Karaman)傊偲峲峴偟偨丅儘億 僜傾儗僗偼僇儔儅儞偱儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamluk)偺梫嵡傪揚嫀偟偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄偙偺峳椓偲搰偺斶嶴側廻攽偺拞偱僾儗僗僞乕 僕儑儞(the Prester John)傊偺戝巊偺巜柤傪庴偗偨僪儞 僪僁傾乕僥 僈儖僶儞(Dom Duarte Galvão)傪娷傓懡偔偺億儖僩僈儖恖払偑昦婥偲婹偊偵搢傟丄堦曽偱偦偺拞偺17柤偑曔椄偲偟偰僕僢僟偵楢傟嫀傜傟偨丅

 

僇儊儖乕儞(Cameroons) 傾僼儕僇拞晹丄僊僯傾榩(Gulf of Guinea)墱偵偁傝丄塸楢朚偵懏偡尦僪僀僣椞丄戞堦師戝愴屻塸暓偺怣戸摑帯椞傪宱偰丄1960擭偵暓椞丄1972擭塸椞傕撈棫楢崌嫟榓崙寢惉偟1984擭偵僇儊儖乕儞偲夵徧丄柺愊47.5km2丄恖岥1,604枩恖(2004)丄庱搒偼儎僂儞僨(Yaoundé)

 

僇儌儞僀僗(Camões) 儖僀僘 償傽僘 僇儌儞僀僗(Luiz Vaz de Camões, c. 1524/1525 - 1580)丄億儖僩僈儖偺帊恖偱1572擭偵戝彇帠帊乽僂僗儖僕乕傾僟僗乮僂僘 儖僕傾僟僗乯(the Lusiads or Os Lusiadas)乿傪彇弎偟偨丅乽僂僗儖僕乕傾僟僗(the Lusiads)偼億儖僩僈儖恖偺堄枴偱偁傝丄僇儌儞僀僗(Camões)偑嶌偭偨億儖僩僈儖偺垽崙揑側偙偺戝彇忣帊偱偼僀儞僪峲楬偺敪尒傗償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)偺戞堦夞墦惇傪拞怱偵億儖僩僈儖峲奀幰偺朻尟偑暔岅傜傟偰偄傞乮1099帊嬪乯"Gidá, que ihe fallece agua das fontes doce, r cystallina. "Jiddah, scant-supplied - with fountain water sweet and crystalline"

 

僈儔僔儏(Garash) 僈儔僔儏(Garash)偼塸岅偵偼Jarash偲傕揮幨偝傟傞丅僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩(Khamis Mushayt)偺撿惣20 km偵偁傞傾僴僪 儔僼傿僟乕(Ahad Rufaidah)偺峏偵78 km撿惣偺儚僨傿 價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偺撿娸偵偁傞僕儍儔僔儏(Jarash)偵偼11悽婭崰傑偱僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偐傜偺弰楃岎堈楬偺廳梫側嫆揰偱偁偭偨僀僗儔儉埲慜傗僀僗儔儉弶婜傑偱偺愇憿傝偺嫄戝寶憿暔偺堚峔傗揇嶌傝偺廧嫃愓偑巆偭偰嫃傞丅乽偙偺僕儍儔僔儏(Jarash)偺僴儉儅乕嶳(Jabal Hamumah)偺朤偵僔僃僶偺彈墹(Queen of Sheba)偑僜儘儌儞墹(King Solomon)偵夛偆偨傔偺摴拞偱偺栰塩抧偱偁偭偨價儖僊僗(Bilqis)偑偁偭偨乿偲偙偺抧曽偱偼怣偠傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僈儔搝楆(Galla Slaves) 岆偭偰傾價僔僯傾恖(Abyssinians)搝楆偲屇偽傟偰偄傞偑丄僈儔(Galla)偼僄僠僆僺傾(Ethiopia)嵟戝偺僆儘儌懓(Oromo)偺曁徧偱偁傞丅僄僠僆僺傾偱偺憗婜偺嬤戙崙壠偲塢傢傟傞僇僢僼傽墹崙(Kingdom of Kaffa, c.1390–1897)偼嬥偲阬崄桘(Civet Oil)偲搝楆岎堈傪宱嵪偺婎斦偲偟偰偄偨丅

 

僇儔 儉僗僞僼傽 僷僔儍(Kara Mustafa Pasha) 僩儖僐偺戝嵣憡(Grand Vizier) 僇儔 儉僗僞僼傽 僷僔儍(Kara Mustafa Pasha, ca 1635 - 1683)1676擭偐傜1683擭傑偱僕僢僟(Jiddah)偵晪擟偟丄偙偺巗偺搶偵偁傞堜屗偐傜惔悈傪塣傇憲悈娗丄怴偟偄僇儞(Khan)乮戉彜廻(caravanserai)乯丄怴偟偄僴儞儅僢儉(hummam)乮岞嫟梺応乯偍傛傃儌僗僋(mosque)乮夞嫵帥堾乯傪惍旛偟偨丅

 

僇儔儉僶僋(Odoriferous Kalambac) 敀抙 (the sandal wood)偲嫟偵僀儞僪偐傜塣偽傟偰棃傞偦偺懠偺悢庫(rosaries)偺嵽椏偺堦庬偱朏崄偑偁傞丅

 

僇乕儖儎僩 僼傽僂(Qaryat al-Faw) 偙偺堚愓偼僫僕儔儞乮Najran乯偺杒杒搶289 km偱儚僨傿 傾儖乕僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi al-Dawasir)偺撿80 km偵埵抲偟偰偄傞丅偙偺忛嵡搒巗偼閜閗戉彜楬偵婭尦慜200擭偐傜婭尦200擭崰偵塰偊偨僉儞僟乕懓(Kinder)偺巟攝壓偵偁偭偨丅偙偙偱桾暉側晹懓搒巗偺惛岻側堚峔偑媨揳丄帥堾丄杊屼暻丄擇奒寶偰偺僗乕僌(Suq丄巗応)1 km x 2 km偺峀偝偺廧嫃抧嬫丄堜屗孮偲燇燆偝傟偨戝偒側擾墍偲壥庽墍偑嫟偵敪孈偝傟偨丅偙偺堚峔堚愓偼婭尦慜擇悽婭偐傜抶偔偲傕婭尦屲悽婭偺帪戙偺傕偺偲巚傢傟傞丅僈儔僗丄曮愇丄嬥懏嵶岺丄怐暔偺愗傟抂丄栘岺嵶岺丄惵摵丄愇憸丄旇暥傗暻夋傕弌搚偟丄壿暭傑偱拻憿偟偰偄偨偙偺嵐敊搒巗偺帩偭偰嫃偨崅搙側暥柧傪徹柧偟偰偄傞丅

 

僇儖儘 傾儖儀儖僩 僫儕僲(Carlo Alberto Nallino) 尰戙埲慜(Premodern)偺帪戙偱偺僒僂僕傾儔價傾傊偺嵟屻偺朘栤幰偼僫儕僲偱偁偭偨丅僫儕僲偼僀僞儕傾恖(Italian)偱儘乕儅戝妛(University of Rome)偺傾儔價傾岅嫵庼偱偁傝丄1938擭偵柡偺儅儕傾(Maria)偲嫟偵傾僽僪僁儖傾僕僘墹(King Abdulaziz)偺彽懸媞偲偟偰僒僂僕傾儔價傾傪朘栤偟丄朙偐偱執戝側擻椡傪帩偭偰僞乕僀僼(Taif)傗僕僃僢僟(Jeddah)摍偵偮偄偰偺旕忢偵嫽枴偁傞撪梕傪徻嵶偵傢偨偭偰挊弎偟偨丅儅儕傾偼嵟廔揑偵摨戝妛偺傾儔價傾尵岅偺媍挿傪堷宲偓丄晝僫儕僲偺巰屻丄偦偺挊弎傪乽岞奐暥復偲旕岞奐暥復偺廚廤(a Raccolta di scritti editi ed inediti)乿偲偟偰曇廤偟丄1939擭偐傜1948擭偵僀僞儕傾 僆儕僄儞僩嫤夛(Istituto Italiano per I'Oriente)偐傜弌斉偟偨丅偦偺廚廤偺弶姫偑乽僒僂僕傾儔價傾(L'Arabia Sa'udiana)乿偱偁傝丄M. 僫儕僲(Maria Nallino)偼尨暥傪曇嶽偟丄僕僃僢僟偵嫃偨傾僽僪僁儖傾僕僘墹偵墆尒偡傞搑拞偱僞乕僀僼偲偦偺廃曈傪朘栤偡傞嫋壜傪摼偨晝僫儕僲偑儅僢僇(Makkah)傪捠傜偢偵僞乕僀僼(Taif)偲僕僃僢僟(Jeddah)2偮偺巗偺娫偱扝傜側偗傟偽側傜側偐偭偨峴掱傪愢柧偟偰偄傞恾摍傪昤偒捈偟偰1939擭偵儘乕儅偱弌斉偟偨丅

 

僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut) 僀儞僪撿惣晹働儔儔(Kerala)廈偺儅儔僶乕儖(Malabar)奀娸偵偁傞峘榩搒巗乮恖岥45枩乯偱怉柉抧帪戙儓乕儘僢僷杅堈乮搶惣杅堈乯偺廳梫側婎抧偱偁偭偨丅1498擭僶僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)偼偙偺抧偺杒栺25km偺抧揰偵忋棨偟偨丅枖丄柧偺揂榓偺嫆揰偱傕偁偭偨丅偐偮偰偼僉儍儔僐(calico)偺嶻抧偱偁偭偨偑丄帺慠偺峘偑柍偔丄嬤戙揑側慏偼擖峘弌棃偢丄偦偺忋丄孞傝曉偟攋夡偝傟偨偺偱丄崱偱偼僐乕僕僐乕僪(Kozhikode)偲偟偰抦傜傟傞彫偝側峘偵奿壓偘偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僇儕僼(Caliph) 僴儕乕僼傽(Khalifa)偲傕揮幨偝傟傞僀僗儔儉悽奅偺嵟崅尃埿幰偺徧崋丅僇儕僼偼偁偔傑偱梐尵幰偺戙棟恖偵夁偓側偄偨傔丄僀僗儔儉偺嫵媊傪嵍塃偡傞廆嫵揑尃尷傗僋儖傾乕儞乮僐乕儔儞乯傪撈抐揑偵夝庍偟偰棫朄偡傞尃尷傪帩偨偢丄偐傢傝偵偙傟傜偼僂儔儅乕(Ulma乫)払乮抦幆恖丒惞怑幰乯偺崌堄偵傛偭偰曗傢傟丄偨偩僀僗儔乕儉嫟摨懱偺峴惌傪摑妵偟丄怣搆偵僀僗儔乕儉偺媊柋傪弲庣偝偣傞栶妱偟偐帩偨側偄丅乮僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

僇儕僼傽(Kalifa) 僇儕僼傽偺婰榐偵婎偯偒僨儏傾儖僩 僶乕儖儃僒(Duarte Barbosa)偲僶儘僗(João de Barros)偼僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)偺梫嵡(1514)偲僕僢僟偺忛暻偑摨偠帪婜偵寶愝偝傟偨偲偺悇榑偺崻嫆偵偟偰偄傞丅

 

僈儕乕僽 僄僼僃儞僨傿 價儞 儉僒僄僪(Sharif Ghalib Efendii bin Musa'ed) 僔僃儕僼 僈儗僽(Sherif Ghaleb)嶲徠丅

 

僇儕儊乕儖枽(Calimere) 僀儞僪撿搶娸僞儈儖 僫僪僁(Tamil Nadu)廈搶晹偺億乕僋(Palk)奀嫭偵椪傓枽丅

 

僇儕儖 僓僸儕(Khalil al-Zahiri)  嬤尰戙偵偍偗傞挊幰偱乽僘僽僟 僇僔儏僼 儅儅儕僋(Zubdat Kashf al- mamalik)乿傪幏昅丄摨彂偼P. 儔償傽僀僢僔(P. Ravaisse)偑曇廤偟1894擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偨乮KHALIL AL-ZAHIRI Zubdat Kashf al-mamalik er. by P. Ravaisse, Paris 1894.乯丅枖丄1970擭偵働儞僽儕僢僕偱弌斉偝傟偨乽働儞僽儕僢僕偺僀僗儔儉偺楌巎乿偵傕堷梡偝傟偰偄傞(quoated in the Cambridge History of Islam Cambridge 1970.)

 

僇儕儞(Al-Qarin) 儊僢僇偲僕儏僢僟偺娫偺悈応丅

 

僇乕儖僉乕儖(Al Kharkhir) 嬻敀抧懷偺杒堒19亱搶宱51亱晅嬤偵僴乕儖僸乕儖(Kharkheer)偲塢偆柤偺彫偝側晹棊偑偁傝丄偦偺応強偼嬻敀抧懷嵐敊傪嫴傫偱僴儔僟(Haradh)偺撿偵懳洺偟丄僆儅儞椞撪偺僒僫僂(Sanaw)傗儔儈傾僩 傾僀儅乕(Ramiat Aymah)偐傜嵎傎偳墦偔柍偄応強偱偁傞丅2000擭僕僃僟忦栺(the 2000 Jeddah Treaty) 偱僀僄儊儞偲崙嫬偑妋掕偟丄偙偺僇乕儖僉乕儖(Al kharkhir)偑僒僂僕椞偲側偭偨丅偙傟偵敽偄丄僫僕儔儞廈偺僔儍儘僂儔(Sharourah)偐傜僇乕儖僉乕儖傑偱偺嵐敊偑搶晹廈偐傜暘棧偝傟丄僇乕儖僉乕儖導(Al kharkhir governorate)偲偟偰僫僕儔儞廈偵暪崌偝傟偨丅偙偺堊丄僫僕儔儞廈偺柺愊偼140,000暯曽km偐傜栺360,000暯曽km偵憹壛偟偨丅僴儔僟乮Haradh乯偐傜2000擭埲崀偵嶌傜傟偨曑憰摴楬偑嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter)傪撿傊儎僽儕乕儞乮Yabrin乯傊偺摴偲傎傏暯峴偟偰偦偺搶偵墑傃偰偍傝丄摴楬榚偺昗幆偵偼乽偙偺摴偼150 km峴偭偰峴偒巭傑傝乿偲昞帵偝傟偰偄偨丅偙偺摴楬傪撿壓偟偰僟儞儅儞揝摴撿慄傪墇偊偨曈傝偵暿偺摴楬昗幆偑偁傝僉儞(Khin)93 km丄僂儉 傾僗儔乕(Um Athlah)107 km丄僴乕儖僸乕儖(KharkheerKhirkhir)620 km偲婰偝傟偰偄傞丅僩儗僀儖偑堦偮曑憰摴楬偺廔揰偺嬤偄攑婞偝傟偨媼桘強偺偁傞僔儍儚儔乕(Shawalah)偐傜嬻敀抧懷抧懷搶晹偺拞怱晹偵億僢僣儞偲堦偮偁傞屒棫偟偨廤棊傾儖 僂僶僀儔乕(Al Ubaylah)傪捠偭偰僴乕儖僸乕儖(Kharkheer)傑偱捠偠偰偄傞條偩丅摴楬偼僴儔僟偐傜15 km撿偱儚僨傿 僒僴僶傪搉傞丅儚僨傿偵増偭偰堦偮枖堦偮偲僫僔儑僫儖擾嬈奐敪夛幮(NADEC)偺墌宍擾応偑暲傫偱偄傞丅傕偆堦偮偺摴楬昗幆偑儚僨傿偺撿10 km埵偵棫偭偰嫃傝僉儞(Khin)81 km丄僂儉 傾僗儔乕(Um Athlah)95 km丄僴乕儖僸乕儖(Kharkheer)608 km偲婰偝傟偰偄傞丅偙偙偐愭偵偼椢抧懷偼柍偄偟摴楬榚偺揹慄傕偙偙偱廔傢偭偨丅偙偙偐傜撿偑傑偝偵嬻敀抧懷偱偁傞丅

 

僇儖僕(Al Kharj) 僇儖僕(Al Kharj)偼儕儎僪偺撿搶80 km偵峀偑傞僆傾僔僗偱丄僒僂僕崙撪偱偼椢偺徾挜偲惉偭偰偄傞丅儚僨傿 僒僴僶乫(Wadi Sahba)偺嶰偮偺巟棳儚僨傿 僯僢僒乕(Wadi Nissah)丄儚僨傿 僴僂僞乕(Wadi Hawtah) 偍傛傃儚僨傿 價儖僋(Wadi Birk)偑儕儎僪偺撿150km埵偺斖埻偱僩儚僀僌奟抧(Jabal Tuwayq)傪杒偐傜弴偵偦傟偧傟搶惣偵愗傝捠偟偰嫃傝丄偦傟傜偺棳傟偼僇儖僕(Kharj)偱崌棳偟丄峏偵僩儚僀僌奟抧偺搶懁傪杒偐傜棳傟崬傫棃偨儚僨傿 僴僯僼傽乕(Wadi Hanifah)傕僇儖僕忋棳偱巟棳偺儚僨傿 僯僒乕(Wadi Nisah)偵崌棳偡傞丅偙偺堊丄偙偺僆傾僔僗偵偼抧昞悈(Surface Water)偑朙晉偵嫙媼偝傟丄愄偐傜朙偐側椢偑堢傑傟偰偒偨丅乽偙偺條偵婔偮偐偺熆傟扟偑廤傑傞偙偺僆傾僔僗偺宍偐傜埰戃偲塢偆堄枴偺柤偑偙偺挰偵晅偗傜傟偨乿偲巹偵偼巚偊傞丅

 

僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus) 僆僂僌僗僩僁僗偺柦椷偱儘乕儅偺僄僕僾僩憤撀僈儖僗(the Perfect of Egypt, Aelius Gallus)偺巜婗壓偵嫮椡側墦惇孯偑弨旛偝傟丄僈儖僗孯偼撿僀僄儊儞偲僪僼傽乕儖偺朏崄怉暔惗嶻抧懷偵怤擖偟廬懏偝偣傞栚揑偱婭尦慜24擭偵僀僄儞儃偺杒偺廳梫側杅堈偺拞怱抧儗僂働 僐儊偵忋棨偟偨丅僊儕僔傾楌巎壠僗僩儔儃(Strabo)偼偦偺挊彂乽抧棟妛(the Geography of Strabo)乿偺拞偱乽僄僕僾僩憤撀僈僢儖僗偺傾僔乕儖墦惇乮The Expedition to Arabia Felix乯乿傪徻偟偔徯夘偟偰偄傞丅

 

僇儖僟儌儞(Cardamon) 僇儖僟儌儞偼僔儑僂僈壢偺懡擭憪偱尨嶻抧偼僀儞僪丒儅儗乕偱偁傝丄擔杮柤偼彫摛蔲乮偟傚偆偢偔乯偲尵偆丅妛柤偼Amomum cardamon偱偁傝丄崅偝偼23m偵払偟丄梩偼斺恓宍偱儈儑僂僈偵帡丄壴宻偼崻惗偟梩偑偮偐偢丄壺偼棔怓偺怬宍偱丄壴屻丄麢壥乮偝偔偐乯傪寢傇丅幚偼1.5cm掱搙偺挿懭墌宍偱3%偺婗敪惢桘傪娷傒丄庬巕偑1220屄擖偭偰偄傞丅奜旂乮椢怓偺晹暘乯偵偼傎偲傫偳崄枴偑側偔丄拞偺庬巕偺崄傝偑嫮偔丄従擼偵帡偨朏崄偱丄巋寖惈偺偁傞夣偄枴偵摿挜偑偁傞丅僀儞僪偺桳柤側崄恏椏偱桪傟偨朏崄惈寬堓栻偱傕偁傝丄僀儞僪丒僙僀儘儞偱嵧攟偝傟偨丅嫮偄朏崄偑偁傞偺偱嫺廘嵻傗岥峯惔椓嵻摍偵傕巊傢傟丄僒僂僕傾儔價傾偱偼偳偙偺壠掚丄寎昽娰丄儗僗僩儔儞丄悈僞僶僐媔拑壆乮僔僔儍乕乯偱傕忢旛偟偰偄傞丅

 

Cartography丗抧恾嶌惢丅

 

僇儖僫乕僞僇廈(Karnataka) 傾儔價傾奀偺儅儔僶儖奀娸(Malabar Coarst)偵柺偟偨廈偱廈搒偼媽徧儅僀僜乕儖(Mysore)偺僶儞僈儘乕儖(Bangalore)

 

僇儖僶儔(Karbalā) 働儖儀儔(Kerbela)偲傕塢偆丅僀儔僋拞晹偺巗偱僔乕傾攈偺惞抧丄恖岥30枩丅

 

僈儖僼(Gulph) 傾儔價傾榩乮儁儖僔傾榩乯丅

 

僇乕儖儅僥傿傾攈乮僇儖儅僩攈乯(Qarmatians) 9悽婭偺屻敿偵傾僢僶乕僗挬巟攝(Abbasid control)偼曵夡偟巒傔丄僀僗儔乕儉悽奅偼條乆側斀懱惂塣摦偱堷偒楐偐傟偨丅斀懱惂偺懡偔偼僀僗儅僀儖攈楈姶(the Ismailites from Hosain al-Ahwaz)偱偁偭偨丅僀儔僋偐傜婲偙偭偨偦偺條側塣摦偺堦偮偑搶傾儔價傾偵掕拝偟偨丅僇乕儖儅僥傿傾攈乮僇儖儅僩攈乯(Qarmatians)偲偟偰抦傜傟丄斵摍偺弶戙偺僴僢僒儞丒僇儖儅僩(Hassan Qarmat)偑巜摫幰偵惉偭偨屻丄惣楋899擭偵僇僥傿乕僼(Qatif)傪愯嫆偟丄僓儔(Zara)傪從偒丄偦偟偰僴僕儍乕儖(Hajar)偺峌棯偵岦偐偭偨丅偦偺屻丄僇乕儖儅僥傿傾(Qarmatians)偼偦偺揱摴巘傾僽丒僒僀僪丒傾儖-僕儍儞僫價(Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi)偺壓偵偦偺庱搒傪傾儖-僴僒(al Hasa)偺挰偵抲偒丄偙偺僆傾僔僗偺屆偄挰僴僕儍乕儖(Hajar)偁傞偄偼偦偺彮偟奜懁傪怴偨側崻嫆抧偵帩偮丄偟偭偐傝偲慻怐偝傟偨崙憿傝偵拝庤偟偨丅奀娸抧懷偲撪棨傪嬞枾偵寢傃偮偗丄撿僫僕僪偐傜搶晹廈偵嵟嬤堏摦偟偰棃偨晹懓偺巟墖傪摼偰僇乕儖儅僥傿傾儞崙(the Qarmatian state)偼偦偺巟攝偲塭嬁傪僀儔儞傗僀儔僋撿晹偵峀偘偨丅傾儖-僴僒(al-Hasa)偺僇乕儖儅僥傿傾悐戅(Qarmatian decline)偼杒傊偺僙儖僕儏乕僋丒僩儖僐(Seljuq Turks, 1038 - 1194 AD)偺戜摢偲摨帪偵婲偒偨丅11悽婭偵僙儖僕儏乕僋丒僩儖僐(Seljuq Turks)偼媫懍偵偦偺巟攝傪僀儔儞丄僀儔僋偍傛傃僔儕傾杒晹偵妋棫偟偨丅惣楋1073擭偵僴僒丒僆僒僔僗(Hasa Oasis)杒晹偺僂儐儞(乪Uyun)弌恎偺傾僽僪丒傾儖-僇僀僗懓(the 'Abd al-Qays)偺儕乕僟乕偺堦恖偑僙儖僕儏乕僋丒僩儖僐(Seljuq Turks)偺巟墖傪摼偰丄僇乕儖儅僥傿傾(Qarmatians)傪懪偪攋傝丄墹挬傪庽棫偟偨丅偦偺僂儐僯僪墹挬('Uyunids, 1073 – 1253 AD)偼惣楋1253擭傑偱巟攝傪懕偗偨丅

 

僇儖儅僯傾偲僎僪儘僔傾(Carmania and Gedorosia) 偩偄偨偄尰嵼偺儁儖僔傾偺撿搶晹偐傜僷僉僗僞儞撿惣晹偺僶儖僠僗僞儞(Baluchistan)廈偺曈傝堦懷丅

 

僇儗乕(Curry) 墿妼怓偱暡枛忬偺恏枴偺嫮偄崿崌崄恏椏丄僂僐儞丄僐僄儞僪儘乮崄嵷乯(Coentro or Coriander)丄層灒丄搨恏巕丄僆乕儖僗僷僀僗丄挌帤摍懡庬偺崄恏椏傪攝崌偟偰嶌傞丅

 

僈儗乕慏(Galley) 屆戙僊儕僔儍偺愴娡偱丄搝楆傗廁恖偵偙偑偣偨2抜枖偼3抜僆乕儖偺斂慏丅

 

僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon) 僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon)16-18悽婭偵庡偲偟偰儓乕儘僢僷彅崙偱巊傢傟偨戝偒偔暋憌峛斅(Multi-decked)偺戝宆斂慏偱丄嵟屻旜偺烖(Mizzenmast)乮捠忢偼戞3烖乯偩偗偵廲斂乮戝嶰妏斂乯(Lateen-rigged)偑挘傜傟丄墶斂(Square-rigged)傪挘傜傟偨3-5杮偺烖(mast)傪帩偪丄姰慡偵斂偩偗偱悇恑椡傪摼偰偄偨丅堦斒揑偵拞宆朇(Demi-culvein)1-2楍憰旛偟丄孯娡偲彜慏偺椉曽偵巊傢傟偨丅僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon)偼戝惣梞傪峲峴偡傞堊偺墦梞峲奀梡偵僉儍儔僢僋慏(Carrack)偐傜恑壔偟偨丅挿偄徴妏(Beak)丄掅偄慏庱極(Forecastle)偲慏旜偵挘傝弌偟偨巐妏偄慏旜極(Aftcastle)摍偑僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon)偺栚棫偭偨摿挿偱偁傝丄挿偔偟偨慏懱偱奀忋偱偼偙傟傑偱偵柍偔埨掕惈偑椙偔丄慜曽偐傜偺晽傊偺掞峈偑彮側偄忋偵媔悈偑愺偄偺偱慏懍偑憗偔丄憖慏偑梕堈偱偁偭偨丅堦斒揑偵偼僈儗僆儞慏(Galleon)500僩儞埲壓偱偁傝丄僇儕僽奀(Caribbean Sea)偺惣僀儞僪彅搰(West Indies)偐傜僗儁僀儞傊怉柉抧偺晉傪塣傫偩丅椺奜揑偵偼僼傿儕儞僺儞(Philippines)偺儅僯儔(Manila)偲儊僉僔僐(Mexico)偺傾僇僾儕僐(Acapulco)偺娫偺懢暯梞傪擭偵1-2夞峲奀偡傞岎堈慏偲偟偰巊傢傟偨儅僯儔 僈儗僆儞慏(Manila Galleon)偵偼2,000僩儞偵傕側傞戝宆慏傕偁偭偨丅

 

熆傟扟傾僉乕僋(Wadi al Aqiq) 偙偺柤偺晅偔熆傟扟偼擇偮偁傝丄傂偲偮偼儅僴僢僪 傾僪 僟僴僽 (Mahd adh Dhahab)偺惣偱儅僨傿乕僫(Al Madinah Al Munawwarah)偐傜撿傊僞僀僼(Al Taif)傊偲撿杒偵暲傇儔僴僩梟娾抧懷(Harrat Rahat)杒抂偺惣傪杒傊儅僨傿乕僫偵棳傟傞熆傟扟傾儖 傾僉乕僋偱丄傕偆堦偮偼偙偺儔僴僩梟娾抧懷偺搶傪僞僀僼偵嬤偄撿抂傪撿傊偲棳傟傞熆傟扟傾儖 傾僉乕僋偱偁傞丅乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(the Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿偱堷梡偟偰偄傞熆傟扟傾儖 傾僉乕僋偼慜幰偱偁傞偲峫偊傞丅偦偆偩偲偡傟偽偙偺杮偺拞偱弎傋傜傟偰偄傞抧堟偼儔僴僩梟娾抧懷偺杒抂晹傪巜偟偰偄傞丅挊幰僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)偼乽峼嶳傕柍偄偺偵傾僉乕僋偺柤偑晅偄偰偄傞偺偼晄巚媍偩乿偲弎傋偰偄傞偑僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺梟娾抧懷偱偼梟娾僩儞僱儖偑弌棃傗偡偔丄廬偭偰梟娾偺拞偵囿囗摍偺峼暔寢徎傪嶌傝弌偡擬悈忲婥傪晻偠崬傔傞嬻摯偑弌棃傞妋棫偼懡偄偺偱囿囗傪堄枴偡傞傾僉乕僋偲偺柤偑晅偔偺偼傓偟傠偁傝摼傞丅乽熆傟扟傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞偺忋棳偼儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽 (Mahd adh Dahab) 偲熆傟扟傾儖 傾僉乕僋 (Wadi al Aqiq) 偺屆戙偺墿嬥偲幦囿囗偺抧堟傪棳傟丄乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞偑偙傟偼乽熆傟扟傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞偺忋棳偺熆傟扟儖儅偺巟棳熆傟扟傾儖 僕儍儕乕儖 (the Wadi al Jarir)偼儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽 (Mahd adh Dahab) 偲熆傟扟傾儖 傾僉乕僋 (Wadi al Aqiq) 偺屆戙偺墿嬥偲幦囿囗偺抧堟偵嬤偔丄擕崄偺摴偑偦傟傜傪捠夁偟偰熆傟扟儖儅/傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞偵帄偭偰偄偨乿偲掶惓偡傋偒偱偁傞偲巹偼巚偆丅1991擭戙偵僗乕僟儞偵堏廧偟偨僆僒儅 價儞 儔乕僨儞(Osama bin Laden)1991 擭偺僗乕僟儞堏廧屻丄僗乕僟儞偺僑儉丄僩僂儌儘僐僔丄僸儅儚儕丄僑儅側偳偺桝弌傪傎傏撈愯偟偰偄偨熆傟扟傾儖傾僉乕僋夛幮(Wadi al-Aqiq Company, Ltd.) 偲塢偆杅堈夛幮傪帩偪丄偙偺夛幮偺棙塿傕摨偠偔僆僒儅偺搚栘夛幮傾儖僸僕儔(al-Hijira)摍偲嫟偵傾儖僇僄僟(Al Qaeda)偺帒嬥尮偵側偭偰偄偨丅傾儔價傾岅偺傾僉乕僋偵偼宬扟(CanyonGorgeRavine) 偲峠嬍悜(carnelian-red)偺堄枴偑偁傞偑丄僆僒儅偑偙偺熆傟扟偺柤傪帺暘偺婇嬈偵柤偯偗偨偺偼乽宬扟乿偺堄枴偱偼柍偔丄偙偺扟偑惞抧偵嬤偄忋偵丄僀僗儔儉偱偼旕忢偵婱廳側愇偲峫偊傜傟偰嫃傞乽峠嬍悜乿偺堄枴偩偭偨偺偩傠偆丅

 

熆傟扟傾僒僼傿乕儖(Wadi Asafir) 僞僽僋(Tabuk)搶偺僕儍僶儖 僔儍儖儔(Sharura乯偲僸僗儅(Hisma or Hasma)嶳抧偺娫偺杶抧偵棳傟崬傓熆傟扟偺堦偮偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

熆傟扟傾儔僓(Wadi Aradhah) 熆傟扟僩儖僶(Wadi Turbah)偺尮摢晹偺堦偮偱杒堒2025亴搶宱4125亴晅嬤偐傜杒堒2032亴搶宱4108亴晅嬤傑偱偺屇徧丅

 

熆傟扟僀僩儚僪(Wadi 'Itwad)丗乮 熆傟扟僟儔乫(Wadi Dala')傪嶲徠乯丅

 

熆傟扟僀僴儔乕(Wadi Iharah) 傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)搶晹傪儕儎僪廈(Riyadh Province)偲僫僕儔儞廈(Najran Province)偲偺廈嫬偱熆傟扟僔儕 儅僪僶僌(Wadi Siri al Madbagh)偲崌棳偟丄嬻敀抧懷嵐敊曽柺偵惣偐傜搶傊偲壓傞熆傟扟偱丄傾儖傾僀儞(Al 'Ayn)偍傛傃傾僀儞 僼儚僀僘('Ayn Huwayz)傪忋棳堟偵娷傒丄乽嫲傟扟乿偲偺堄枴偺柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僀僽儞 僴僔儏僶儖(Wadi ibn Hashbal) 儕儎僪-僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩摴楬(Riyadh - Khamis Mushayt Road)娫摴増偄偵偁傞晹棊偍傛傃熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僀儎(Wadi 'Iya) 傾僔乕儖廈(Asir Province)價僔儍乕(Bishah)孲偵偁傞熆傟扟偱嵟傕屆戙堚愓偺朙晉側応強偺堦偮偱偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟僇傾乫(Wadi Al-Qa乫) 熆傟扟價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偺價僔儍乕(Bishah)偱暘婒偡傞嵍屢偺熆傟扟僸乕儖僕儍僽(Wadi Hir Jab)偑僒儅僇(Samakh)偱暘婒偟偨嵍屢偱丄乽掅抧偺扟乿偲偺堄枴偺柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僇僴僪(Wadi Qahad) 乽熆傟扟儖儅(Wadi Rumah)偼熆傟扟僇僴僪(Wadi Qahad)偲熆傟扟傾儖 僕儍儕乕儖(Wadi al Jarir)偵暘偐傟傞乿偲僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)偼偦偺挷嵏曬崘彂(Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, March 2000)偵弎傋偰偄傞偑丄熆傟扟傾儖 僕儍儕乕儖偲暘偐傟傞偺偼熆傟扟儖儅偺杮棳偱偁傝丄偦偺忋棳晹巬戲偺堦偮偑熆傟扟僇僴僪偱偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟僇儔僀僗(Wadi Khalais) 僕僢僟偺杒栺70km梋傝偵偁傞熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僒僴僶乫(Wadi Sahba) 300枩擭慜偐傜100擭枩擭慜傑偱偺200枩擭傕懕偄偨崅崀塉偺帪婜偵偼嶰偮偺戝壨偑敿搰傪惣偐傜搶偵墶愗傝傾儔價傾榩偵拲偄偱嫃偨丅偦偺撪偺熆傟扟僒僴僶偼僇儖僕(Kharj) 偐傜190 km搶偺僴儔僟(Haradh乯傪捠偭偰峏偵搶偺傾儔價傾榩(Arabian Gulf)傊偲拞墰傾儔價傾傊偺崀塉傪攔弌偟丄偦偺壨岥偵峀戝側嶰妏廈傪嶌傝弌偟偰嫃偨丅偦偺儚僨傿 僒僴僶偺嶰妏廈偼僴儔僟偐傜200km棧傟偨傾儔價傾榩傑偱懕偒偦偺墌屖偼傾僴僒(Al Ahsa)偺搶65km偵偁傞愄偺峘僂僈僀儖(Al Uqair丄晄栄乯偐傜僇僞乕儖(Qatar)敿搰偺撿傑偱150km埲忋偵媦傇丅儚僨傿 僒僴僶乫(Wadi Sahba)偼儕儎僪(Riyadh)偺撿150km埵偺斖埻偱僩儚僀僋奟抧(Jabal Tuwaiq)傪杒偐傜弴偵偦傟偧傟愗傝捠偟偰偄傞偦偺嶰偮巟棳偱偁傞儚僨傿 僯僢僒乕(Wadi Nissah)丄儚僨傿 僴僂僞乕(Wadi Hawtah) 偍傛傃儚僨傿 價儖僋(Wadi Birk) 偺棳傟傪儕儎僪撿搶80km偵偁傞僇儖僕(Kharj)偱廤傔偰嫃傞丅僇儖僕(Kharj)偼儕儎僪撿搶80 km偵偁傞墹崙撪偱椢傪戙昞偡傞僆傾僔僗偱偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟僒儅儔乕(Wadi Samarah) 僇乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)偐傜杒傊偲壓傞熆傟扟僫傾儉(Wadi Na'am)偑杒僈乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)偺撿偱崌棳偟丄嬻敀抧懷惣曈偺僼僅(Al Faw)傊偲壓傞乽栭榖偺扟乿偲柤晅偗傜傟偨熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僔儍僀僽 傾僔儍乕儖 僒僢儔僽(Sha'ib Mi'ashar Thallab) 乽棳傟偑暘嶶偟偨壨尨乿偲塢偆堄枴偺柤傪帩偮偙偺熆傟扟偼儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)搶晹偺挰僋乕儖儅乕(Al-Khurmah)偺搶30km偵偁傝丄堦書偊傕偁傞傛偆側愇偺揮偑偭偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僕儍僕儔乕(Wadi Jazirah) 熆傟扟僞僗儕僗(Wadi Tathlith)塃屢偺熆傟扟僗僼儞(Wadi Thufun)偺巟棳偱丄乽搰偺扟乿偲偺堄枴偺柤偑晅偗傟傟偨熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僕儍僽僕儍僽(Wadi Jabjab) 僇僴儔乕嶳(Jabal Qaharah)偐傜儕儎僪-僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩摴楬(Riyadh - Khamis Mushayt Road)傪墇偊偰杒傊熆傟扟僞僗儕僗(Wadi Tathlith)傊偲壓傞丅乽悈憛偺扟乿偲柤晅偗傜傟偰偄傞偺偼嫲傜偔偼崀塉帪偺悈棳傪挋傔傞悈憛偑愝偗傜傟偰偄傞扟偩偐傜側偺偩傠偆丅

 

熆傟扟僕儍儕乕儖(Wadi al Jarir) 乽熆傟扟僕儍儕乕儖偼岡攝傪搊傝丄傑偝偵媽栺惞彂偑亀僺僜儞愳偼僴償傿儔偺慡偰偺搚抧傪棳堟偲偟丄偦偙偵偼嬥偑嶻弌偡傞亁偲尵偭偰偄傞捠傝丄儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽嬥嶳 (Mahd adh Dhahab Gold Mine) 抧堟傑偱懕偄偰偄傞乿偲僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)偼乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(the Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿偺拞偵弎傋偰偄傞偑丄熆傟扟儖儅(Wadi Rumah)偺巟棳偺熆傟扟僕儍儕乕儖(Wadi al Jarir)偼儕僋 傾僗儚僪嶳(Jibal Rik Al Aswad)偲儅乕儖儚嶳(Jibal Al Marwah)偑楢側傞嶳椗偵慾傑傟偰儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽嬥嶳 (the Mahd adh Dhahab)傑偱偼帄偭偰嫃側偄丅扐偟丄熆傟扟僕儍儕乕儖偺忋棳偐傜偙偺嶳椗偺撿傪敳偗偰儚僴僶壩岥(Wahba crate)偱抦傜傟偨僉僔儏僽梟娾抧懷(Harrat Kishb)偺杒傪捠偭偰儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽嬥嶳傊偺摜傒愓(Trail)偼尰嵼偱傕懚嵼偟偰偄傞丅廬偭偰丄乽偙偺昞尰偑娫堘偄偩乿偲偼尵偊側偄傑偱傕嫍棧揑偵偼150km偁傞偺偱惓偟偄偲傕尵偊側偄丅乽儅僴僪 傾僪 僟僴僽嬥嶳 (the Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine) 抧堟傑偱懕偄偰偄傞乿偲偺昞尰偑梋傝偵抁棈揑偱偁傞偺偱乽僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)偼偙偺曈傝偺抧宍傪惓妋偵擣幆偟偰偄側偄偐丄帒椏偑柍偐偭偨偺偩乿偲巚偆丅

 

熆傟扟僔乕儖僕儏僕(Wadi Sirjuj) 乽慻傒昍偺扟乿傪堄枴偡傞偙偺熆傟扟偼儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)搶晹偺僋乕儖儅乕(Al-Khurmah)撿搶72倠倣偱儔儞儎乕(Ranyah)偺杒71km晅嬤偵偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟僔儕儖(Wadi as Silil) 僫僕儔儞(Najran)杒曽110km偺儎僟儅(Yadamah)傪忋棳堟偵娷傒丄惣偐傜搶傊嬻敀抧懷嵐敊偺惣抂偵偁傞専栤強僇僔儏儉 僌儔僽(Khashm Ghurab乯傊偲壓傝丄乽巕懛偺扟乿傪堄枴偡傞柤偑晅偗傜傟偨熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僗僶僀(Wadi Subay) 僴僟儞梠娾抧懷(Harrat Hadan)偲僫儚僔僼梠娾懷(Harrat Nawasif)偵嫴傑傟偨儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)搶晹偵偁傞熆傟扟偱杮棳偵偼僋儖儅乕(Al Khurmah)傗僩儖僶乕(Turubah)摍偺挰偑偁傞丅偙偺熆傟扟偵偼乽栆廱乮曗怘摦暔乯乿傪堄枴偡傞柤傪晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僞僗儕僗(Wadi Tathlith) 熆傟扟價僔儍乕偲嫟偵峀斖埻偵挿偄棳堟傪帩偪丄傾僔乕儖廈撪棨晹傪戙昞偡傞熆傟扟偺堦偮偱偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi Dawasir) 300枩擭慜偐傜100擭枩擭慜傑偱偺200枩擭傕懕偄偨崅崀塉偺帪婜偵偼嶰偮偺戝壨偑敿搰傪惣偐傜搶偵墶愗傝傾儔價傾榩偵拲偄偱嫃偨丅偦偺撪偺熆傟扟僟儚僔乕儖偼僔儏儔僀僀儖(Sulayyil)晅嬤偱僩儚僀僋奟抧(Jabal Tuwaiq)傪墴偟棳偟娧捠偟丄偦偺巟棳偺儚僨傿 僸僰(Wadi Hinw乯偼僈儕儎僩 傾儖 僼傽僂(Qariyat al Faw)堚愓晅嬤偱僩儚僀僋奟抧(Jabal Tuwaiq)傪娧偄偰嫃傞丅儚僨傿 僟儚僔乕儖偼嬻敀抧懷杶抧偺峀偄斖埻傪傾儔價傾弬忬抧偐傜怹怘偝傟塣偽傟偨搚嵒傗姠釯偱杽傔偨丅尰嵼偱偼岤偔愊傕偭偨昚嵒偺堊偵儚僨傿 僟儚僔乕儖偺壓棳堟偼僴僢僉儕偟偰嫃側偄偑偦偺帪戙偵偼偦傟埲慜偼奀偱暍傢傟偰嫃偨嬻敀抧懷偵掅偔墶偨傢傞嶰妏廈傪宍惉偟偨丅嬻敀抧懷搶晹偱UAE乮傾儔僽庱挿崙楢崌乯偵嬤偄僒僂僨傿 傾儔價傾(Saudi  Arabia)偍傛傃僆儅儞(Oman)偺崙嫬抧懷偵峀斖埻偵峀偑傝僂僢儉 傾僗 僒儈儞(Umm as Samin)偲屇偽傟傞暯傜側娷墫掅抧(SabkhaSalt Flat)偼偐側傝嵟嬤傑偱儚僨傿 僟儚僔乕儖偑棳傟崬傫偱偄偨屛偱偁偭偨丅

 

熆傟扟僟儔乫(Wadi Dala') 熆傟扟僟儔偼傾僽僴(Abha)偐傜熆傟扟僴儕(Wadi Hali)偲熆傟扟僶僀僔儍(Wadi Baysha)悈宯偺暘悈抧堟傪撿惣偵嶳偺奟抧傪揮偑傝崀傝傞條偵昗崅嵎2,050m傪捈慄揑偵奀娸傑偱壓傝丄峠奀偵拲偄偱偄傞丅偙偺昗崅嵎偺堊偵偙偺熆傟扟偵偼擬懷偐傜壏懷傑偱峀偄斖埻偵媦傇朙偐側怉惗偑偁傝丄偙傟傪棙梡偟偨僶僫僫墍傑偱娷傓僥傿僴儅乕嶳抧(Tihamah) 扞敤擾嬈偺摿挜傪廫暘偵娤嶡偡傞帠偑弌棃傞丅孹幬偑彮偟娚偔側傞偙偺僶僫僫墍偺曈傝偱搶懁偐傜崌棳偡傞扟偑杮棳偺熆傟扟僀僩儚僪(Wadi 'Itwad)偱偁傞丅熆傟扟僟儔乫(Wadi Dala')偵偼僥儞僩惗妶傪偟偰偄傞嶳梤帞偄偺晹懓偺儔價傾乕(Rabi'ah)懓偑廧傫偱偄傞丅摦暔偱偼栰惗偺儅儞僩僸僸偑懡偄丅熆傟扟僟儔乫(Wadi Dala')偵偼搑拞偱杮棳偺熆傟扟僀僩儚僪(Wadi 'Itwad)偲崌棳偡傞晹暘傕娷傔丄傾僽僴(Abha)偐傜僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)偺傾僪 僟乕儖僽(Ad Darb)偵壓傞庡梫摴偑嶌傜傟偰偄偨偑丄1982擭偵偼戝峖悈偑嶳暊傪楐偄偰捗攇偺條偵偙偺熆傟扟悈宯偵側偩傟崬傒丄慡偰偺娾孄丄栘乆丄摦暔丄幵傗30埲忋偺嫶寘傪愻偄棳偟偰偟傑偭偨丅嫭扟偺暻偵偼埶慠偲偟偰夡柵揑側峖悈偺愓偑巆偭偰嫃傝丄偦偺愓偐傜峖悈偺攇偺崅偝偼彮側偔偲傕30m偼偁偭偨條偩丅巹偑嵟屻偵朘栤偟偨2003擭偵帄偭偰傕摴楬偼廋棟偝傟偰偄側偐偭偨丅

 

熆傟扟僫傾儉(Wadi Na'am) 僈乕儖嶳(Jibal Al Qahr)杒曈偺傾僶乕儖 傾儉(Abar Na'am)乮閗捁偺堜屗乯傪尮摢偲偟偰杒傊偲壓傞熆傟扟僒儅儔乕(Wadi Samarah)巟棳偺熆傟扟偱乽閗捁偺扟乿傪堄枴偡傞柤傪晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僶僀僔儍(Wadi Baysha) 僥傿僴儅乕奀娸抧堟(Tihamah Coastal Area)偱偼熆傟扟僴儕(Wadi Hali)偲憃帏傪惉偡戝偒側熆傟扟偱偁傞丅僶僀僔儍(Wadi Baysha)偺柤偼僕僓儞(Jizan)偺杒55km偵埵抲偡傞挰僶僀僔儏(Baysh)傪偙偺熆傟扟偑捠夁偡傞帠偵桼棃偡傞偲巚傢傟傞丅僶僀僔儏(Baysh)偐傜熆傟扟僶僀僔儍(Wadi Baysha)偼堦扷杒忋偟岦偒傪搶偵曄偊偰僼傽乕儖僔儍乕(Al-Farshah)晅嬤偺撿晹僕僶儖 僒儔僩(Jibal al-Sarat)偲傾儖 僈乕儖嶳(Jabal Al Qahr)丄僴儖僽嶳(Jabal Harub)丄僼傽僀僼傽嶳(Jabal Fayfa)傗僶僯 儅儕僋嶳(Jabal Bani Malik)摍偺嶳暲傒偲偺娫偵宬扟杶抧嶌傝弌偟丄偦偺尮摢偼僟乕儔儞 僕儍僲僂僽(Dhahran Al Janoub) 傑偱峏偵搶偵墑傃偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僶僀僟乕(Wadi Baydah)丗乽巰偺扟乿偺堄枴偡傞偙偺熆傟扟偼儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)偺僩儖僶乕(Turubah)偐傜撿偵僶僴乕廈(Baha Province)廈搒僶僴乕(Al Baha)曽柺偵墑傃傞熆傟扟僗僶僀(Wadi Subay)偺嵍屢偱丄擕崄偺摴偼偙偺扟偵増偭偰晅偗傜傟偰嫃偨丅

 

熆傟扟僴儃僂僫乕(Wadi Habounah) 傾儖 僒儔僩(Al Sarat)乮傾僔乕儖嶳柆(Asir Mountains)乯傪悈尮偲偟丄熆傟扟僫僕儔儞(Wadi Najran)偺杒傪傎傏暯峴偵搶傊偲嬻敀抧懷嵐敊傊偲棳傟崬傓熆傟扟偱拞棳堟偵屼桍 乮偓傚傝傘偆乯(Tamaricaceae)乮僞儅儕僗僋(tamarisk)乯偺峀戝側孮惗偺尒傜傟傞丅壓棳偼彫偝側嬍愇傗嵒棙偺尨傪堄枴偡傞傾儖 僈僪僈僟乕(Al Qadqadah)偲屇偽傟傞丅偝傜偵壓棳堟偼棳栦娾(rhyolite)丄斄娾(porphyry)丄暽嬍(jasper)傗壴浖娾偺寚曅偑釯娾偺忋傪暍偆屌偄嵒偺拞偵儌僓僀僢僋柾條傪嶌傝弌偟偰偄傞僕儕僟(Jilida) 偲屇偽傟傞暯尨偲側傞丅熆傟扟僴儃僫乕偲傕揮幨偟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僴儕(Wadi Hali) 尟偟偄奟抧傾儖乕傾僗僟乕儖(al-Asdar)偑婲暁偺懡偄愐椗偐傜愨暻偺嫭扟丄偝傜偵媢椝惈偺僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah)嶳抧偺榌偺彫媢傊偲懕偄偰偄傞丅尟偟偄奟抧偲媢椝偺娫偵偼熆傟扟僴儕(Wadi Hali)傗熆傟扟僶僀僔儍(Wadi Baysha)摍偑僒儔儚僩(Sarawat)偺憡摉晹暘傪傎傏暯峴偡傞條偵峀偄扟偲惉偭偰敪払偟偰偄傞丅熆傟扟僴儕(Wadi Hali)偼傾僽僴(Abha)偺惣嶳榌偺儕僕儍儖 傾儖 (Rijal Al Ma'a)晅嬤偐傜杒偵岦偐偄丄傾僽僴(Abha)116 km偺僞僰儅乕(Tanumah)乮昗崅 2,080 m乯偺惣懁偱偼偦偺巟棳偑1,000倣埲忋傕偺棊嵎偱棊偪崬傓奟抧(escarpment)傪側偟丄熆傟扟杮棳偼惣偵岦偐偄僴儕(Hali)偱峠奀偵拲偄偱偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah) 乽僩儕僇僽僩偺扟乿傪堄枴偟丄乽愄偼嘀栆側晹懓偑嫃偨偺偱偙偺柤偑晅偄偨偺偱偼柍偄偐乿偲巹偼憐憸偟偰偄傞丅墦偔僒儔僩 傾價僟乕(Sarat Abidah)偲傾僴僪 儔僼傿僟乕(Ahad Rafidah)偺拞娫偱愄偺傾僔乕儖(Asir)偺拞怱偱嵼偭偨僕儍儔僔儏(Jarash)15km埵搶傪悈尮偺堦偮偲偟丄傾儖 僒儔僩(Al Sarat)偐傜嬻敀抧懷嵒敊傊棳傟傞熆傟扟偺拞偱嵟傕挿偔峀偄棳堟傪帩偭偰嫃傝丄傾僔乕儖廈撪棨晹偱偼嵟戝偺熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟僸乕儖僕儍僽(Wadi Hirjab) 嫹偄扟傪堄枴偡傞偙偺熆傟扟偼價僔儍乕(Bishah)偐傜暘婒偡傞熆傟扟價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偺嵍屢偱僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩(Khamis Mushait)曽柺傊偺摴楬偼偙偺熆傟扟偵増偭偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僼傽僥傿儅(Wadi Fatima) 僕僢僟偺搶杒搶70km梋傝偺嫍棧偵偁傞僕儏儉儉(Jumum) 偍傛傃傾僽 傾儖儚(Abu Arwa)曈傝偵傕偭偲傕旍梹側嬫堟偺1偮傪帩偭偰偄傞丅熆傟扟偺壨彴偺嵒棙偺懲愊偱抧壓悈偑朙晉偱丄偙偺悈偼愹偐傜宬扟偵偁傞峀戝側壥庽墍傪燇燆偡傞堊偵摫偐傟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟僼傽僩儊(Wady Fatmé) 僕僢僟(Jeddah)68儅僀儖杒偵偁傞熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟儅僔儖(Wadi Masil) 儕儎僪(Riyadh)偺惣栺240km偵偁傞僟儚僪儈(Ad Dawadmi)偺撿偺熆傟扟儅僔儖(Wadi Masil)偼憇娤側崟偄壩嶳惈偺媢偺娫偵桳傝丄6悽婭偺撿傾儔價傾偺僔僶暥帤(Sabaean)乮僒僶暥帤乯偱彂偐傟偨嶰偮偺旇暥偑偁傞丅傾儔價傾暥帤偺弌尰埲慜偵偼拞墰傾儔價傾偱偼偙偺條側旇暥偼僒儉乕僪暥帤(Thamudic)偱彂偐傟傞偺偑晛捠偱偁傝丄偙偺僔僶暥帤(Sabaean)偼旕忢偵捒偟偄丅偙偺旇暥偼6悽婭偵僒僶(Saba), 僴僪儔儅僂僩(Hadramaut)偍傛傃僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偺墹偑墦惇偟偰棃偨帠傪婰擮偟偰彂偐傟偰嫃傞丅摉帪丄熆傟扟儅僔儖(Wadi Masil)偼撿偐傜偺擕崄偲捠彜偺堊偺戉彜楬偺廳梫側埵抲偵偁傝丄僀僄儊儞(Yemen)恖払偼偙偺戉彜楬傪庣傞偨傔偵偙偙偵擇偮偺嵲傪抸偄偨丅尰抧偺晹懓偼帪愜偙偺嵲傪峌寕偟偰嫃傝丄僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偺墹偼尰抧偺儅僢僪懓(Ma'dd)傪捔埑偡傞堊偵偙偙傑偱墦惇偟偰棃偨丅熆傟扟儅僔儖偵偼枖丄怴愇婍帪戙偺娾暻夋傕偁傞丅偙偺娾暻夋偼旇暥傛傝傕忋棳偵偁傝丄摦暔傗嬻偵岦偐偭偰庤傪怳偭偰嫃傞恖暔憸傪昤偄偰偄傞丅埥傞恖暔憸偼寱偲弢傪帩偪丄懠偺恖暔憸偼尐傑偱偁傞壖柺傪晅偗偰嫃傞丅偙偺娾暻夋偼婭尦1,000擭偺嶌偲峫偊傜傟偰嫃傞丅

 

熆傟扟儉儕乕(Wadi Mulyh) 僞僰儅乕(Tanumah)偺杒偱乮昗崅 2,300 m)偱搉傞熆傟扟偼熆傟扟價僔儍乕(Wadi Bishah)偺巟棳熆傟扟僞儖僕(Wadi Tarj)偺忋棳晹偱偁傞丅

 

熆傟扟儎僶乕(Wadi Yabah) 壨岥晅嬤偼嶰妏廈偺條側抧宍偟丄奀娸偐傜20km埵撪棨偺僌僘(Al Quz)傪拞怱偲偟偨彫擾嬈抧懷偲側偭偰偄傞丅僌僘(Al Quz)偐傜熆傟扟儎僶乕(Wadi Yabah)偼嵒抧傪愺偔崗傓暆偺峀偑偭偨壨彴偲側傞丅熆傟扟儎僶乕(Wadi Yabah)偼梋傝抦傜傟偰偼嫃側偄偑丄偐側傝戝偒側熆傟扟偱僫儅僗(An Namas)偐傜僶僯 傾儉儘(Bani Amro)丄儅僔儍僀傾乕(Al Mashay'ah)丄僩僂僼(At Tuf)偵帄傞傎傏恀偭捈偖偵50km嬤偔撿杒偵墑傃傞僒儔儚僩嶳柆(Sarawat Mountain Range) 偐傜僥傿僴儅乕(Tihamah or Tihama)偵岦偐偭偰偼暻偺條偵棊偪崬傓抐奟愨暻乮傾僗僟乕儖(al-Asdar)乯傗媫孹幬偺扟偺忋棳晹暘乮傾僈僶僩(al-'Aqabat)乯傪尮摢偲偟偰偄傞丅

 

熆傟扟儔儞儎乕(Wadi Ranyah) 僶僴乕(Al Baha)偺撿偐傜傾儖 僈儕僔儍乕(Al Gharisha)偵帄傞悢懡偔偺熆傟扟傪廤傔偰熆傟扟僟儚僔乕儖(Wadi Al Dawasir)曽柺傊偲壓傞戝偒側熆傟扟丅

 

熆傟扟儖儅儞丒僶僥傿儞(Wadi Rumah/Batin) 300枩擭慜偐傜100擭枩擭慜傑偱偺200枩擭傕懕偄偨崅崀塉偺帪婜偵偼嶰偮偺戝壨偑敿搰傪惣偐傜搶偵墶愗傝傾儔價傾榩偵拲偄偱嫃偨丅偦偺撪偺儚僨傿 儖儅儞丒僶僥傿儞(Wadi Rumah/Batin)偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾杒晹傪攔悈偟杒搶傊偲棳傟僋僂僃僀僩(Kuwait)偱傾儔價傾榩(Arabian Gulf)偵拲偄偱嫃偨丅儚僨傿 儖儅儞丒僶僥傿儞傕僋僂僃僀僩廃曈傪拞怱偵傾儔價傾敿搰杒惣晹偺戝晹暘傪旐偆僨傿僽僨傿僶乕(Dibdibah)偲屇偽傟傞戝偒側嶰妏廈傪宍惉偟偨丅

 

僇儚僗(Kawas) 僇儚僗(Kawas)偼僕僢僟偱偺嵼奜岞娰偺墳愙學偱憚偱晲憰偟偨柤梍揑側岇憲丒岇塹暫丅

 

僇儞(Khan) 僩儖僐側偳偺戉彜廻(Caravansary)偱傾儔僽偱偼Inn

 

僇乕儞(Khán) 屆戙偺僞僞乕儖恖偺尵梩偱偁傝丄僩儖僐偱偼執戝側恖暔(the Grand Signor)偺尐彂偒偺1偮偩偑丄傾儔價傾岅偱偼乽斵偼棤愗偭偨乿傪堄枴偡傞丅

 

娷墫掅抧(SabkhaSalt Flat) 嵒媢偺娫偵墶偨傢傞僒僽僇乮暯傜側娷墫掅抧乯偼姦椻側婥岓偱偁偭偨帪戙偵悈偼屻戅偟墫偑棴傑傝峀戝側姡憞偟偨暯尨傪嶌傝弌偟偨帠傪帵偟偰偄傞丅偦偺暯尨偼傗偑偰嵒偱暍傢傟嵒媢偱杽傔傜傟偨丅嬻敀抧懷偺搶晹偱偼僒僽僇 儅僢僥傿(Sabkha Mutti)傗僂僢儉 傾儖 僒儈儞(Umm al Samin)偺條側峀戝側僒僽僇乮暯傜側娷墫掅抧乯偑峀偑偭偰偄傞丅

 

僇儞僒僂 僈僂儕(Qansawh al-Ghawri) 僇儞僒僂 僈僂儕(Qansawh al-Ghawri, 1501 - 1516)偼僄僕僾僩偺僽儖僕乕 儅儉儖乕僋挬(Mamuluk-Buriji Dynasty, 1382 - 1517)偺嵟屻偺僗儖僞儞(Sultan)

 

娒徏乮偐傫偟傚偆乯(Spikenard) 僀儞僪嶻偺朏崄偺偁傞僆儊僀僫僄僔壢偺怉暔(Nardostachys jatamansi)

 

娒潋摐(Cane-sugar)丗娒潋乮僒僩僂僉價乯偺宻偐傜惢偟偨嵒摐偱潋摐偲傕塢傢傟傞丅

 

僇儞僝僂(Licorice) Sweetroot丄娒憪乮僇儞僝僂乯偺崻偐傜惢偟偨僄僉僗偱栻憪丄忴憿丄惢壻摍偵巊梡偡傞丅

 

僇儞僶儎墹(King of Cambaya) 僗儖僞儞 儌儂儊僩(Sldaõ Mahomet)偲傕屇偽傟丄1458擭偐傜1511擭傑偱僀儞僪惣晹僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujarat)偺墹埵偵偁偭偨僗儖僞儞 儅僴儉僪 僔儍(Sultan Mahamud Shah)偱偁傞丅

 

僇儞儀僀(Cambay) 僀儞僪惣晹僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujarat)廈偱傾儔價傾奀偺僇儞儀僀榩(Cambay)墱偺挰乮7.7枩乯丅

 

娾暻夋(Petroglyph Rock Art or Stone Carving) 屆戙恖偼廮傜偐偄嵒娾偺昞柺偵昤偄偨奊偺曽偑峝偄壴浖娾偺昞柺偵昤偄偨奊傛傝傕屆怓壔偵傛偭偰怹怘傗晽壔偵懴偊曐懚偝傟傞帠傪抦偭偰嫃偨丅偙偺堊偵娾暻夋偼揝暘傪娷傫偩嵒娾偵昤偐傟偰偄傞丅屆怓壔(patination)偲偼嶬傃偝偣傞帠偱丄嵒娾摍偺昞柺傪恖堊揑偵彎偮偗傞偲偦偺晹暘偺揝暘偑嶬傃偰擟堄偺暥條傪昤偗傞丅屆怓壔(patination)懄偪丄嶬偺恑峴偼彎偮偗偰偐傜偺帪娫偵傛偭偰堎側傞偺偱暥條偺怴媽偑柧妋偵嬫暿偱偒傞丅

 

僇儞儅儗僢僨傿儞(Kammared'din, & C) 僨儕僇僥僢僙儞(Delikatessen)偱僴儉丄僜乕僙乕僕摍梞晽偺挷棟偢傒偺怘昳傪攧傞揦丅

 

 

僊乕乮僸儞僨傿乕岅丄Ghee乯丗 僀儞僪傗傾僼僈僯僗僞儞側偳偱屆偔偐傜嶌傜傟丄怘梡偵偝傟偰偄傞擕帀朾惢昳丅悷傑偟僶僞乕偺堦庬丅僶僞乕偵帡偰偄傞偑丄壛擬偡傞夁掱偱撈摿偺崄偽偟偄崄傝偑惗傑傟傞丅岅尮偼僒儞僗僋儕僢僩岅偱乽傆傝偐偗傜傟偨乿傪堄枴偡傞丅乮僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯

 

僉傾僕儍(Kiaja) 僯乕僽乕儖(M.[C.] Niebuhr)偑朘傟偨帪偺僕僢僟抦帠(the Pasha of Jidda) 偺暃姱丅

 

乽徚偊偨晹懓乿丗 乮幐傢傟偨傾儔僽(Lost Arabs)嶲徠乯丅

 

僉僆僢僕傾(Chioggia) 僀僞儕傾杒搶晹儀僱僩(Veneto)廈丄償僃僱僣僀傾(Venetian)妰屛撿抂偺彫搰偵偁傞巗丅

 

僊僕儎(Giziya)丗屄恖揑峷偓暔丄屄恖揑巀帿丅乮僀僽儞-傾儖-儉僕儍僂傿乕儖(Ibn al-Mujawir11204 - 1291)挊乽乽撿傾儔價傾偺婰弎(subtitle: Descripyio Arabiae Meridionalis)乿偵儊僢僇乮Mecca乯偱偺僊僕儎(Giziya)偺巟暐偄偵娭偡傞婰弎偑偁傞丅乯

 

僊僔儏儔(Ghishla) 埲慜偼僩儖僐恖払偺暫幧(Barrackws)偱偁傝丄偦偺帪偵偼僕僢僟偺孯巌椷晹偱偁偭偨丅偦偺寶暔偼枹偩偵偦偺尨宆傪棷傔偰偄傞丅

 

婫愡晽偺棟榑(Monsoon Theory) 惣梞悽奅偵娭偡傞尷傝丄傾儔價傾偲報搙偺慏忔傝偼戝梞偺庡梫側婥岓揑摿挜傪抦偭偰偍傝丄偦傟傪廫暘偵棙梡偟偰偄偨丅惣楋45擭崰偵僊儕僔儍偺愭嬱揑彜恖僸僷儖僗(Hippalus)偼僀儞僪偺敿搰揑摿挜傪抦傞條偵惉偭偨丅偦傟偼5寧偐傜10寧偵妡偗偰偼僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀 (the Erythraean Sea)偺朿戝側峀偑傝傪墶愗偭偰晽偑掕忢揑偵悂偒丄慏傪傾儔價傾偐傜僀儞僪傊偲塣傫偩丅僸僷儖僗偼峏偵偦偺懠偺6儢寧偵偼晽偑曽岦傪斀懳偵曄偊杒搶偐傜忢偵悂偔帠傪抦偭偨丅婫愡晽偺弞娐偺敪尒偱椙偔抦傜傟偨弌敪揰偐傜摨偠條偵尒姷傟偰偄傞棨塭傊偲強乆偱捈峴偡傞埲奜偼墦夞傝側奀娸慄偵増偭偨峲楬傪扝傞戙傢傝偵僀儞僪梞傪墶抐偟偰捈愙丄僀儞僪偲偺墲暅峲奀偑壜擻偵側傝丄杅堈楬偑妚柦揑偵曄傢偭偨丅  

 

僉僞僟 價儞 僀僪儕僗(Qitada bin Idris) 僉僞僟 價儞 僀僪儕僗(Qatada ibn Idris al-Alawi al-Hasani, 1130 - 1220)1201擭偐傜1220擭傑偱儊僢僇偺僔儍儕僼(Sharif)偱偁偭偨丅僉僞僟 價儞 僀僪儕僗偼僶僰 僇僞僟墹挬(Banu Qatada Dynasty)傪憂愝偟丄1925擭傑偱懕偄偨乽僔儍儕僼(Sharif)偺巕懛偑儊僢僇(Mecca)傪偡傞乿偲塢偆揱摑傪妋棫偟偨丅

 

乽僉僞僽 傾儖亅儅僒儕僋 -儅儅儕僋乿丗 [摴楬偲墹崙偺杮(Kitab al-Masalik wa'l-Mamalik (Book of the Roads and Kingdoms))乿偼僀僽儞 僐乕儖僟僪價 (Ibn Khordadbih820 - 912)偵傛偭偰傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasid Dynasty, 750 - 1258)偺墹巕偺堊偵惣楋846擭偵曇嶽偝傟丄僀僗儔儉掗崙偺執戝側岎堈楬偺嫽枴偁傞奣梫傪娷傫偱偄偨丅

 

乽僉僞僽 儉僕儍儉 傾儖-僽儖僟儞(Kitab mujam al-buldan)乿丗 儎僋僩(Yakut)挊偺乽抧棟妛帿彂 (Geographic Dictionary)乿偼帺慠尰徾偺壙抣偺偁傞婰榐傪娷傒丄恀寱側帠幚偵娭偡傞撪梕朙偐偱徻嵶側尋媶偱偁傝丄応強偺柤慜傪抧棟揑側埵抲偵偐偐傢傝柍偔丄傾儖僼傽儀僢僩弴偵堦棗昞偵偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僊僢儔乕(Qirrah) 儕儎僪-僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩摴楬(Riyadh - Khamis Mushayt Road)偺僞僗儕僗(Tathlith)擖傝岥偐傜杒73km偱丄傾僔乕儖/儕儎僪廈嫬(Provincial Boundary between Riyadh and Asir)偐傜撿30km偵偁傞乽媢乿偲偺堄枴偺柤偺晅偄偨晹棊丅

 

僉僫 僟儉(Qina Dam) 僕僢僟憂寶埲慜偺儊僢僇偺峘僔儏傾僀僶乕 (Shuaybah)峘偺堊偵熆傟扟傪墎偒巭傔偰偄偨僟儉丅

 

僉僫僫乕晹懓(Kinnah tribe) 尦乆儊僢僇嬤峹偵嫃廧偟偰偄偨偑丄4悽婭慜偵僗儁僀儞偵堏廧偟偰偄偨丅 僴僪儔儅僂僩(Hadramawt)弌恎偺僉儞僟墹崙(the Royal Kindah)偼僫僕儔儞(Najran)偺杒搶偺傾儖 僼傽僂(Al Fau)傪庱搒偲偟偨傾儔僽墹崙偱偁偭偨丅偙偺墹崙偼寶崙幰僼僕儖 傾僉儖 傾儖 儉儔乕儖(Hujr Akil al Murar)偺懛傾儖 僴儕僗 僀僽儞 傾儉儖(al Harith ibn Amr)偑椞搚傪杒傊偲峀偘丄僀儔僋偦偟偰傾儔僽僉儕僗僩墹崙儔僋儈僪(Lakhmid)偺庱搒僸儔乕(al-Hirahj)傪堦帪揑偵峌棯偟偨丅529擭僸儔乕偼傾儔僽僉儕僗僩嫵搆偵傛偭偰扗夞偝傟丄傾儖 僴儕僗墹偼50恖偺壠懓偲嫟偵嶦偝傟偨丅傾儖 僴儕僗墹偑嶦奞偝傟偨屻丄僉儞僟墹崙偼傾僒僪(Asad)丄僞僌儕僽(Taghlib)丄僉僫僫乕(Kinanah)偍傛傃僇僀僗(Qays)暘楐偟偨丅6悽婭偺挊柤側帊恖僀儉儖傾儖 僇僀僗(Imru乫 al Qays)偼僇僀僗墹懓偺弌偱偁傞丅枖丄僀儀儕傾敿搰(Iberian Peninsula)偺傾儔僽 傾儞僟儖僔傾(Arba Andalusia)偵傕戝偒側惌帯揑塭嬁椡傪帩偭偰偄偨丅(Dr. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi)

 

僊僯傾(Guinea) 傾僼儕僇惣晹偺戝惣梞娸偺抧曽偱丄杒偼僈儞價傾偐傜撿偼傾儞僑儔傑偱傪巜偡丅19悽婭枛傛傝暓椞惣傾僼儕僇偺堦晹偱1958擭撈棫偟偨丅崅尨崙偱儃乕僉僒僀僩傪嶻偟丄柺愊24.5km2丄恖岥740枩丄庱搒偼僐僫僋儕(conakry)

 

僊僯傾榩(Gulf of Guinea)丗傾僼儕僇惣奀娸偺戝惣梞偵柺偟偨儕儀儕傾 (Liberia)撿搶抂偺僷儖儅僗枽(Cape Palmas)偐傜僈儃儞(Gabon)偺儘儁僗枽(Cape Lopez)偺娫偺戝偒側榩丅偱丄僊僯傾偼億儖僩僈儖岅偺乽崟恖偺崙(Guiné)乿偑尨媊丅

 

(Silk) 嶾偺枤偐傜偲偭偨慇堐偱嶌偭偨巺偍傛傃偦傟偱偍偭偨怐暔丅

 

僉僼僥傿(al-Qifti, ca. 1172 – 1248) 忋僄僕僾僩弌恎偺僀僗儔儉廆嫵妛幰偱丄揘妛幰(Philosophers)丄堛幰(Physicians)偍傛傃揤暥妛幰(Astronomers)414柤傪娷傓揱婰廤(Biographies)1249擭偵挊嶌偟偨丅

 

僉僽儔(Qibla) 僉僽儔(Qiblah)偲傕塢偄丄儊僢僇(Mecca)偺曽岦乮儊僢僇(Mecca)偺惞摪偵偁傞僇傾僶恄揳(Kaaba)偺岦偒乯傪帵偡暻偺偔傏傒乯偱僀僗儔儉嫵搆偺楃攓偺曽岦傪帵偡丅乮儈僼儔僽(Mihrab) 傕嶲徠乯丅

 

婌朷曯(Cape of Good Hope) 傾僼儕僇撿惣抂偺枽偱働乕僾 僞僂儞偺撿50km

 

乽婌朷曯枽摍傪墲暅峲奀偡傞堊偺怱摼彂乿丗 乽搶僀儞僪彅搰丄拞崙丄怴僆儔儞僟丄婌朷曯枽摍傪墲暅峲奀偡傞堊偺怱摼彂乿丄僕僃乕儉僗 儂儖僗僶乕僌(James Horsburgh)挊丄1809 - 11擭偵儘儞僪儞偱弌斉乿(Directions for sailing to and from East Indies, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope, etc. by James Horsburgh, London, 1809 - 11.)

 

僊儍僗僷乕 僐儕傾(Gaspar Correa) 1512擭偵16嵨偱億儖僩僈儖傪棧傟丄僀儞僪傊峴偭偨丅偦偙偱丄3擭娫丄億儖僩僈儖偺戞2戙僀儞僪憤撀傾儖僼僅儞僜 僟儖儃働儖僋(Alfonso d'Alboquerque)偺旈彂偲偟偰摥偄偨丅偦偺屻丄僐儕傾(Correa)1583擭崰偵僑傾(Goa)偱巰朣偟偰偄傞丅僐儕傾(Correa)偺楌巎偵娭偡傞挊弎偼53擭娫偺億儖僩僈儖偵傛傞惇暈傪栐梾偟偰偍傝丄1858擭偐傜1864擭偺娫偵儕僗儃儞壢妛妛夛(the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon)偵傛偭偰乽億儖僩僈儖惇暈巎偺枹敪昞執嬈慖廤(the Colecção de Monumentos Ineditos para a Historia das Conquistas dos Portuguezes)乿偺拞偱乽僀儞僪偱偺朻尟帠嬈(the enterprises of India)(Lendas da India)乿偲塢偆戣柤偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞丅庤彂偒尨峞偲憓偟奊偼億儖僩僈儖崙棫岞暥彂娰(Tôrre de Tombo)偵曐懚偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

僉儍儉僶僀榩(Gulf of Cambay)丗傾儔價傾奀偺惣娸偵椪傓僀儞僪惣晹僌僕儍儔僩廈(Gujarat)偵偁傞榩丅

 

僉儍儉儁僠僃嵽(Campeche Wood) 儘僢僌僂僢僪(Logwood)(Haematoxylon campechianum)偲傕塢偄丄愒崟偄怱嵽偲側傝丄枖愒偄愼椏偺嵽椏偲傕側傞丅

 

僉儍儉儗僢僩(Camlet) 拞悽偺傾僕傾偺閜閗怐傝偵帡偣偰儓乕儘僢僷偱對丒梤栄偐傜嶌傜傟偨怐暔偱偁偭偨偑丄屻偵岝戲偺偁傞敄抧暯怐傝偺栄怐暔傪堄枴偡傞條偵側偭偨丅

 

僉儍儔僐(Calico)丗尦乆偼 撿僀儞僪丄僇儕僇僢僩偐傜敃棃偟丄怐抧偑嵶偐偔敄偔嫮偄屝晅偗巇忋偘偟偨岝戲偺偁傞暯怐傝敀栘柸晍偱偁傞丅

 

僉儍儔僢僋慏(Carrack) 15悽婭偵億儖僩僈儖(Portuguese)偵傛偭偰抧拞奀偱奐敪偝傟丄戝峲奀帪戙傪戙昞偡傞斂慏偱偁傞丅3偐傜4杮偺儅僗僩傪旛偊丄暋憌幃偺慏旜極(Aftcastle)丄慏庱極(Forecastle)傪桳偟丄崅偔娵傒傪懷傃偨慏旜(Stern)偲慏庱(Stem)偵撍偒弌偟偨斂拰忬偺傗傝偩偟(Bowsprit)傪帩偮丅慜烖(Foremast)偲庡烖(Mainmast)偵墶斂傪挘傝(Square-rigged)丄屻烖(Mizzenmast)偵戝嶰妏斂(廲斂)傪挘傝(Lateen-rigged)丄崅搙側斂憱偑壜擻偱偁偭偨丅慡挿偼30m偐傜60m丄慡挿偲慡暆偺斾偼3:1偲偢傫偖傝偟偰娵傒傪懷傃丄攔悈検偼200僩儞埲忋偱拞偵偼1500僩儞偺傕偺傕偁偭偨丅僉儍儔僢僋慏(Carrack)偼崅攇(Heavy-sea)偱傕慏懱偺埨掕傪曐偮偩偗偺嫄懱偲丄挿婜峲奀偱偺戝検桝憲偵揔偟偨峀偄慏憅傪帩偪丄儓乕儘僢僷偱奐敪偝傟偨嵟弶偺墦梞峲奀梡偺斂慏(the first proper ocean going ship)偱偁傞丅15-16悽婭偵偼億儖僩僈儖(Portuguese)偲僗儁僀儞(Spain)偱惙傫偵寶憿偝傟丄僗儁僀儞(Spain)偱嶌傜傟偨傕偺偼僫僆(Nao)偲屇偽傟傞丅

 

僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel) 13悽婭偵僀僗儔儉嫵崙傾儞僟儖僔傾(Andalucía)偑奐敪偟偨僄僕僾僩偺僫僀儖愳偱巊傢傟偰偄偨斂慏傪尨宆偲偟偨僇儕僽慏(Qarib)傪億儖僩僈儖恖払(Protuguese)偑峏偵夵憿偟偨斂慏偱丄彫宆偱丄憖慏惈擻偑桪傟偨丄廲斂乮戝嶰妏斂乯(Lateen-rigged)傪挘傜傟偨2-3(Mast)傪帩偭偰偄偨丅僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel)偼億儖僩僈儖 (Protuguese)偲僗儁僀儞 (Spanish)偵傛偭偰丄15悽婭偱偺挿婜偵搉傞扵専峲奀偵巊傢傟偨丅僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel)偼彫宆偱偁傞堊偵丄愺偄増娸奀堟偐傜壨愳偺忋棳傑偱偺挷嵏偑壜擻偱偁偭偨丅僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel)偑旛偊晅偗偺廲斂乮戝嶰妏斂乯(Lateen-sails)偱愺奀堟傕慺憗偔憖慏弌棃丄嫮晽偱傕峲峴壜擻偱丄墶斂(Square-Atlantic type sail)傪旛偊偨僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel)偼旕忢偵夣懍偱偁偭偨丅偦偺宱嵪惈丄懍搙丄婡晀偝偍傛傃擻椡偱僉儍儔儀儖慏(Caravel)偼偙偺帪戙偺傕偭偲傕峲峴惈擻偺椙偄慏偲偟偰偺昡敾傪摼偰偄偨丅

 

僉儍儖僫僀僩(Carnaites) 傾儔價傾偺椬偺屆戙偺崙偱僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀(Erythraean Sea)偲挿偄嫍棧偱愙偟偰偄偨崙偺撪棨偵偼僉儍儖僫僀僩(Carnaites)偲屇偽傟傞擇偮偺尵梩傪挐傞埆鐓側柉偑廧傫偱偄偨丅偙偺柉偼懞傗曻杚偺栰塩抧偵廧傒丄峲楬傊弌傛偆偲偡傞幰払偼偙偺柉偵傛偭偰棯扗偝傟丄擄攋偟偰彆偐偭偨幰払偼搝楆偵偝傟偨丅偦偟偰偙偺柉帺恎傕傾儔價傾偺庱挿払傗墹払偵昿斏偵曔傜偊傜傟曔椄偵偝傟偰偄偨丅

 

僉儍儖儎儞僟(Caryanda) 撿惣僩儖僐(Southwest Turkey)

 

僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill) 抧幙僐儞僗儖僞儞僩(a Consulting Geologist)偱丄乽悽奅偺摯孉峼暔(Carve Minerals of the World)乿丄乽僇乕儖僘僶僢僪摯孉孮偺抧幙(Geology of Carlsbad Cavern in New Mexico)乿丄乽僨儔僂僃傾懲愊杶偺抧幙(Geology of the Delaware Basin in West Texas and Southern New Mex)乿傪挊嶌偟偰偄傞丅2002101擔偵偼岞嫟曻憲僒乕價僗 (Public Broadcasting Service丄棯徧丗PBS乯偱曻塮偟偨乽摯孉偺恄旈偺惗柦(Mysterious Life of Caves)乿偱摿廤偝傟偨丅偦偺屻丄僌儔儞僪丒僉儍僯僆儞'''Grand Canyon乯偺抧幙妛揑尋媶傪峴偭偰偄傞丅僉儍儘儖偼晇偱暔棟妛幰偺傾儔儞(Alan)偲嫟偵偼僇儞僶乕儔儞僪挿榁嫵夛(the Cumberland Presbyterian Church乯偵懏偟偰嫃傝丄擔梛妛峑偱乽壢妛偲惞彂(Science and the Bible)傪嫵偊偰偄傞丅偙偺帠偑乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(the Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿傪幏昅偟偨摦婡偱偁傞偲巚傢傟傞丅

 

僉儍儞僽儕僢僋(Cambric) 柸巺偱怐偭偨敄抧偺暯怐丅

 

媽儊僢僇奨摴(Old Mecca Road) 儕儎僪(Riyadh)偐傜僨儏儖儅(Durma), 僔儍僌儔(Shaqra), 僟儚僪儈(Dawadmi)傗傾僼傿乕僼(Afif) 傪宱桼偟偰僓儕乕儉(Zalim)偵帄傞媽摴偼媽儊僢僇奨摴偲屇偽傟偰偄傞丅僓儕乕儉(Zalim)偐傜惣懁偱偼擇偮偺摴楬偼崌棳偟偰堦偮偺儊僢僇奨摴偲側傞丅偙偺擇偮偺奨摴偩偗偑峀戝側僱僼僪嵐敊偺戝抧傪搶惣偵寢傫偱嫃傝丄傾儔價傾弬忬抧傪墶抐偟偰嫃傞丅

 

媼桘強僐儞僾儗僢僋僗(Gas Station Complex) 奨摴嬝偵偁傝丄媼桘強丄廋棟強丄僗僷乕儅乕働僩丄怘摪丄廻壆偱峔惉偝傟傞丅

 

僉儏乕價僢僩(Cubit) Curbit偁傞偄偼Dhira偼旾偐傜巜愭傑偱偺挿偝偱丄Dhira al-Ahmal66.5cm偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

悶徥(Flinging Reefs) 悶徥乮僉儑僔儑僂乯丄娸偐傜懕偄偰峀偑傝奀娸傪墢庢傞嶺岃徥丅

 

(Jade) 闩悏乮傂偡偄乯丄怺偄椢怓偺愇偱闩悏婸愇(jadeite)偺懠偵擃嬍(nephrite)傪娷傓丅尨媊偼儔僥儞岅ilia乮墶暊丄崢乯偱墶暊偺捝傒乮恡憻偺捝傒乯偼嬍(jade)偱帯偣傞偲偺怣嬄偵場傫偱晅偗傜傟偨丅

 

嬍悜 (Chalcedony) 嬍悜乮偓傚偔偢偄乯偼壩嶳惈塀旝徎幙愇塸偱偁傝丄宂愇偼傎偲傫偳偑柍悈宂巁偐傜側傞峝偄懲愊惈愇塸偱偁傞丅嬍悜偺撪晹偵偼愇塸偺旝寢徎偼栐偺栚忬偵廤崌偟偰偍傝丄寢徎偺娫偵偼旕忢偵彫偝側寗娫偑懚嵼偟偰偄傞丅偦偺偨傔丄嬍悜偺枾搙偼愇塸傛傝傗傗彫偝偔丄2.552.64掱搙偱偁傞乮愇塸偼2.65乯丅嬍悜偼抧昞偁傞偄偼抧昞嬤偔偱擇巁壔働僀慺偵晉傫偩掅壏梟塼偐傜惗惉偟擕敀怓側偄偟敀怓偺傕偺偑懡偄偑丄巁壔揝偑崿偞偭偰偄傞偨傔偵僺儞僋怓傪掓偡傞帠傕偁傞丅嬍悜偵偼宍忬傗怓嵤偵傛傝曮愇偲偟偰偺摿暿側柤徧偱屇偽傟傞傕偺偑懚嵼偟晄弮暔偑懡偔偰擹怓偺傕偺偼暽嬍乮傊偒偓傚偔乯偲屇偽傟丄傑偨丄怓傗摟柧搙偺堎側傞幦柾條傪帵偡傕偺偼囿囗偲屇偽傟偰偄傞丅僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖(Carol A. Hill)偑丄乽僄僨儞偺墍丄尰嵼偺宨娤(the Garden of Eden: A Modern Landscape)乿偺拞偱丄嬍悜 (Chalcedony) 偍傛傃宂愇 (Chert)傪崿摨偟偰偄傞偑丄囿囗偺榖側偺偱偙偙偱偺宂愇 (chert)偼嬍悜 (Chalcedony)偲撉傓傋偒偱偁傞丅傾儔價傾敿搰偺惗偄棫偪偐傜傾儔價傾弢忬抧偵僇儞僽儕傾婭 (Precambrian)偺懲愊娾偑懚嵼偡傞偺偼帠幚偱偁傝丄幚嵺偵僸僕儍乕僘丒傾僔乕儖嶳宯偺嶳捀抧堟偵揟宆揑懲愊娾偱偁傞嵒娾偑業弌偟偰偄傞応強偼彮側偔側偄丅僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖偼乽愭僇儞僽儕傾婭 (Precambrian)偺懲愊娾偺懚嵼傪斲掕偡傞帠偼弌棃側偄偑丄塀旝徎幙壩嶳惈愇塸偲柍悈宂巁幙懲愊惈愇塸偼嬫暿偡傋偒偱偁傞乿偲摨彂偺拞偵弎傋偰偄傞丅枖丄僉儍儘儖 A. 僸儖偼乽寢徎峔憿愇塸 (Cryptocrystalline quartz) 偵嬍悜 (chalcedony) 偑宍惉偝傟丄戝偒側夠偵側傞傎偳晄摟柧偱僠儍乕僩乮宂幙懲愊娾偺堦庬丄Chert乯偲屇偽傟傞庬椶偺娾偵側傞乿偲傕弎傋偰偄傞丅囿囗偼梟娾抧懷傃弌棃傞嬻摯偱宍惉偝傟傞塀旝徎幙愇塸側偺偱懲愊惈愇塸偺僠儍乕僩偲偼寢傃偮偐側偄偺偱丄偙傟偼岆夝偱偁傞偲巹偼峫偊傞丅

 

嫃廧摿尃摍偺惌晎娫嫤掕(Capitulation) 僆僗儅儞掗崙(Ottoman Empire)撪偱奜崙恖偑嫕庴偟偨摿暿側摿揟偼偦偺崻嫆偑岞幃側慸庁抧(Concession)傗嫃廧摿揟(Capitulation)偵偁傞偲偟偰堦斒偵埖傢傟偰偄偨丅帯奜朄尃摍偺嫃廧摿揟(Capitulation)偼偦傟傪娷傓挿偨傜偟偔丄傕偭偨偄傇偭偨懡偔偺堎側偭偨尒弌偟傗摿尃(Capitula)偺堊偵偦偺條偵屇偽傟偰偍傝丄1453擭偺僐儞僗僞儞僥傿僲乕僾儖(Constantinople)崀暁偺屻丄僆僗儅儞掗崙偺巟攝幰偵傛偭偰惣墷偺崙乆偵曐徹偝傟偨丅

 

僊儓乕儉(A. Guillaume) 傾僼僼儗僢僪 僊儑乕儉(Alfred Guilaume,1888 - 1966)偼傾儔僽愱栧壠(Arabist)偱僀僗儔儉妛幰(Islamic Scholar)偱偁傞丅僆僢僋僗僼僅乕僪戝妛(University of Oxford)偱恄妛(Theology)偲拞嬤搶岅妛(Oriental Languages)傪妛傫偩屻丄傾儔價傾岅傪愱峌偟偨丅戞堦師悽奅戝愴拞偼僇僀儘(Cairo)偵偁傞僼儔儞僗偺傾儔價傾嬊(Arab Bureau)偵嬑柋偟偨丅塸崙偵栠偭偨偲偒偵偼僀僗儔儉妛幰偵擟柦偝傟偰偄偨丅僊儓乕儉偼儘儞僪儞戝妛(University of London)偺拞嬤搶妛壢偺庡擟嫵庼偲側偭偨丅偦偺屻丄儀僀儖乕僩(Beiruit)偺傾儊儕僇戝妛媞堳嫵庼丄僶僋僟僢僪(Baghdad)傗僟儅僗僇僗(Damascus)偺妛夛夛堳摍偵慖偽傟偰偄傞丅挊嶌偲偟偰偼儁儞僊儞彂揦(Penguin Book)偐傜弌斉偝傟偨僀僗儔儉(Islam)偑桳柤偱偁傝丄枖僀僽儞 僀僔儍僋(Ibn Ishaq, 704 – c. 767)挊偺乽恄偺巊偄偺堦惗(Sirat Rasul Allah or Life of Messenger of God)乿偺東栿傕峴偭偰偄傞丅

 

僉儔僽嶳(Jabal al Kilab) 儕儎僪-僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩摴楬(Riyadh - Khamis Mushayt Road)傪嫴傫偱僞僗儕僗(Tathlith)偺搶偵嵼傞嶳偱乽將偺嶳乿偲柤晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僉儕僗僩嫵搆慀摦偵娭偡傞旇暥丗 1950擭戙偵僫僕儔儞(Najran)偱敪尒偝傟偨偦偺帪戙偺旇暥(inscription)偵偼乽偙偺巗偼僸儉儎儖墹崙(the Kingdom of Himyar)偵懳偡傞傾價僔僯傾偺僉儕僗僩嫵搆慀摦偺壏彴(hotbed)偱偁偭偨丅偙偺慀摦偼拤幚側僀僄儊儞偺柉(Yemenite)偲儐僟儎嫵搆傪栚昗偵偟偨斀棎傪偗偟偐偗偰偄偨乿偲帵偝傟偰偄傞丅

 

乽僊儕僔儍偲儘乕儅偺抧棟帿揟(Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography) 乿丗 W. 僗儈僗 (W. Smith)偵傛偭偰(1873 -1878)偵儘儞僪儞偱曇廤偝傟偨丅

 

僉乕儖僔儏(Al-Qirsh) 僕僢僟嬤峹偺Springs乮愹乯丅

 

僊儖 僼僃儖僫儞僨僗(Gil Fernandes) 僇僫僲傾(Cananore)偺弶戙億儖僩僈儖彜娰挿(15032寧偺僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)娡戉偲偺奀愴摉帪乯丅

 

僊儗傾僪僶儖僒儉偺栘(Balm of Gilead) 傾僕傾丒傾僼儕僇嶻僇儞儔儞壢儈儖儔僲僉懏乮儌僣儎僋僕儏懏乯偺忢椢彫庽偱梩偵彎傪偮偗傞偲朏崄傪敪偡傞丅

 

僉儘儞(Quilon) 僇儕僇僢僩偐傜撿偺墦偔側偄応強偁傞1516悽婭偺彮偟彫偝側彜嬈偺拞怱抧偺1偮丅償傽僗僐 僈儅 (Vasco da Gama)偼僇儕僇僢僩偐傜墦偔側偄応強偵偙偺條側彮偟彫偝側彜嬈偺拞怱抧偑偁傞偺傪抦偭偰偄偨丅偦傟傜偺拞偱偼杒偵僇僫僲傾 (Cananore)偵偁傝丄撿偵僐乕僠儞(Cochin)偍傛傃僉儘儞(Quilon)偑偁偭偨丅偙傟傜偺巗偺尰抧巟攝幰偼僇儕僇僢僩偺峀戝側彜嬈妶摦傪偆傜傗傑偟偑偭偰嫃傝丄帺暘傛傝戝偒側惃椡傪帩偭偮嬤椬偵偁傞巗偲偼塱墦偵斀栚偟崌偭偰偄偨丅

 

(Gold) 廳偔廮傜偐偔墑惈丒揥惈偵晉傒丄嬻婥拞偱嶬傃偢丄晛捠偺巁偵怤偝傟偢丄墹悈偵梟偗傞丅岝戲偑旤偟偔丄婱嬥懏悘堦偱丄壿暭丒憰忺丒帟壢帯椕摍偵巊傢傟傞丅

 

(Silver) 嬥傛傝傗傗寉偔丄敀怓偺旤偟偄岝戲傪帩偮嬥懏偱丄嬻婥拞偱偼巁壔巗撪偑棸墿偺壔崌暔偵偁偆偲崟怓偵曄傢傞丅壿暭丒憰忺摍偵巊傢傟傞丅

 

僉儞僌 傾僽僪儖 傾僕僘嬻孯婎抧(King Abdul Aziz Military City) 僞僽僋(Tabuk)偼墹崙撪偱桞堦杮摉偵暺抧偵偁傞巗偱偁傝丄恖岥100,000恖婯柾偺彫偝側巗応偺拞怱偵夁偓側偄偑丄僉儞僌 傾僽僪儖 傾僕僘(King Abdul Aziz)孯帠搒巗偺杒晹抧嬫巌椷晹丄墹崙棨孯戞7婡峛椃抍丄戞8曕暫椃抍丄戞12婡峛椃抍偍傛傃戞14曕暫椃抍丄墹崙棨孯嬻掟椃抍丄墹崙棨孯婡峛愱栧妛峑偍傛傃F-5戞擇旘峴戝戉傪娷傓僉儞僌 僼傿僒儖(King Faisal)嬻孯婎抧偑偁傞丅僉儞僌 僼傿僒儖(King Faisal)嬻孯婎抧偼僞僽僋(Tabuk)巗偺捈偖撿搶偺杒堒28亱21乫55乭搶宱36亱37乫08乭偵埵抲偟偰偄傞丅暷崙孯帠孭楙巊愡(The United States Military Training Mission) (USMTM)偺廧戭抧傕僞僽僋(Tabuk)偵偁傝丄偙偺廧戭抧偵偼30搹偺廧戭偲晅懏巤愝偑偁傝壥庽墍偵埻傑傟偰偄傞丅

 

僉儞僌僇儕僪嬻孯婎抧(King Khalid Air Base) 僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩(Khamis Mushayt)偺撿偵偼僒僂僨傿傾儔價傾撿曽孯巌椷晹偑偁傝丄栰朇偍傛傃曕暫妛峑偍傛傃僴儕僪崙墹嬻孯婎抧(King Khalid Air Base)偑偁傝丄暷孯孯帠屭栤抍傕挀嵼偟偰偄傞丅

 

僉儞僌僇儕僪孯帠搒巗(King Khalid Military City) 暿柤傪僄儊儔儖僪偺挰 (Emerald City) 偲傕屇偽傟傞僇儕僪崙墹孯帠搒巗(King Khalid Military City)偼儕儎僪偺杒栺400km偱僴僼傽儖 傾儖 僶乕僥傿儞偺撿60km偵杒搶崙嫬杊屼偺堊偵寶愝偝傟偨丅偙偺孯帠搒巗偼3椃抍偐傜惉傞棨孯巘抍偺堊偵愝寁偝傟丄65,000恖偺廂梕擻椡偑偁傝丄暷崙棨孯偍傛傃嬻孯偺媄弍幰偑1960擭戙偍傛傃1970擭戙偵僞僀僼丄KMMC偍傛傃僇儈僗 儉僔儍僀僩傪娷傓婔偮偐偺僒僂僕孯帠婎抧傪愝寁丒寶愝偟偨拞偺堦偮偱偁傞丅1991擭偺榩娸愴憟偱偼乽戝婯柾偱恦懍側揥奐偑昁梫偱偁偭偨嵐敊偺弢嶌愴傪壜擻偵偡傞掱偵偙傟傜偺婎抧偲偦偺巟墖愝旛摍偺孯帠揑婎斦偑惍旛偝傟偰偄偨乿偺傪徹柧偟偨丅暷孯傗摨柨崙孯偑嫀偭偨屻傕KKMC偼僒僂僕偺杒曽抧堟傪杊塹偡傞廳梫側孯帠婎抧偱偁傞帠偵偼曄傢傝偼側偄丅

 

僉儞僟懓楢崌(Kinda Confederation) 僀僗儔儉埲慜偺悢悽婭偺娫偱偺拞墰傾儔價傾偵懳偡傞僀僄儊儞偺僸儉儎乕儖(Himyarites)偺庡側慱偄偼敿搰傪墇偊偰傾儔價傾榩傗儊僜億僞儈傾(Mesopotamia)傊帄傞戉彜楬偺妋曐偱偁傝丄偙偺栚揑偺堊偵僸儉儎乕儖(Himyarites)偼撿僫僕僪(southern Najd)偺僉儞僟懓(Kinda)傗儉僪僸僕懓(Mudhhij)摍偺彅懓偲摨柨埥偄偼晹懓揑娭學傪堐帩偟丄拞墰傾儔價傾慡懱偵塭嬁傪媦傏偡埥傞庬偺廬懏娭學傪抸偄偰偄偨丅僸儉儎乕儖(Himyarites)偼偦偺廳偒傪岲愴揑側僉儞僟懓(Kinda)偵抲偒丄僉儞僟懓(Kinda)偼僫僕儔儞(Najran)偺杒偺抧堟偺僇乕儖儎僩 僼傽僂(Qaryat al-Faw)曈傝偵嫃廧傪掕傔丄撿傾儔僽晹懓偵懏偟偰嫃偨偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄屲悽婭偺屻敿偵偼戩墇偟偨僶僋儖(Bakr)僌儖乕僾傪娷傓拞墰傾儔價傾偺彅懓傪堦偮偺嫮偄楢崌偵寢懇偝偣偨丅熡柤偑傾僉儖 傾儖乕儉儔乕儖(Akil al-Murar)偲屇偽傟傞僉儞僟(Kindite)偺巜摫幰僼僕儖(Hujr)(Amr al-Mansur ibn Hudjr, 458-489)偼惣楋490擭偵杤偡傞傑偱偵拞墰傾儔價傾偺杦偳傪巟攝偟丄僸儔乕(Hirah)偺傾儔僽晹懓庱挿儔僋儈僪(Lakhmid)偺塭嬁壓偵偁傞搶傾儔價傾偺僶僋儖(Bakr)偺椞搚傪帺桼偵捠峴偱偒偨丅僼僕儖(Hujr)偺懛偺僴儕僗 僀僽儞傾儉儖(Harith ibn 'Amr)(Al-Harith Talaban ibn Amr, 489-528)偼儔僼儉(Lakhmids)傪惇暈偟偦偺庱搒偺僸儔乕(Hirah)傪愯椞偟丄懡偔偺晹懓偲楢崌偟偰價僓儞僠儞掗崙偺椞搚傗僒僒儞挬偺儊僜億僞儈傾偵怤峌偟偨丅偝傜偵僴儕僗(Harith)偼價僓儞僠儞掗崙偲偺崙嫬抧懷偵偍偗傞晹懓偑柨庡偲偟偨僈僢僒乕儞挬(Ghassanid)偺堊惌幰傪岎戙偝偣偨丅僴儕僗(Harith)偼惗奤偑僉儞僟懓偺嫽棽偺嵟惙婜傪戙昞偟偰偄偨偑丄僴儕僗(Harith)偺杤偟偨惣楋528擭傑偱偵僒僒儞挬(Sasanian)偺墖彆傪庴偗偨儔僼儉(Lakhmids)偵偦偺椞搚傪扗夞偝傟偨丅偦傟偱傕僴儕僗(Harith)偺掗崙偼僸僕儍僘(Hijaz)丄僫僕僪(Najd)丄傾儖乕儎儅儅乕(al-Yamamah)偍傛傃搶傾儔價傾偐傜惉傞峀戝側抧堟傪妋曐偱偒偨偑丄懅巕払偺寣側傑偖偝偄憟偄偱曵夡偟偨丅僉儞僟懓楢崌(Kinda Confederation)偼僉儞僟(Kinda)晹懓摨柨偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅擇悽婭偐傜巐悽婭偵妡偗偰偼僉儞僟(Kinda) 晹懓摨柨憂愝偺拞怱偲偟偰僉儞僟偺挰僇乕儖儎僩 僼傽僂偑寙弌偟偰偄偨帪戙偱偁偭偨丅

 

僉儞僞儖(Quintal) 廳検偺扨埵偱塸崙偱偼100lb (45.359237kg)偱偁偭偨偑崙偵傛偭偰堘偆偑偁傝丄屻偵儊乕僩儖朄偱偼100kg乮忢峵偱220.46 lb乯偲掕媊偝傟偨(Refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quintal)

 

僉儞儅偺梩(Betel Leaves) 溴忀乮僉儞儅乯偲塢偄丄乽杮憪孾栔 乿乽榓孭瀤乿偵斬岅偲偁傝丄僞僀岅傑偨偼價儖儅岅偺揮鎍偱偁傞丅儅儗乕僔傾尨嶻偺僐僂僔儑僂壢偺忢椢枲惈掅栘偱層灒偵帡偰偍傝丄梩偼戝偒側怱憻宍偱愭抂偼偲偑傝丄岝戲偑偁傞丅壞偵墿怓偺嵶壴傪奐偒丄塼壥傪寢傃丄帗梇堎姅丄梩丒崻丒庬巕傪寬堓丒嫀醾乮偒傚偆偨傫乯栻偲偡傞丅偦偺梩傪庢偭偰烣灲巕乮傃傫傠偄偠乯(betel nut)丒愇奃偲嫟偵姎傫偱歯岲昳偵偡傞丅

 

嬥鍱(Brocade) 嬥巺傪奊堒乮偊偸偒乯偲偟偰愜傝崬傒丄偦傟傪庡挷偲偟偰暥條傪昞弌偟偨怐暔偺憤徧偱暯抧丒埢抧丒銓巕抧摍偑偁傞丅

 

 

僋僀儘儞(Quilon) 尰嵼偺働儔儔(Kerala)廈僐儔儉(Kollam)

 

嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter) 僒僂僨傿偺撿晹偼嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter)埥偄偼儖僽 傾儖僴儕(Ar Rub' Al Khali)偲塢偆柤偱抦傜傟偨洎敊偲偟偨嵐敊抧懷偱偁傞丅搶偼僆儅乕儞嶳柆丄撿偼傾儔價傾奀増偄偺奀娸嶳柆偺墱偵偁傞戜抧丄撿惣晹偼僀僄儊儞偲傾僔乕儖偺嶳榌偺媢偵埻傑傟傞杶抧偑嬻敀抧懷偱偁傝丄挿偝偑栺1,200km偱嵟戝暆偑650 km嬤偔偁傞丅偦偺柺愊偼僼儔儞僗丄儀儖僊乕偲僆儔儞僟嶰崙傪崌傢偣偨傛傝戝偒偔栺650,000 sq km 傕偁傝丄偦偺拞偺儀僪僂傿儞(Bedouin)偼扨偵儕儅儖(al-Rimal)偲屇傫偱偄傞嵒媢抧懷偼楢懕偡傞嵒嵐敊偲偟偰偼悽奅嵟戝偱偁傞丅

 

嬻敀抧懷廃曈偺儀僪僂僀儞(Bedouins living in and around Empty Quarter) 嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter)廃曈偵偼惣偵傾儅儕僒乕懓(Amalisah)偍傛傃儎儉懓(Yam)丄杒偵僟儚僔乕儖懓(Dawasir)丄僗僼儖懓(Suhul)偍傛傃儉僢儔乕懓(Murrah)丄搶偵儅僫僔乕儖懓(Manasir)丄僶僯 儎僗懓(Bani Yas)丄傾儚儈乕儖懓(Awamir)偍傛傃儅僫僸儖懓(Manahil)偦偟偰撿偵僶僀僩 儎儅僯懓(Bayt Yamani)丄儔僔僪懓(Rashid)偍傛傃僒儎儖懓(Sayar)摍偺儀僪僂僀儞晹懓偑廧傫偱偄傞丅偙偺拞偱傕嵒媢抧懷偲媦偽傟傞嬻敀抧懷偺拞傪廧張偵偟偰偄傞偺偼儔僔僪懓(Rashid)丄傾儚儈乕儖懓(Awamir)偍傛傃儉僢儔乕懓(Murrah)偺傒偱偁傞丅扵専壠僂傿儖僼儗僢僪 僙僔僕儍乕(Wilfred Thesiger)1945擭偵嵒媢抧懷偺儀僪僂僀儞(Bedouin)偵偮偄偰乽嵐敊撪晹偱偺媶嬌揑側暈憰偲偟偰儔僔僪懓(Rashid)偺條側儀僪僂僀儞偼挿偄傾儔僽暈偲嵐敊偺燇栘偺廯偱廮傜偐偄屚傟偨拑怓偵愼傔偨摢忺傝傪揨偭偰偄傞丅偙偺抝払偼彫偝偄偑庤嵺椙偔桘抐柍偔梡怱怺偄丅偦偺懱晅偒偼堷偒掲傑傝嫮枵偱庈擬偺嵐敊偲怣偠擄偔掱偺鋮嬯偵抌偊敳偐傟偰偄傞丅偙偺抝払傪尒偰偄傞偲悽奅拞偱傕偭偲弮悎側嫞憟偺拞偱堢偪嵟傕嫮枵偱桪傟偨幰偩偗偑惗偒巆傟傞娐嫬偱惗妶偟偰棃偰偄傞偺偑暘偐傞丅偙偺抝払偼弮寜庬偺條偵惛嵶偱塻晀偱偁傞乿偲婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

嬻敀抧懷偺嵒媢(Sands in Empty Quarter) 傾儔價傾敿搰杒晹偺僫僼僪嵐敊(Nafud)偐傜墑乆偲懕偔嵒偺夞楲僟僼僫嵐敊(Dahna')偼撿偵墑傃偰嬻敀抧懷(Empty Quarter)偵堸傒崬傑傟偰嫃傞丅抧尦偱偼扨偵儕儅儖(al-Rimal)the sands丄嵒媢抧懷乯偲屇偽傟傞嬻敀抧懷偼悽奅拞偱嵟傕戝偒側楢懕偡傞嵒嵐敊偱偁傞丅崱擔挱傔傜傟傞嵒媢抧懷偼嵟嬤偺嬌抂偵姡憞偟偨悢悽婭偺娫偵晽偵悂偐傟偰堏摦偟偨嵒偵昞柺傪暍傢傟偰偄傞偑峏怴悽乮Pleistocene丄戞巐婜峖愊悽160枩擭慜偐傜10枩擭慜乯偵婲偒偨悢搙偺姡憞偟偨帪戙偵宍惉偝傟偨嵐敊傪戙昞偟偰偄傞丅嬻敀抧懷偺杦偳傪暍偆尰嵼偺搚忞偼嵒媢抧懷偱偁傝丄慛怴悽乮Pliocene丄戞嶰婜嵟怴悽500枩擭慜偐傜160枩擭慜乯屻婜偍傛傃峏怴悽乮Pleistocene丄戞巐婜峖愊悽乯慜婜偺幖偭偨帪戙偵悈偺棳傟偱懲愊憌偑嶌傜傟偨丅偙偺嵒媢抧懷偼偙偺懲愊憌偑姡憞偟偰幚嵺偵宍惉偝傟偰偄傞丅惣晹抧堟偱偼僀儞僪梞偐傜悂偄偰偔傞戩墇晽偑悢昐僉儘傕墑傃傞備傞傗偐偵婲暁偡傞嵒偺旜崻乮巹偼嵒媢楍偲屇傇乯傪嶌傝弌偟偨丅旜崻偺娫偵暯峴偵暲傇夞楲偱偼斾妑揑梕堈偵椃偑弌棃傞丅拞墰抧堟偱偼嵒媢抧懷偺宍偼傕偭偲暋嶨偱梊應偟擄偄偑嵟傕寑揑側挱朷偑尒傜傟傞偺偼搶晹抧堟偱偁傞丅悢昐僼傿乕僩偺崅偝偺愒偄嵒嶳偑懢屆偺奀掙偱偁偭偨暯傜側敀偄娷墫暯抧偐傜偦傃偊棫偭偰偄傞丅

 

僌僂儚僪(Quwwad) 巌椷姱払(Commanders )

 

僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujaray) 僌僛儔乕僩乮僌僕儍儔乕僩乯(Guzerat or Gujarat)偼僀儞僪惣晹偺僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujarati)岅偺巊梡偝傟傞抧堟偱丄乽僌儖僕儍儔懓(Gujjar or Gurjar)偺抧乿偲偄偆堄枴偱偁傞丅抧恾忋偱偼丄傾儔價傾奀(Arabian Sea)偵撍偒弌偨僒僂儔僔儏乕僩儔敿搰 (Saurashtra Peninsula)乮僇乕僥傿儎儚乕儖敿搰(Kathiawar Peninsula)乯偲偦偺晅偗崻晹暘偵偁偨傝丄敿搰忬偺僀儞僪垷戝棨 (Indian subcontinent)偺杒惣偺晅偗崻偱傕偁傞丅僌僕儍儔乕僩抧曽偼丄屆棃偐傜惣傾僕傾(Middle East or Near East)偲偺廳梫側岎堈抧偱偁偭偰丄僀儞僟僗暥柧(Indus Valley Civilization, mature period 2600 - 1900 BCE)偺峘榩搒巗偲偝傟傞儘乕僞儖乮Lothal乯傗嬤擭敪尒偝傟偨僪乕儔價乕儔乮Dholavira乯側偳偑塰偊丄偟偽偟偽杒僀儞僪傗僨僇儞抧曽(Deccan Platea)偺彅墹挬偺娫偱學憟抧偵側偭偨1悽婭偵偼丄僒僇懓(Saka)偲僒乕僞償傽乕僴僫挬(Satavahana Empire)8悽婭偐傜9悽婭偵偼丄杒僀儞僪傪巟攝偟偨僾儔僥傿僴乕儔挬(Pratihara778 - 1018)偲僨僇儞抧曽(Deccan Platea)傪巟攝偟偨儔乕僔儏僩儔僋乕僞挬(Rashtrakuta, 753 - 973)偑偦偺椞桳傪傔偖偭偰憟偭偨丅13悽婭偵偼僨儕乕丒僗儖僞儞挬(Dehli Sultanate1206 - 1526乯偺僴儖僕乕挬(Khalji, 1290 - 1320)偺壓偱儉僗儕儉乮僀僗儔儉嫵搆乯(Muslim)偑僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujarat)傪惇暈丄14悽婭偐傜傾僼儅僪 僔儍乕僸乕挬(Zafar Khan Muzaffar, his son Ahmed Shah, etc.)偑僨儕乕(Delhi)偐傜帺棫偟偰傾僼儅僟乕僶乕僪乮Ahmadabad乯傪庱搒偲偟偰塰偊偨偑丄16悽婭偵儉僈儖掗崙(Mughal Empire, 1526 - 1858)偵暪崌偝傟偨丅嬤戙偵偼僀儞僪撈棫偺晝儅僴僩儅丒僈儞僨傿乕乮Mahatma Gandhi乯偑偙偺抧曽偱惗傑傟偰偄傞丅僌僕儍儔乕僩偼僀儞僪撈棫屻偼媽儃儞儀僀(Bombay)廈偺堦晹偱偁偭偨偑丄1960擭偵媽儃儞儀僀(Bombay)廈偼尵岅偺堘偄偵傛偭偰杒偺僌僕儍儔乕僩廈(Gujarat)偲撿偺儅僴乕儔乕僔儏僩儔廈(Maharashtra)偵暘妱偝傟偨丅柺愊196,024 sq km丄恖岥偼50596992(2001)

 

僌僕儍儔乕僩恖(Gujarati) 僀儞僪惣晹偺廈偱僇儞儀僀(Cambay)榩偺杒偍傛傃搶傪愯傔傞媽儃儞儀僀(Bombay)廈偺撪丄僌僕儍儔乕僩岅抧堟偺廧恖丅

 

僋僔儏(Kush) 尰嵼偺撿僄僕僾僩(Southern Egypt)偲杒僗乕僟儞(Northen Sudan)偵摉偨傞杒傾僼儕僇偺僰價傾(Nubia)抧曽傪拞怱偵斏塰偟偨偺偑僋僔儏暥柧(Civilization of Kush)偱偁傞丅偙傟偼嵟傕憗偄帪戙偵僫僀儖愳(The Nile)棳堟偱敪払偟偨暥柧偺堦偮偱偁傞丅僋僔儏恖偺崙偼僄僕僾僩偺椞堟撪傊偺恑擖偺帪婜偺屻偱敪揥偟偨丅僋僔儏偺暥壔偼丄暲懚偟偰偄偨婜娫偼抁偄偑丄僄僕僾僩怴墹崙(c. 1570B.C. - c.1070B.C.)偲憡屳偵塭嬁傪梌偊崌偭偰偄偨丅偙偺暥柧偵梌偊傜傟偨柤慜偼丄媽栺惞彂偵弎傋傜傟偨搶杒傾僼儕僇偵堏廧偟偨僴儉(Ham)偺懅巕偺堦恖僋僔儏(Kush)偵桼棃偟偰偄傞丅惞彂偐傜丄僄僕僾僩撿晹偲僄僠僆僺傾偺堦晹傪娷傓戝偒側抧堟偑僋僔儏墹崙偲偟偰抦傜傟偰偄偨偙偲偑傢偐傞丅惞彂偼偟偽偟偽僋僔儏墹崙偵偮偄偰尵媦偟偰偄傞丅偙偺僋僔儏墹崙偲偄偆偺偼撿傾儔價傾偵偁偭偨偲庡挘偡傞恖傕偄傞丅乮僋僔僥偲傕揮幨偝傟偰偄傞丅乯(僂傿僉儁僨傿傾)

 

僋僗(Qus) 僄僕僾僩撿晹僫僀儖宬扟(Nile Valley)偺慡挿傪愯傔傞働僫導(Quna Governorate)偺導挕偱丄僫僀儖惣娸偵偁傝丄懳娸偵偼屆戙偺僎僒(Gesa)偑偁偭偨丅屆戙偵偼峠奀傊偺拞宲抧偲偟偰廳梫偱偁偭偨丅

 

僌僘(Al Quz) 僌僘(Al Quz)偼僌儞僼僟乕(Qunfudhah)偺撿搶31km偵埵抲偡傞熆傟扟儎僶乕乮Wadi Yabah乯杒娸偺埵抲偡傞儊僢僇廈(Emirate of Makkah)偺挰偱奀娸摴楬偼偙偺曈傝偱偼撪棨偵彮偟擖傝崬傫偱嫃傝丄挰偼摴楬偐偐傜奀娸曽岦偵彮偟惣偵擖偭偨応強偵偁傞丅熆傟扟儎僶乕偺撿搶偺懳娸偵偼僥傿僴儅乕 奀娸掅抧(the coastal Tihamah lowlands)偵嶶嵼偡傞偦偺摿挜偱傕偁傞彫梠娾懷偲壩岥媢偑偁傞丅

 

僌僛儔乕僩(Guzerat) 乮僌僕儍儔乕僩(Gujaray)嶲徠丅乯

 

僋僢僶僩 傾僔儍儔(Kubbat Asharah) 愄偺塸崙戝巊娰偱尰嵼偺僕僃僢僟巗挕幧偺偁傞応強偺捈偖撿偺奀娸偵偼擭娫600m3傪惗嶻偟偰偄偨扙墫憰抲偑抲偐傟偨丅扐偟丄乽1940擭戙屻敿偵揚嫀偝傟偨嬅弅婍偺屻偵扙墫僾儔儞僩偑寶愝偝傟偨乿偲偺婰帠傪巹偼妋擣偟偰偄側偄偑丄乽1971擭偵擭娫600m3傪惗嶻偟偰偄偨乿偲傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑 (Dr. Angelo Pesce)偼婰弎偟偰偄傞丅

 

僋僩僁僽 僨傿儞(Qutb ad-Din) 16悽婭偺楌巎壠偱杮柤偼儉僴儞儅僪 僀僽儞 傾僴儅僪 僫僴儖儚儕(Muhammad ibn Ahmad an-Nahrwali)偱偁傝丄1511擭崰儊僢僇(Mecca)偱惗傑傟丄僕僢僟巗(Jeddah)偺憂愝偵娭偡傞屆暥傪巆偟偰偄傞丅

 

僌僩儔(Ghutrah) 僗儅僟(Sumadah)傪嶲徠丅

 

乽崙乆偺抦幆偺堊偺嵟揔側堦暥乮Fairest Division for Knowledge of Countries乯乿丗 傾儖-儅僋僨傿僔乮al-Makdisi乯偺挊彂偱儌僗儗儉掗崙偵偮偄偰榑偠偰偄傞丅惓妋偵昐壢帿揟揑偵嬃偔傎偳嵟怴偺庤朄偱榑偠偰偄傞丅傾儖-儅僋僨傿僔偺挊彂偺揙掙揑偵宯摑揑側惓妋偝偑丄帪戙傪墇偊偰丄傾儖-儅僋僨傿僔傪傾儔價傾抧棟妛幰偺嵟傕庡梫側恖暔偲偟偰埵抲偮偗偰偄傞丅

 

乽崙乆偺杮(Book of the Countries)乿丗 儎僋價 (Yakubi)挊偺乽僉僞僽 傾儖-僽儖僟儞(Kitab al-Buldan)乮崙乆偺杮乯乿偼僂傿僩(G. Wiet)偑東栿偟1937擭偵僇僀儘偱弌斉偝傟偰偄傞丅乮Yakubi Les Pays tr. by G. Wiet. Cairo 1937)

 

僋乕僼傽懱(Kufic Script) 尨揟僐乕儔儞偺偐偐傟偨傾儔價傾暥帤偺彂懱丅

 

僋乕僼傽暥帤(Kufic Script) 僐僂僼傿 儌僗僫僪庤朄(Koufi osnad Handwriting)偁傞偄偼僐僼傿恾埬(Cofi's Patterns)偲傕屇偽傟丄婭尦慜115擭偐傜婭尦14擭偵嵼偭偨僿儅僀乕儖崙(Hemair State)偱巊傢傟偨丅偙傟傜偺恾埬偺扨暥(simples)傗壧彞(sings)偼偙傟傜偑傾儔價傾岅偲嬤偄偺偱夝柧偝傟偰偄偨丅(乽僸儉儎儖偲僿儅僀乕儖乿傪嶲徠)

 

僋儀僶(Cubeb) 僸僢僠儑僂僇(Java Pepper)偺幚偱崄枴椏丒栻梡丒挷枴椏偲偟偰巊傢傟傞丅

 

僋儈儞(Cummin) 僙儕壢偺堦擭憪偱庬巕偱僇儗乕暡偺尨椏偵偡傞懠丄僗儁僀儞椏棟丄僠乕僘丒僜乕僙乕僕壛岺摍偵巊傢傟傞崄枴椏偱栻梡偵傕巊傢傟傞丅

 

僌儉儖僋(Gumruk) 娭惻(Customs)

 

僌儉儖僋僕僀(Gumrukdjy)丗惻姱棛丅

 

僋儔僀僔(Quraishi) 僋儔僀僔儏懓(QuraishQuraysh)偼傾儔僽壔偟偨儊僢僇乮Mecca乯偺桳椡晹懓偱偁傝丄僀僗儔儉埲慜偵儅僢僇(Makkah)乕偐傜僀僄儊儞乮Yemen乯傊岎堈偡傞戉彜傪塩傫偱偄偨丅枖丄梐尵幰偺弌恎晹懓偱傕偁傞丅

 

僋儔僀儎僩(Al Qurayyat) 僋儔僀儎僩偼僒僂僕傾儔價傾偺儓儖僟儞(Jordan)偲偺惣晹崙嫬偺挰偱屆棃偐傜抧拞奀増娸(the Mediterranean)偲傾儔價傾敿搰拞墰晹傗撿晹傪寢傇廳梫側戉彜楬(An Important Caravan Route)偱偁偭偨戝夞楲偺孍抧 儚僨傿儖 僔乕儖僴儞 (Wadi'l-Sirhan)偺梫抧偱偁偭偨丅僋儔僀儎僩(Al Qurayyat)偼墫偺嶻抧偲偟偰傕桳柤偱偁傝丄儓儖僟儞(Jordan)偲偺惣晹崙嫬偑慡偰僋儔僀儎僩廈(Al Qurayyat Governorate)偲偟偰撈棫偟偰偄偨帪戙偵偼廈搒偱傕偁偭偨丅尰嵼偱傕僋儔僀儎僩(Al Qurayyat)偼崙嫬偺挰偲偟偰廳梫偱偁傞偲摨帪偵偙偺抧堟偱惙傫側擾嬈q抺偺拞怱偱傕偁傞丅僋儔僀儎僩(Al Qurayyat)Al `Aqaylah, Al `Uqaylah, Al `Uqaylah Kaf, Al `Uqaylah Kāf, Al-`Akejla, An Nabk, An Nabk Abu Nakhlah, Nabek摍偲傕揮幨偝傟偰棃偰偍傝丄偦偺岅尮偼偼偭偒傝偟側偄偑乽懞棊W棊乿傪堄枴偡傞岅偱偼側偄偐偲巹偼巚偭偰偄傞丅

 

僌儔僫僟(Granada) 僗儁僀儞撿晹抧拞奀増娸偺傾儞僟儖僔傾(Andalicia)抧曽偺挰偱儉乕傾恖(Moor)偺僌儔僫僟墹崙(Emirate of Granada, 1228 - 1492乯偺庱搒偱僗儁僀儞(Spain)偵偍偗傞儉乕傾恖嵟屻偺嫆傝強偱偁偭偨丅14悽婭偵姰惉偟偨乽愒偄忛乿傪堄枴偡傞僀僗儔儉嫵搆偺墹媨傾儖僴儞僽儔媨揳(Alhambra)偑偁傞丅

 

僌儔僫僟墹崙(Emirate of Granada) 僗儁僀儞(Spain)撿晹偺抧拞奀増娸偵偁偭偨儉乕傾恖(Moor)偺墹崙乮惣楋1228擭偐傜惣楋1492擭乯偱偁偭偨丅摨柤偺挰偼尦僌儔僫僟墹崙偺庱搒偱丄僗儁僀儞偵偍偗傞儉乕傾恖嵟屻偺嫆傝強偱偁偭偨丅

 

僌儔儖僟僼傿枽(Cape Guardafui) 僜儅儕傾杒搶晹偺枽偱丄傾僨儞(Aden)榩偺撿偺擖傝岥偵偁偨傞丅

 

僋儕傾儉儕傾彅搰(Kuria Muria Islamds) 傾儔價傾奀(Arabian Sea)偺僆儅乕儞(Oman)撿惣娸壂偵埵抲偡傞僆儅乕儞椞偺5偮偺搰丅

 

僋儕儈傾敿搰(Crimea) 僂僋儔僀僫嫟榓崙(Ukrainian People's Republic)偵偁傝丄暆5-8km偺儁儗僐乕僽抧嫭(Isthmus of Perekop)偵傛偭偰戝棨偲偮側偑偭偰偄傞丅埵抲偼丄杒堒4423-4423暘乮栺322km乯丄搶宱3230-3230暘乮栺177km乯偱丄柺愊偼丄栺26100km2偱偁傞丅

 

僋儖僓乕僪(Cruzado) 億儖僩僈儖(Portugal)偺愄偺嬥壿偱棤柺偵廫帤壦偺恾埬偑晅偄偰偄偨丅幚懱偺壙抣偺億儖僩僈儖扨埵偺傑偲傑傝偱偁傞丅

 

僋儖僔儏僫愳(The Krishna or River Krishna) 僀儞僪撿晹惣僈乕僣嶳柆(Western Ghats)偐傜搶偵棳傟儀儞僈儖榩偵拲偖丅媽徧偼僉僗僩僫(Kistan)愳偲塢偆丅

 

僋乕儖儅乕(Al-Khurmah) 儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)搶晹偺僴僟儞梠娾抧懷(Harrat Hadan)偲僫儚僔僼梠娾懷(Harrat Nawasif)偺擇偮偺壩嶳嶳柆偵嫴傑傟偨扟乮熆傟扟僗僶僀乯偐傜暯抧傊偺搶弌岥晅嬤傪彮偟撿偵擖偭偨擾懞偱丄乽嫹娫乿傪堄枴偡傞柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僋儗僆僷僩儔(Cleopatra) 僋儗僆僷僩儔7悽僼傿儘僷僩儖(Cleopatra VII Philopator , 69 - 30 B.C.)偼屆戙僄僕僾僩偺僾僩儗儅僀僆僗挬(Ptolemaic dynasty, 305 B.C to 30 B.C)嵟屻偺彈墹(51 B.C - 49 B.C, 48 B.C – 30 B.C)偱丄僕儏儕傾僗 僔乕僓乕(Julius Caesar, 100 or 102 B.C - 44.B.C)偲儅儖僋僗 傾儞僩僯僂僗(Mark Antony, 83 B.C - 30 B.C)偺垽恖偱傕偁偭偨丅

 

僋儘僥儞偺栄旂(Sable) 僀僞僠壢偱丄摢摲挿40cm丄旜挿15cm掱丄庤怓偼崟側偄偟埫妼怓偱儓乕儘僢僷丒傾僕傾偺杒晹偵暘晍偟丄偦偺栄旂偼僙乕僽儖偲屇偽傟丄嵟崅媺昳丅

 

僋儘乕僽(Clove) 僋儘乕僽乮Syzygium aramaticumSyn. Eugenia aromaticaClove乯偼僼僩儌儌壢偺怉暔偱丄偦偺奐壴慜偺壴錛傪姡憞偝偣偨崄恏椏偺柤偱偁傞丅儌儖僢僇孮搰(Maluku Islands, Moluccas, Moluccan Islands or  Spice Islands)偑尨嶻抧偱丄擔杮偱偼挌巕乮偪傚偆偠乯丄挌崄乮偪傚偆偙偆乯偲傕屇偽傟傞丅擏椏棟偵傛偔巊傢傟傞偑丄懠偺崄恏椏偲僽儗儞僪偟偰巊梡偡傞偙偲偑懡偄丅惗栻偲偟偰偺壴錛傪挌巕乮偪傚偆偠乯傑偨偼挌崄乮偪傚偆偙偆乯偲偄偆偙偲傕偁傝丄朏崄寬堓嵻偱偁傞丅

 

僋儚僀僀儎(Al Quwayiyah)丗僋儚僀僀儎偼熆傟扟僋儚僀僀儎(Wadi Al Quwayiyah)傪嫴傫偱儕儎僪(Riyadh)偺惣170 km丄僩儚僀僋嶳柆(Tuwaiq escarpment)偺惣抂偐傜100 km偺応強偵偁傞丅偙偙偵偼峖悈偐傜挰傪庣傝丄擾嬈梡悈傪妋曐偡傞堊偺僟儉偑憿傜傟丄揔摉側戝偒偝偺擾抧偑熆傟扟偺椉懁偵峀偑偭偰嫃傞丅傾儔價傾榩娸偐傜懕偄偰偒偨拞悽戙偺峀戝側懲愊憌偼偙偙偱廔傢傝丄偙傟傛傝惣偺戝抧偼傾儔價傾弬忬抧偲側傝丄埫偄媢偺楢側傝偑尰傟偰棃傞丅偙偙傑偱偺搶偺戝抧偼暯偱丄悈暯偱怓偑敄偐偭偨偑偙偙偐傜惣偼埫偄奃怓丄埫偄椢傗崟偄媢偺楢側傝偵曄傢傞丅偙傟傜偺媢偼僊僓僊僓偺妏傪帩偪丄棎嶨偱愲偭偰嫃傞丅

 

僋儚儅乕(Al Quwamah) 擕崄偺摴偱價僔儍乕(Bishah)丄僕儍儔僽(Jarab)偲僩儖僶乕(Turubah)偺娫偺傾儖 僽僌儉梠娾抧懷傪捠夁偡傞搑拞偵偁傞儊僢僇廈(Makkah Province)懁偺晹棊偱嵢偵懳偡傞晇偺棫応偱偺曐岇幰丒屻尒恖(Guardianship)偲偺堄枴偺柤偑晅偗傜傟偰偄傞丅

 

僋儞僼儞僟(Al-Qunfundah or Confuda)  峠奀娸偺僕僢僟(Jiddah)撿栺230倠倣偵偁傝丄儊僢僇廈(Emirate of Makkah)偵懏偟丄熆傟扟僈僰僫乕(Wadi Qanunah)偺壨岥偺挰偱偁傞丅婭尦慜24擭偐傜峴傢傟偨僈儖僗(Aelius Gallus)偑巜婗偡傞儘乕儅掗崙孯偺屆戙撿傾儔價傾墦惇偱偼乽晉桾側傾儔價傾(Arabian Felix)乿偁傞偄偼K暉側傾儔價傾虌A搑偵捠夁偟丄7偮偺堜屗偑偁偭偨偺偱僿僾僞-僼僃儗傾僞(Hepta Phreata)偲屇偽傟偰偄偨丅僆僗儅儞僩儖僐乮Ottoman Turkey乯偺帪戙傗僒僂僨傿傾儔價傾弶婜偵敪峴偝傟偨屆偄彫愗庤摍傕曐懚偝傟偰偄傞偺偱偙偺曈傝偺摑帯偺拞怱偱偁偭偨敜偱偁傞偑丄偙偺挰偑偳偺條側楌巎傪曕傫偱棃偨偺偐偄傑偩偵暥專傪巹偼扵偟弌偣側偄偱偄傞丅尰嵼偺挰暲傒偱偼栭娫徠柧偺偁傞僒僢僇乕応偲偦傫側偵戝偒偔柍偄偺偵墦偔偐傜偼崅憌價儖偲尒娫堘偊偨媼悈搩偑栚棫偮懚嵼偱偁傞丅熆傟扟僈僰僫乕(Wadi Qanunah)偺壨岥偺撿偱偼嵒抧偐傜娷墫暯抧(SabkhaSalt Flat)偵曄傢傝丄挰奜傟偵SCECO偺敪揹強偑偁傞丅

 

 

宩旂丒擏宩旂(Cinnamon) 擏宩偼僋僗僲僉壢偺忢椢崅栘偱僀儞僪僔僫(Indochine)尨嶻偺崄恏椏怉暔偱偁傝丄崅偝10m丄庽旂偼椢崟怓偱朏崄偲恏枴偑偁傝丄梩偼妚幙偱岤偔丄挿懭墌宍丄6寧崰梩泓偵扺墿怓偺彫壴傪偮偗丄懭墌宍崟怓偺妀壥傪寢傇丄偙偺庽旂乮宩旂乯傪姡憞偝偣偨偺偑僯僢僉乮僔僫儌儞乯偱偁傝丄崄恏椏丒寬堓栻丒嫺枴嫺廘栻偲偟偰巊傢傟丄枖丄宩旂桘傪庢傞丅傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑 (Dr. Angelo Pesce)偼乽擏宩旂(Cinnamon)偁傞偄偼敀宩(Canella)乮僴僢働僀丄惣報搙彅搰嶻偺擏宩偵帡偨栘乯偼僙僀儘儞搰尨嶻偺怉暔(Cinnamomum zeilanicum)偺彫巬偺愙抧埥偄偼愙抧偟偰側偄庽旂乿偲愢柧偟偰偄傞丅

 

KAIA 儕儎僪崙嵺嬻峘(King Abdul Aziz International Airport, Riyadh)

 

KFIA 僟儞儅儞崙嵺嬻峘(King Fahad International Airport, Damman)

 

栄怐暔(Woollens) 梤丒閜閗摍偺摦暔偺栄偱嶌偭偨巺偱怐偭偨怐暔偱梾幯(raxa)丒僱儖(flannel)丒僙儖(serge)摍偺椶丅

 

KKIA 僕僃僢僟崙嵺嬻峘(King Khalid International Airport, Jeddah)

 

働僔儏儉搰(Island of Qeshm) 儂儖儉僘(Hormuz)奀嫭偵偁傞僀儔儞椞偺搰丅

 

働僔儏儗(Keshre) 摛偺旂(Skin of Bean)偐傜嶌偭偨戙梡僐乕僸乕丅

 

僎僕儔抧堟(Gezira) 僗僟乕儞搶晹敀僫僀儖(White Nile)愳偲惵僫僀儖(Blue Nile)愳偵嫴傑傟偨抧堟偱戝婯柾側燇燆寁夋偵傛傝擾嬈抧堟偲側偭偨丅枖丄16悽婭偐傜19悽婭偵妡偗偰墹崙(Funj Sultanate of Sinnar, 1504 - 1821)偑塰偊偨丅GeziraAl JazirahSinnaSennar偲傕揮幨偝傟傞丅

 

僎僢儖僴(Gerrha) 乮僕儍儖僴(Gerrha)傪嶲徠丅乯

 

僎僥傿儞僎儞(Göttingen) 僪僀僣偺僯乕僟乕僓僋僙儞(NiedersachsenLower Saxony)廈偵偁傞巗偱恖岥13枩恖丄拞悽僴儞僓摨柨偺桳椡搒巗丅

 

働僪儔僷僀僾(Kedra) 媔墝偵巊傢傟傞儁儖僔儍僷僀僾(Persian Pipe)偵偼働僪儔(Kedra)丄僔僔儍(Shishe)偍傛傃僽儕(Bury)偺嶰庬椶偑偁傝丄働僪儔(Kedra)偑嵟戝偱嶰媟偺忋偵抲偐傟偰偄傞丅偙傟偼忢偵僉僠儞偲杹偐傟丄屄恖偺壠偺拞偱偟偐尒妡偗傞帠偼柍偄丅

 

働僯傾(Kenya) 傾僼儕僇搶晹丄愒摴忋偵偁傝丄1895擭埲棃塸曐岇椞丄1963擭偵撈棫丄塸楢朚偵懏偟丄僐乕僸乕丄拑傪嶻偟丄娤岝嬈偑惙傫丄柺愊58km2丄恖岥3,052枩恖(1995)丄庱搒偼僫僀儘價(Nairobi)

 

働僯懓(Kenite) 儐僟儎嫵偺惞彂(Hebrew Bible)偵傛傟偽働僯懓(Kenite or Cinites)偼僕僃僗儘(Jethro)偺巟攝偺壓偵惞怑幰儈僨傿傾儞(Midian)傊憲傜傟偨屆戙儗償傽儞僩抧曽(Ancient Levant)偺梀杚柉偺堦栧偱偁傞丅働僯懓偼屆戙僀僗儔僄儖偺楌巎偱廳梫側栶妱傪墘偠偨丅働僯懓偼摵嵶岺巘傗嬥懏嵶岺巘偱偁偭偨丅儌乕僛(Moses)偺媊棟偺晝僕僃僗儘(Jethro)偼梤帞偄偱働僯懓偺惞怑幰偱偁偭偨丅働僯懓偼柧傜偐偵僀僗儔僄儖恖幮夛偵摨壔偟偰偄偨偑丄峳栰偱揤枊惗妶偟堸庰傪偟側偐偭偨儗僇僽恖(Rechabite)偺巕懛偱偁傝丄偐側傝挿偄娫僴僢僉儕偟偨曻杚惗妶傪堐帩偟偰偄偨丅儌乕僛偼柧傜偐偵僕僃僗儘(Jethro)偺恄偺奣擮僄儖 僔儍僢僟僀(El Shaddai)傪僀僗儔僄儖恖偺恄儎僴僂僃(Yahaweh)偲摨堦帇偟偰偄偨丅働僯懓偺壇應偵傛傟偽乽儎僴僂僃(Yahaweh)偼尦乆丄働僯懓偺懓恄偱偁傝丄儐僟儎恖(Hebrews)偵傛偭偰庢傝擖傟傜傟丄弴墳偝偣傜傟偨丅(弌揟丗 Wikipedia

 

働僽儔 僫僈僗僩(Kebra Nagast) 乽墹払偺塰岝偺彂(The Kebra Nagast or the Book of the Glory of Kings)乿偼僴僀儗 僙儔僔僄峜掗(Haile Selassie, A.D.1941 - A.D.1974)偱抦傜傟傞僄僠僆僺傾掗崙(Emperors of EthiopiaA.D. 1270 - A.D. 1974)偺屆戙僀僗儔僄儖墹(Kingdom of Israel, c. 1050 BCE - c. 930 BCE)僜儘儌儞(Solomon, 971 - 931 BCE)宯晥偺寣摑傪尰嵼偺僄儕僩儕傾(Eritrea)偍傛傃杒晹僄僠僆僺傾(Northern Ethiopia)偱巊傢傟偰偄偨屆戙撿僙儉岅(South Semitic language)偺堦偮偱偁傞僎乕僘岅(Ge'ez)偱彂偄偨婰弎偱偁傞丅尰懚偟偰偄傞斉偼彮側偔偲傕700擭慜偺彂偱丄懡偔偺僄僠僆僺傾 僉儕僗僩嫵搆傗儔僗僞僼傽傾儞嫵搆(Rastafarians)偵偲偭偰偼乽恄楈傪姶偠丄偨傛傝偲側傞婰弎偱偁傞乿偲峫偊傜傟偰偄傞丅偙偺婰弎偵偼乽偳偺條偵僔僶偺彈墹(Queen of Sheba)偑僜儘儌儞墹(Solomon)偲夛偭偨偺偐乿丄乽僜儘儌儞墹偲僔僶偺彈墹偲偺娫偵惗傑傟丄婭尦慜204 - 婭尦慜179擭崰偵帯悽傪峴偭偨偲揱偊傜傟傞僄僠僆僺傾弶戙墹儊僱儕僋1悽乮Menelik I乯偑偳偺條偺僴儅僔僄儞(Hamasien)偱惗傑傟丄僄僠僆僺傾傊亀廫夲偑崗傑傟偨愇斅傪廂傔偨惞烠乮偣偄傂偮乯(the Ark of the Covenant)亁傪塣傫偩偺偐乿摍偺婰弎傪娷傓偽偐傝偱偼柍偔丄乽僄僠僆僺傾偺柉(Ethiopians)偑懢梲丒寧丒惎悞攓怣嬄偐傜僀僗儔僄儖偺恄(the "Lord God of Israel".)偺怣嬄偵夵廆偟偨偺偐乿偲塢偆婰弎傕娷傫偱偄傞丅乽働僽儔 僫僈僗僩偼扨偵暥妛嶌昳偱偼柍偔丄僿僽儔僀恖偵偲偭偰偺媽栺惞彂(the Old Testament to the Hebrews)偱偁傝丄傗傾儔僽恖偵偲偭偰偺僋儖傾乕儞(the Qur'an to the Arabs)偱偁傝丄僄僠僆僺傾恖偺崙柉姶忣偲廆嫵姶偺埨抲強偱偁傞乿偲塢偆恖傕偄傞丅

 

僎儖僴儖僩 儘乕儖僼僗(Gerhard Rohlfs) 僪僀僣偺扵専壠(1831 - 1896) 杒傾僼儕僇丒僒僴儔丒僫僀僕僃儕傾傪扵専偟丄僪僀僣峜掗偺埾戸傪庴偗偰儚僟僀(Wadai)偲傾價僔僯傾(Abyssinia)偵墦惇偟丄扵専婰(Drei Monate in der Libyschen Wüste (1875)Quid novi ex Africa?(!886))摍傪彂偄偨丅

 

僎儖儔(Gerrha) 乮僕儍儖僴(Gerrha)傪嶲徠丅乯

 

働儖儞(Cologne) 僪僀僣惣晹僲乕僗 儔僀儞 僂僃僗僩僼傽儕傾(North Rhine-Westphalia)廈偺儔僀儞愳(the Rhine)偵椪傓巗乮96枩乯丅

 

働儗僀僗(Kheleys) 僕僢僟(Jeddah)偲儊僨傿僫(Medina  or Madinah)偺娫偺儊僨傿僫摴楬増偄偺廤棊丅

 

 

僑傾(Goa) 僀儞僪撿惣偺儅儔僶儖奀娸(Malabar Coarst)偵椪傓廈偱廈搒偼恖岥4.3枩恖偺峘挰僷僫僕(Panaji)偱僷儞僕儉(Panjim)偲傕塢偆丅僑傾偼傾儔價傾攏傪僀儞僪傊桝擖偡傞棨梘偘抧偱偁傝丄儅儔僶儖奀娸(Malabar Coarst) 偺憿慏拞怱抧偺1偮偱偁偭偨丅偦偺忋丄搰偵埵抲偟偰偄偨偺偱丄傾儖儃働儖働(Alboquerque)偺寁夋偵偼岲搒崌偱偁偭偨丅傾儖儃働儖働偼1510擭偵嵟弶偺峌寕偵惉岟偟偨偑丄捈偖偵堷偒忋偘偨丅偟偐偟側偑傜丄傾儖儃働儖働偼摨偠擭抶偔偵孯傪堷偒曉偟丄寖偟偄愴偄偺屻偵塱媣偵愯嫆偟丄捈偪偵偙偺巗傪億儖僩僈儖偺嫆揰偵曄姺偟偨丅僑傾偼億儖僩僈儖僀儞僪掗崙(Portuguese India)偺庱搒偲偟偰19611218擔傑偱億儖僩僈儖椞偱偁偭偨丅偙偺帪傑偱偵僑傾偼僑傾偦傟帺恎偍傛傃僟儅儞(Damão)偲僨傿僂(Diu)2偮偺彫偝側椞抧偵弅傑傝丄摨1961擭偵屘僀儞僪庱憡僱乕儖(Jawahrlal Nehru)偑偙傟傜偺椞抧傪暪崌偟丄僀儞僪椞偲惉偭偨丅

 

乽僑傾偐傜僗僄僘偡側傢偪峠奀傊偺峲奀擔帍乿丗 乽僑傾偐傜僗僄僘偡側傢偪峠奀傊偺峲奀擔帍 (Roteiro de Goa a Suez ou do Mar Roxo)乿偼1541擭偵乽僕儑傾儞 僇僗僩儘峲奀擔帍戞III(Roteiros de D. João de Castro - III)乿偲偟偰嶌惉偝傟丄弶斉偼僯儏僄僗 僇儖償傽儖儂(A. Nunes de Carvalho)偵傛偭偰丄1833擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偨丅偝傜偵1940擭偵偼僼僅儞僩僂儔 僐僗僞(A. Fontoura da Costa)曇廤偱儕僗儃儞偱弌斉偝傟偨(ed. by A. Fontoura da Costa. Lisboa 1940.)

 

(Incense) 崄栘傑偨偼庬乆偺崄椏傪楙傝崌傢偣偨傕偺丅

 

峠奀(Red Sea or Sinus Arabicus) 傾僼儕僇搶杒晹偲傾儔價傾敿搰偲偵嫴傑傟偨榩偱偁傞丅乽僄儕儏僩僁儔乕奀(Erythraean Sea)乿偲傕尵偆丅柺愊438,000km2丄暯嬒怺搙491m丅奀悈偼姡憞偲擔嵎偟偵傛傞嫮偄忲敪嶌梡乮彮側偄崀塉乯傪庴偗丄巐婫偵搉偭偰棳擖偡傞壨愳偑柍偔丄僀儞僪梞(Indian Ocean)偲偼尷傜傟偨弞娐偟偐柍偄摍偵傛傝墫暘擹搙偑3.6%3.8%偲崅偄丅杒晹偵偼僔僫僀敿搰(Sinai Penins)偑偁傝丄僠儔儞奀嫭(Straits of Tiran)傪捠偠偰傾僇僶榩(Gulf of Aqaba)偲偮側偑偭偰偄傞丅傑偨丄杒惣晹偵偼僗僄僘榩(Gulf of Suez)偑偁傝丄僗僄僘榩偼僗僄僘塣壨(Suez Canal)傪宱偰抧拞奀(Mediterranean sea)偲偮側偑偭偰偄傞丅傑偨丄撿晹偼僶僽丒僄儖丒儅儞僨僽奀嫭(Strait of Bab el Mandeb)傪宱偰傾僨儞榩(Gulf of Aden)偲偮側偑偭偰偄傞丅堟撪偵偼戝偒側搰涀偼柍偔丄増娸晹偵彫搰涀偑悢懡偔偁傞丅偦偺戙昞揑側傕偺偲偟偰偼僄儕僩儕傾(Eritrea)偺僟僼儔僋彅搰(Dahlak Archipelago)丄僒僂僕傾儔價傾(Saudi Arabia)偺僼傽儔僒儞彅搰(Farasan Islands)丄僀僄儊儞(Yemen)偺僇儅儔儞搰(Kamaran Island)側偳偑偁傞丅栚棫偭偨壨愳偑棳傟崬傫偱偄側偄偙偲傕偁傝奀悈偺摟柧搙偑崅偔丄屌桳庬傕懡偄偙偲偐傜僟僀僶乕偵偲偭偰摬傟偺懳徾偱偁傞丅偲傝傢偗丄僄僕僾僩(Egypt)偑偦偺壎宐傪嫕庴偟偰偄傞丅乮僂傿僉儁僨傿傾乯峠奀偼悈怺偑怺偔丄戝偒側悈偺弞娐偑偁傞偺偱嶺岃偵偲偭偰偼傾儔價傾榩(Arabian Gulf or Persian Gulf)傛傝偼傕偭偲埨掕偟偨奀梞娐嫬偱偁傝丄堦庬偺憯椶偺堊偵奀悈偺怓偑峠傪掓偡傞帠偑偁傞偲偄偆丅

 

乽峠奀峲奀擔帍(Red Sea Roteiro)乿丗 1541擭丄僕儑傾儞 僇僗僩儘(Joān de Castro)挊丅

 

峲奀幰僿儞儕乕墹巕(Prince Henry the Navigator) 峲奀墹巕僄儞儕働(Henrique o Navegador)偼億儖僩僈儖墹僕儑傾儞堦悽(Joãn I)(1357 - 1433)偺墹巕(1394 - 1460)偱僕僽儔儖僞儖奀嫭(Strait of Gibraltar)杒傾僼儕僇娸偺僙僂僞(Ceuta)傪峌棯偟偰埲屻丄峲奀偺尋媶傗傾僼儕僇惣娸偺扵専偵恠椡偟丄億儖僩僈儖恖偺傾僼儕僇廃峲偍傛傃僀儞僪峲楬奐戱偺愭嬱丄曣崙偺妛弍丄暥壔偺怳嫽偵傕峷專偟偨丅扐偟丄屻偵晅偗傜傟偨偦偺偁偩柤(Sobriquet)偵傕偐偐傢傜偢丄僿儞儕乕墹巕偼奀梞帠嬈偺幚抧偺晹暘偵偼壛傢傜側偐偭偨丅

 

乽峠奀偲傾僨儞榩偺悈愭埬撪(Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot)乿丗 乽奀孯偺悈楬應検(Hydrographer)乿僀儞僌儔儞僪撿惣晹僒儅僙僢僩(Somerset)廈僩乕僩儞(Taunton)1967擭偵弌斉丄1971擭偵憹曗晅偒偱嵞斉丅

 

乽峠奀偲傾價僔僯傾乿丗 僨僯 僪僁 儕儃儚乕儖(Denis de Rivoyre)挊丄1880擭僷儕偱弌斉(De Revoyre, D. Mer Rouge et Abyssinie Paris 1880.)

 

乽峠奀偲傾價僔僯傾偺岎堈偵娭偡傞拲堄乿丗 (Notice sur le commerce de la Mer Rouge et de I'Abyssinie)偼僙僆僼傿儖 儖僼僃乕償儖(Thèophile Lefebvre)挊丄1845 - 1851擭偵僷儕偱弌斉偝傟偨乽1839擭偐傜1843擭偺傾價僔僯傾椃峴乿(Lefebvre, T. Voyage en Abyssinie executé pendant les années 1839 - 1843. Paris s.d. [1845 - 1851].)偺戞II(in Appendixs to t. II.)偺晅懏彂偱偁傞丅

 

乽峠奀偺椃峴婰(Red Sea Itineraries or Descriptio Maris Rubri)乿丗 儖僀僗 僨儖 儅儖儌儖 僇儖償傽僴儖(Luis del Mármol Carvajal)挊偺乽傾僼儕僇偺慡斒揑婰弎乮儌僴儊僢僩嫵偺憂愝偐傜1571擭傑偱偺愴憟偲惙悐偵偮偄偰乯(Descripción general de Africa, sus guerras y vicisitudes, desde la fundación del Mahometismo el aňo 1571)乿傪傾儞僩僯僂僗 儅僢僥僂僗(Antonius Mattaeus)偼梫栺偟丄乽峠奀偺椃峴婰(the Red Sea itineraries)乿偲塢偆戣偱儔僥儞岅(Latin)偵東栿偟丄1738擭偵僴乕僌(Hague)偱弌斉偟偨乽(Veteris Aevi Analecta)乿偺拞偱尵媦偟偰偄傞丅

 

屻婜僆儖僪儚儞暥壔(Developed Oldowan Types) 弶婜偺恖椶偱儂儌 僴僯儕僗 (Homo habilis) 偲抦傜傟偨媽恖椶偑200枩擭傛傝彮偟慜偵嵟弶偵尰傟丄敪揥偝偣偨傇偪愗傝婍丄懡柺懱丄挿墌懱丄墌斦摍傪惗傒弌偟偨屆愇婍暥壔丅

 

峠嬍悜(Cornelian) 愒囿囗丒僇乕僱儕傾儞(Carnelian).

 

峠拑(Tea) 拑偺庽偺庒梩傪揈傒庢傝丄敪峺偝偣傞偲峠妼怓偲側傝朏崄傪曻偪丄偙傟傪姡憞偟偨傕偺偱丄拑偲偟偰煿傟傞偲峠怓傪懷傃傞偺偱峠拑偲屇偽傟丄庡偲偟偰僀儞僪(India)傗僗儕儔儞僇(Sri Lanka)偱嶻偡傞丅

 

崄嵷(Coriander) 僙儕壢偺堦擭憪偱丄撿儓乕儘僢僷尨嶻偺崄枴椏丒栻梡怉暔偱崅偝30cm - 60cm丄宻丒梩偲傕摿堎側朏崄偑偁傝丄僇儗乕暡傗僋僢僉乕摍偺壛偊傞丅梩偼嵶楐偟偨塇忬暋梩偱丄屳惗丄壞丄彫敀壴傪暋嶻宍壴彉偵偮偗傞丅壥幚偼彫墌宍偱丄崄枴椏丒寬堓丒嫀醾栻偲偟偰梡偄傞丅崄嵷(Coriander)偼億儖僩僈儖岅偱偼僐僄儞僪儘(Coentro)偲塢偆丅

 

峏怴悽(Pleistocene) 164枩擭偐傜栺1枩擭慜傑偱偺抧幙擭戙偺堦嬫暘偱丄戞巐婭偺慜敿偵偁偨傞丅峖愊悽丄嵟怴悽丄昘壨帪戙偲傕傛偽傟傞丅儂儌丒僄儗僋僩僁僗(尨恖) (Homo erectus)偑弌尰偟丄尰戙恖偺抜奒傑偱恑壔偟偨帪戙偱偁傝丄峫屆妛忋偺曇擭偱偼媽愇婍帪戙偲撽暥帪戙憪憂婜偵憡摉偡傞丅

 

僐僂僼傿儎(Koufiyah) 傾儔僽懓偑摢忺傝(Headdress)偲偟偰梡偄傞對傗柸偺怓偲傝偳傝偺僱僢僇僠乕僼(Variegated Kerchiefs)

 

屻僂儅僀儎挬(Caliphate of Córdoba)  屻僂儅僀儎挬(Caliphate of Córdoba, 756  - 1031)偼僀儀儕傾敿搰(Iberia or Iberian Peninsula)偵嫽偭偨僀僗儔乕儉墹挬(Islamic dynasty)偱丄僂儅僀儎挬(Umayyad Dynasty, 661 - 750)偑傾僢僶乕僗挬(Abbasids, 750 - 1258)偵柵傏偝傟偨屻偵僂儅僀儎挬偺墹懓傾僽僪丒傾僢儔僼儅乕儞1悽乮Abd ar-Rahman I, 731 - 788乯偑756擭丄僐儖僪僶(Cordoba)傪搒偵偟偰撈棫偟偨丅怴僂儅僀儎挬丄傑偨偼塸庡傾僽僪 傾僢儔僼儅乕儞3(Abd-ar-Rahman III, 912 - 929)偑僇儕僼(Caliph)傪徧偟偨偙偲偐傜惣僇儕僼掗崙偲傕屇偽傟傞丅傾僽僪 傾僢儔僼儅乕儞3悽偼丄僼儔儞僋墹崙(Francs)乮僇儘儕儞僌挬(Carolingian Empire, 751 - 987)乯傗僲儖儅儞恖(Normanean)偺怤擖傪杊偄偱惃椡傪堐帩偡傞偺傒側傜偢丄僩儗僪乮Toledo乯峌棯側偳偺愴壥傕嫇偘偨丅妛寍偺拞怱抧偱傕偁偭偨僐儖僪僶偼儓乕儘僢僷彅崙偺棷妛惗傕寎偊擖傟偰戝偄偵斏塰偟偨丅僸僔儍乕儉2(976 – 1009, 1010 – 1013)偺帪戙偵偼丄嵣憡偱偐偮柤彨偱偁偭偨傾儖 儅儞僗乕儖(Al Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir)乮惣柤傾儖儅儞僜乕儖(Almansor))乯偑丄985擭偵僇僞儖乕僯儍(Catalunya)傑偱峌傔崬傒丄997擭偵偼僈儕僔傾(Galicia)偺堦晹傑偱愯椞偡傞惃偄傪帵偟偨丅偟偐偟丄傾儖 儅儞僗乕儖偑1002擭偵巰偸偲斵偺懅巕偨偪偺嵣憡埵憟偄偲僗儔僽宯偺崑懓偲僶儖儀儖宯(Berbers)偺崑懓偵傛傞僇儕僼埵偺梚棫崌愴丄宲彸憟偄偱29擭偺娫偵10恖偺僇儕僼偑懄埵偡傞偲偄偆撪桱偵傛偭偰悐戅偟丄傾儔僑儞墹崙(Crown of Aragon, 1035 -1715)丒僇僗僥傿乕儕儍墹崙(Kingdom of Castile, 1035 - 1715)偵埑敆偝傟傞偲偄偆奜姵偺枛丄1031擭偵嵟屻偺僇儕僼丄僸僔儍乕儉3(Hisham III, 1027 – 1031)偑朣偔側傞偲戝恇偨偪偵傛傞乽昡媍夛乿偵傛偭偰僇儕僼偺攑埵偑寛掕偝傟偰柵朣偟偨丅埲屻偼丄奺抧偺崑懓偨偪偑撈棫偟丄26偲傕30偲傕尵傢傟傞僞僀僼傽(Taifas)偲屇偽傟傞彅岒払偑暘楐妱嫆偡傞帪戙偲側傞丅乮僂傿僉儁僨傿傾摍乯

 

崄椏偺搚抧丗 Land of Spices.

 

彫宆偺僒儊(Dog-Fish) 増娸偵峀偔惐懅偡傞僩儔僓儊壢偺僒儊偱rough houndsanddog偲傕塢偆丅枖丄僣僲僓儊壢丄儊僕儘僓儊壢丄僩儔僓儊壢偺奺庬偺僒儊椶傪dog-fish倱偲憤徧偡傞帠傕偁傞丅

 

崙嵺帺慠曐岇楢崌(IUCN) International Union fro Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

 

崟抙(Ebony Wood) 僇僉僲僉壢(Ebenaceae)偺忢椢崅栘(Diospyros ebenum)丄僀儞僪撿晹偍傛傃僙僀儘儞搰尨嶻丄崅偝栺6m丄梩偼挿懭墌宍丄悈暯偺巬偵2楐偵屳惗丅弶壞丄梩泓偵扺墿怓偺奰偵帡偨壴傪奐偒丄帗梇摨姅丄塼壥偼媴宍丄嵽偼崟怓偱鉱枾丄婍嬶嵽偵徿梡丄塆暥栘丄塆栘丄崟栘丅

 

乽僐僕儍 傾僽僪儖 僇儕儉(Khoja Abdul Karim)偺峲奀偺婰榐偺塸栿乿丗 儁儖僔儍岅偐傜F. 僌儔僪僂傿儞(F. Gladwin)偵傛偭偰塸栿偝傟丄僇儖僇僢僞(Cakcutta)1783擭偵弌斉偝傟偨(Memoirs of Khojeh Abdul-Kurreem tr. from the original Persian by F. Gladwin. Calcutta 1783)

 

乽僐僕儍 傾僽僪儖 僇儕儉(Khoja Abdul Karim)偺峲奀偺婰榐偺暓栿乿丗 L. 儔儞僌儗(L. Langlè)偵傛偭偰東栿偝傟丄1709擭偵僷儕偱乽椃偺堩榖偺廂廤乿偲偟偰弌斉 ((a récit de voyage) Abdul Kerym Voyage de I'Inde à la Merque tr. by L. Langlè. Collection Portative des Voyages, Vol 1, Paris 1797.)

 

僐僕儍儉僶乕儖(Khojambar) 1503212擔偺僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)娡戉偲償傽僗僐 僈儅(Vasco da Gama)巜婗偡傞億儖僩僈儖娡戉偲偺奀愴偱29惽偺僟僂慏(dhow)偱峔惉偝傟傞僇儕僇僢僩(Calicut)偺娡戉偺峠奀晹戉傪巜婗偟偨執戝側柤惡傪帩偮傾儔價傾恖慏忔傝丅

 

層灒(Pepper) 僐僂僔儑僂壢偺枲惈忢椢栘杮丄晛捠偼帗梇摨崻偱丄帪偵椉惗壴傪偮偗傞丅僀儞僪撿晹偺尨嶻偲偝傟傞崄恏椏嶌暔偱丄擬懷奺抧偱嵧攟偝傟丄壥幚偼姘摛戝偺塼壥偱丄擬偡傞偲愒偔側傞丅偙偺幚傪壛岺偟偨崄恏椏傪層灒偲塢偄丄枴偼恏偔丄崟層灒偼枹弉壥傪丄敀層灒偼惉弉壥偺壥旂傪彍偄偨傕偺傪姡憞偟丄暡枛偲偟偨傕偺偱偁傞丅傾儞僕僃儘 儁僙攷巑(Dr. Angelo Pesce)偼乽層灒偼桏偺拞偱堢偪丄帪乆4m埲忋偲側傞僷僀僷乕 僯僌儖儉(Piper nigraum)偲塢偆梩偺懡偄偮傞怉暔(Vine)偺偟側傃偨塼壥(Berry)偱偁傞丅偙偺崄恏椏偼崟敀2偮偺庬椶偑偁傞丅崟層灒偼旂傪攳偐側偄塼壥慡懱傪偡傝偮傇偟偰摼傜傟丄敀層灒偼姳偟偨層灒偺幚偩偗傪偡傝偮傇偟偰摼傜傟傞丅層灒偺怴慛側塼壥(berry)偼愒偄怓傪偟偰偍傝丄姡偐偡偲崟怓偵曄壔偡傞丅層灒偼僀儞僪僱僔傾(Indonesia)丄僀儞僪僔僫(Indochina)丄儅儗僀僔傾(Malaysia)偍傛傃撿僀儞僪(Southern India)偱堢偮乿偲愢柧偟偰偄傞丅

 

屆戙傾儔價傾岅(Old Arabian Language) 屆戙偵偼傾儔儉恖(Aramaean Sphere)偲撿僙儉懓(South Semitic Sphere)偲偺娫偺嬫暿偼尩奿偱偼柍偐偭偨丅婭尦慜9悽婭偐傜婭尦慜6悽婭偺傾僢僔儕傾(Assyrian)傗僶價儘僯傾(Babylonian)偺旇暥偵婰弎偺尒傜傟傞杒傾儔價傾偺晹懓(People of Northern Arabia)偼媈偄傕側偔偙偺擇偮偺僌儖乕僾偐傜摿挜傪暘偗崌偭偰偄偨丅椺偊偽僞僀儅(Tayma)偺旇暥偼婎杮揑偵偼杒傾儔價傾偱偺僒儉僨傿僋(Thamudic)暥帤偺尵岅偺抧堟偱偁偭偨偑丄婭尦慜6悽婭偐傜婭尦慜5悽婭偵偦偙偱椉曽偺旇暥偑尒偮偐偭